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Aquamanile in the Form of a Lion

Date:
ca. 1400
Geography:
Made in Nuremberg
Culture:
German
Medium:
Copper alloy
Dimensions:
Overall: 13 1/8 x 13 3/8 x 4 3/4 in., 11.764lb. (33.3 x 34 x 12.1 cm, 5336g) Overall PD: 12 9/16 x 4 5/8 x 12 1/2 in. (31.9 x 11.8 x 31.8 cm) Thickness PD: 3/50-7/50 in. (0.16-0.35 cm)
Classification:
Metalwork-Copper alloy
Credit Line:
The Cloisters Collection, 1994
Accession Number:
1994.244
On view at The Met Cloisters in Gallery 10
This proud and alert lion was created using the lostwax (cire perdue) method. Wax is molded around a rough clay model into the desired form of the sculpture, coated in turn with a mixture of brick, clay, and ashes, then melted out to create space for the molten metal. The rear edges of all four legs have been notched and engraved to suggest fur, while the long mane covering the entire chest has been rendered in low relief and incised to achieve surface detail. Small dragons form the spigot and handle.
Gross, London ; Sotheby's, London(July 7, 1994, lot 16)
Wixom, William D., ed. Mirror of the Medieval World. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999. no. 210, pp. 172–73.

Barnet, Peter, and Nancy Y. Wu. The Cloisters: Medieval Art and Architecture. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. no. 73, pp. 108–109, 196.

Barnet, Peter, and Pete Dandridge, ed. Lions, Dragons, & Other Beasts: Aquamanilia of the Middle Ages, Vessels for Church and Table. New York: Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, Design, and Culture, 2006. no. 20, pp. 142-145.

Dandridge, Pete. "Exquisite Objects, Prodigious Technique: Aquamanilia, Vessels of the Middle Ages." In Lions, Dragons, & Other Beasts: Aquamanilia of the Middle Ages, Vessels for Church and Table, edited by Peter Barnet, and Pete Dandridge. New York: Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, Design, and Culture, 2006. no. 20, pp. 38, 42, 47-48, 54-56, fig. 3-13, Appears in Table 1 of chapter.

Mende, Ursula. "Late Gothic Aquamanilia from Nuremberg." In Lions, Dragons, & Other Beasts: Aquamanilia of the Middle Ages, Vessels for Church and Table, edited by Peter Barnet, and Pete Dandridge. New York: Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, Design, and Culture, 2006. no. 20, pp. 20-22.

Newman, Richard. "Analysis of Core and Investment Samples from Some Aquamanilia." In Lions, Dragons, & Other Beasts: Aquamanilia of the Middle Ages, Vessels for Church and Table, edited by Peter Barnet, and Pete Dandridge. New York: Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, Design, and Culture, 2006. no. 20, pp. 57-59, 62, Featured in Table 1 of chapter.

Dandridge, Pete. "Gegossene Phantasien: Mittelalterliche Aquamanilien und ihre Herstellung." In Bild und Bestie: Hildesheimer Bronzen der Stauferzeit, edited by Michael Brandt. Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner, 2008. p. 93; p. 92, n. 73.

Evans, Helen C., ed. The Philippe de Montebello Years: Curators Celebrate Three Decades of Acquisitions – Online Catalogue. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2008.

Barnet, Peter. "Medieval Europe." In Philippe de Montebello and The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1977–2008, edited by James R. Houghton. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2009. p. 24.

Barnet, Peter, and Atsuyuki Nakahara, ed. Earth, Sea, Sky: Nature in Western Art; Masterpieces from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Tokyo: Yomiuri Shimbun, 2012. no. 45, pp. 98, 225-226.

Barnet, Peter, and Nancy Y. Wu. The Cloisters: Medieval Art and Architecture. 75th Anniversary ed. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012. p. 113.

Mende, Ursula. Die mittelalterlichen Bronzen im Germanischen Nationalmuseum: Bestandskatalog. Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum, 2013. p. 209, Listed as 1994.224.



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