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Segment of a Crozier Shaft

Date:
late 12th century
Culture:
North Spanish
Medium:
Elephant ivory
Dimensions:
Overall: 11 5/16 x 1 3/8 in. (28.7 x 3.5 cm)
Classification:
Ivories
Credit Line:
The Cloisters Collection, 1981
Accession Number:
1981.1
On view at The Met Cloisters in Gallery 14
Croziers, occasionally made of ivory, were important symbols of Church authority. This section formed part of the shaft of a crozier that was surmounted by either a crook or a tau cross (T-shaped cross). The section is divided into four bands. At the top is Christ enthroned surrounded by Elders of the Apocalypse; the enthroned Virgin and Child appear on the opposite side. Angels dressed as deacons populate the two central registers. In the lowest register, the installation of the bishop, for whom this crozier perhaps was made is depicted. The richly animated drapery and technical virtuosity of the carving are almost without parallel in Romanesque ivories. Elements of its style and iconography—such as the highly unusual inhabited mandorla surrounding Christ—can be found in Northern Spanish art.
Karl Ferdinand Friedrich von Nagler, Berlin ; Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin (1835–1936) ; Joseph Homberg, Paris (sold 1949) ; [ Sotheby's, London(July 19, 1949, no. 159)] ; [ Sydney Burney, London (1949)] ; [ Mr. and Mrs. John Hunt, Drumleck Baily, Ireland (until 1980)] ; [ Howard Ricketts, London (sold 1981)]
Bode, Wilhelm von, and Hugo von Tschudi, ed. Beschreibung der Bildwerke der christlichen Epochen. Berlin: Königliche Museen zu Berlin, 1888. no. 478, pp. 127–28, pl. LVII.

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Vöge, Wilhelm. Beschreibung der Bildwerke der christlichen Epochen: Part 1, Die Elfenbeinbildwerke. Vol. 2. Berlin: Königliche Museen zu Berlin, 1902. no. 75, pl. 24.

Volbach, Wolfgang Fritz. Die Bildwerke des Deutschen Museums: Volume 1, Die Elfenbeinbildwerke. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1923. no. J 614, p. 30, pl. 34.

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Catalogue of important Chinese ceramics, bronzes, jades and silver, European Mediaeval ivories and enamels, including the property of Joseph Homberg [...] Lady Hilton [...] E.W.L. Atterbury [...] and from other sources. London: Sotheby & Co., July 19, 1949. no. 159.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Notable Acquisitions, 1980-1981 (Metropolitan Museum of Art) (1981). pp. 21–22.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "One Hundred Eleventh Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year July 1, 1980, through June 30, 1981." Annual Report of the Trustees of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 111 (1981). p. 42.

Kleinbauer, Walter Eugene. "Recent Major Acquisitions of Medieval Art by American Museums." Gesta 21, no. 1 (1982). p. 75, fig. 4.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide, edited by Kathleen Howard. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983. no. 4, p. 361.

Zarnecki, George, Janet Holt, and Tristram Holland, ed. English Romanesque Art, 1066-1200. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984. no. 215, pp. 229–30.

Frazer, Margaret English. "Medieval Church Treasuries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 43, no. 3 (Winter 1985-1986). pp. 34, 37, fig. 42, 43.

Husband, Timothy B., and Charles T. Little. Europe in the Middle Ages. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987. no. 47, pp. 54–55.

Little, Charles T., ed. The Art of Medieval Spain, A.D. 500–1200. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993. no. 142, pp. 288–89.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide, edited by Kathleen Howard. 2nd ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994. no. 4, p. 395.

Wixom, William D., ed. Mirror of the Medieval World. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999. no. 93, pp. 80–81.

Gaborit-Chopin, Danielle. Ivoires Médiévaux, Ve-XVe siècle. Paris: Musée du Louvre, 2003. pp. 232–35.

Little, Charles T. "Along the Pilgrimage Road: Ivories and the Role of Compostela." In Patrimonio artístico de Galicia y otros estudios: Homenaje al Prof. Dr. Serafín Moralejo Álvarez, edited by Ángela Franco Mata. Vol. 3. Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia, 2004. pp. 159–66, fig. 1–5.

Barnet, Peter, and Nancy Y. Wu. The Cloisters: Medieval Art and Architecture. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. no. 31, pp. 64, 194.

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Barnet, Peter. "Medieval Europe." In Philippe de Montebello and The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1977–2008, edited by James R. Houghton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009. p. 23.

Castiñeiras González, Manuel. "El Maestro Mateo o la unidad de las artes." In Maestros del románico en el Camino de Santiago, edited by Pedro Luis Huerta Huerta. Aguilar de Campoo: Fundacion Santa Maria la Real, 2010. pp. 222–23, fig. 33, (acc. no. misidentified as 1981.81).

Williamson, Paul. Medieval Ivory Carvings: Early Christian to Romanesque. London: V & A Publications, 2010. p. 407.

Castiñeiras González, Manuel. " El altar románico y su mobiliario litúrgico: frontales, vigas y baldaquinos." In Mobiliario y ajuar litúrgico en las iglesias románicas, edited by Pedro Luis Huerta Huerta. Aguilar de Campoo: Fundacion Santa Maria la Real, 2011. pp. 37–38, fig. 15.

Prado-Vilar, Francisco. "Flabellum: Ulises, la Catedral de Santiago y la Historia del Arte medieval español como proyecto intelectual." Anales de historia del arte Extra no. 2 (2011). pp. 312–13.

Barnet, Peter, and Nancy Y. Wu. The Cloisters: Medieval Art and Architecture. 75th Anniversary ed. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012. p. 62.

Castiñeiras González, Manuel. "Un nuevo testimonio de la iconografía jacobea: Los relieves pintados de Santiagode Turégano (Segovia) y su relación con el altar mayor de la Catedral de Santiago." Ad limina: revista de investigación del Camino de Santiago y las peregrinaciones 3 (2012). pp. 103–4, fig. 26–27, (acc. no. misidentified as 1981.81).



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