This rock crystal carving found in a cistern in Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) demonstrates the quality of the arts of that great city as the Roman world became Byzantine. The Roman naturalist Pliny, describing its beauty, believed crystal to come from snow. It was thought to protect against kidney ailments and other diseases.
Mrs. William H. Moore, Potomac (until 1955)
Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "The Middle Ages: Treasures from The Cloisters and The Metropolitan Museum of Art," January 18, 1970–March 29, 1970.
Chicago. Art Institute of Chicago. "The Middle Ages: Treasures from The Cloisters and The Metropolitan Museum of Art," May 16, 1970–July 5, 1970.
Carton, Louis Benjamin Charles. "Objets de Cristal de Roche Decouverts a Carthage." Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres 5 (1915). no. 5, p. 340.
Miner, Dorothy, ed. Early Christian and Byzantine Art: An Exhibition Held at the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore: Walters Art Museum, 1947. no. 538, p. 111, pl. LXXV.
Ostoia, Vera K. The Middle Ages: Treasures from the Cloisters and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1969. no. 4, pp. 20-1, 251.
Bühler, Hans-Peter. Antike Gefässe aus Edelsteinen. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1973. no. 115, p. 79.