Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object
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Bowl Fragments with Menorah, Shofar, and Torah Ark

Date:
300–350
Culture:
Roman
Medium:
Glass, gold leaf
Dimensions:
Overall: 2 11/16 x 2 3/4 x 1/4 in. (6.9 x 7 x 0.7 cm) a only: 1 1/2 x 3 1/2 in. (3.8 x 8.9 cm) b only: 1 1/2 x 1 1/4 in. (3.8 x 3.2 cm)
Classification:
Glass-Gold glass
Credit Line:
Rogers Fund, 1918
Accession Number:
18.145.1a, b
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 302
This rare example of Jewish gold glass depicts an open Torah ark, with rolled scrolls on its shelves, and ritual implements of the temple-including two menorot (candelabra), a shofar (ram's horn), and an etrog (citron). Originally, a banqueting scene was shown below, with a fish on the tripod table in front of a cushion.
Inscription: Inscribed (in border) I BIBAS CVM EVLOGIA COKP : Drink with praise together.
[ Alfredo Barsanti, Rome (1918, through John Marshall)]
Garrucci, Raffaele. Vetri Ornati di Figure in Oro, Trovati Nei Cimiteri dei Cristiani Primitivi di Roma: raccolti e spiegati da Raffaele Garrucci. Rome: Tipografia Salviucci, 1858. p. 14, pl. V, no. 3.

Martin, Arthur, and Charles Cahier. Nouveaux Mélanges d'Archéologie, d'Histoire et de Littérature sur le Moyen Âge. Vol. II. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1874. p. 346, fig. B.

Garrucci, Raffaele. Storia della Arte Cristiana nei Primi Otto Secoli della Chiesal: Volume 6, Sculpture Non Cimiteriali. Prato: G. Guasti, 1880. p. 157, pl. 490, no. 3.

Vopel, Hermann. Die altchristlichen Goldgläser: ein Beitrag zur altchristlichen Kunst- und Kulturgeschichte. Archäologische Studien zum christlichen Altertum und Mittelalter, Vol. 5. Freiburg: J.C.B. Mohr, 1899. no. 163, pp. 9, 11, 16, 82, 102.

Wulff, Oskar. Altchristliche und Byzantinische Kunst: Volume 1, Die altchristliche Kunst von ihren Anfängen bis zur Mitte des ersten Jahrhunderts. Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft. Berlin: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Athenaion, 1914. p. 73, fig. 59.

Avery, C. Louise. "Early Christian Gold Glass." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, o.s., 16, no. 8 (August 1921). pp. 173-74.

Reifenberg, Adolf. Ancient Hebrew Arts. New York: Schocken Books, 1950. p. 149, fig. 2.

Goodenough, Erwin Ramsdell. Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period: Volume 2, The Archaeological Evidence from the Diaspora. New York: Pantheon Books, 1953. pp. 111-12.

Goodenough, Erwin Ramsdell. Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period: Volume 3, Illustrations. New York: Pantheon Books, 1953. fig. 973.

Historisches Museum Frankfurt. Synagoga: Jüdische Altertümer, Handschriften und Kultgeräte. Frankfurt: Historisches Museum Frankfurt, 1961. no. 61, fig. 31.

Wischnitzer, Rachel. The Architecture of the European Synagogue. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1964. p. 16, fig. 11.

Schüler, Irmgard. "A Note on Jewish Gold Glass." Journal of Glass Studies 8 (1966). no. 7, pp. 56, 60, fig. 14.

Frey, Jean-Baptiste. Corpus of Jewish inscriptions: Jewish Inscriptions from the Third Century B.C. to the Seventh Century A.D.. New York, 1975. no. 208, pp. 39-41, 380, fig. 518.

Weitzmann, Kurt, ed. Age of Spirituality: Late Antique and Early Christian Art, Third to Seventh Century. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979. no. 348, pp. 381-382.

Mann, Vivian B. Gardens and Ghettos: the Art of Jewish Life in Italy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. p. 228, fig. 34.

Rutgers, Leonard Victor. The Jews in Late Ancient Rome: Evidence of Cultural Interaction in the Roman Diaspora.. 1995. pp. 81-85.

Yeshiva University Fine, Steven. Sacred Realm: the Emergence of the Synagogue in the Ancient World. Oxford University Press, 1996. p. 158, fig. 14.

Finocchiaro, Giuseppe. Il Museo di curiosità di Virgilio Spada: Una raccolta romana del Seicento. Rome: Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali (Rome), 1999. pp. 86, 107, 135, fig. 58.

Evans, Helen C., Melanie Holcomb, and Robert Hallman. "The Arts of Byzantium." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 58, no. 4 (Spring 2001). p. 11.

Norris, Michael. Medieval Art: A Resource for Educators. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. pp. 11-12, fig. 1.

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Spier, Jeffrey. Picturing the Bible: The Earliest Christian Art. New Haven: Kimbell Art Museum, 2007. p. 37, fig. 27.



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