This classically styled, crowned head is probably that of Constans, the youngest of the four sons of Constantine the Great. Constans, a devout Christian, who initially ruled part of the western half of the Empire, gained all the west in 340. He defeated the Franks and was the last emperor to visit Britain. Constans was killed before he was thirty by the usurper Magnentius in 350.
Private Collection, Istanbul (in 1932); Dr. Wilhelm Fabricius, Bonn and Istanbul (from ca. 1932); by descent to his son, Wilhelm Fabricius, Bonn (sold 1967)
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Patterns of Collecting," December 6, 1975–March 23, 1976.
Trier, Germany. Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier. "Konstantin der Grosse: Imperator Caesar, Flavius, Constantinus," June 2, 2007–November 4, 2007.
Paderborn, Germany. Diözesanmuseum Paderborn. "Credo: Christianisierung Europas im Mittelalter," July 26, 2013–November 3, 2013.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Ninety-Seventh Annual Report of the Trustees of The Metropolitan Museum of Art for the Fiscal Year 1966-1967." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 26, no. 2 (October 1967). p. 83.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Byzantium." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 26, no. 5 (January 1968). no. 10, p. 200.
Beeson, Nora B., ed. Guide to The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. no. 12, p. 212.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Notable Acquisitions (Metropolitan Museum of Art) no. 1965/1975 (1975). p. 150.
Romans & Barbarians. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1976. no. 119, pp. 110, 112–13.
Weitzmann, Kurt, ed. Age of Spirituality: Late Antique and Early Christian Art, Third to Seventh Century. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1979. no. 15, p. 22.
Vermeule, Cornelius Clarkson. Greek and Roman Sculpture in America: Masterpieces in Public Collections in the United States and Canada. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. no. 325, p. 375.
Husband, Timothy B., and Charles T. Little. Europe in the Middle Ages. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987. no. 8, p. 22.
Evans, Helen C., Melanie Holcomb, and Robert Hallman. "The Arts of Byzantium." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 58, no. 4 (Spring 2001). p. 14.
Little, Charles T., ed. Set in Stone: The Face in Medieval Sculpture. New York, New Haven, and London: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006. no. 53, pp. 128-129.
Demandt, Alexander, and Josef Engemann, ed. Konstantin der Große: Imperator Caesar, Flavius, Constantinus. Trier: Konstantin-Ausstellungsgesellschaft (Rhineland Palatinate/Diocese of Trier/City of Trier), 2007. p. 72, CD-ROM: I.9.48.
Stiegemann, Christoph, Martin Kroker, and Wolfgang Walter, ed. CREDO: Christianisierung Europas im Mittelalter: Volume 2, Catalogue. Petersberg: Michael Imhof Verlag, 2013. no. 51, pp. 70-71.
Zanker, Paul. Roman Portraits: Stone and Bronze Sculptures in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016. no. 32, pp. 63, 102–4.