Art/ Collection/ Art Object
{{img.publicCaption}}

The Crucifixion

Artist:
Master of the Codex of Saint George (Italian, active Florence, ca. 1315–35)
Date:
ca. 1330–35
Geography:
Made in Avignon, France
Culture:
Italian
Medium:
Tempera on wood, gold ground
Dimensions:
Overall: 18 x 11 3/4 in. (45.7 x 29.8 cm) Painted surface: 15 5/8 x 10 5/8 in. (39.7 x 27 cm)
Classification:
Paintings-Panels
Credit Line:
The Cloisters Collection, 1961
Accession Number:
61.200.1
On view at The Met Cloisters in Gallery 14
The deep emotional piety shown in these expressive faces and gestures is made more poignant by the weighty drapery folds modeled in sharply contrasting highlights and shadows, by the vivid coloring, and by the taut composition. The unidentified artist has been linked to a miniature painter who illuminated several manuscripts, including a life of Saint George in the Vatican, for cardinal Stefaneschi, resident at the papal court in Avignon from 1309–1341, and a missal, probably for the same patron, in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Also in the Museum's collection is a companion panel, The Lamentation. Both were part of a larger ensemble of hinged panels, two others of which are missing and two of which are preserved in Florence.
Inscription: On the bottom of the old frame in gilt sgraffito on red, was the following inscription: CRUCIFIXUS ?TIAM PRO NOBIS, trans.: He is crucified for us. This incription was added later. At bottom of old frame in gilt sgraffito on red: PASSUS ET SEPULTUS EST, trans.: He has suffered [is laid out] and is buried.
Marshal Nicholas Soult, Paris ; Augustus Stevens, Paris (until d. 1867) ; his posthumous sale, Phillips, London(May 11, 1869, no. 68, as Fra Angelico) ; Henry G. Bohn, Twickenham (1869–d. 1884) ; his posthumous sale, Christie, Manson and Woods, London (March 19-28, 1885, no. 77, as Fra Angelico) ; Charles Butler, London (1885-1891) ; Robert Henry and Evelyn Benson, London (1891-1927) ; [ Duveen Brothers, London, Paris and New York (1927)] ; Mr. and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller Jr.(1927-1960)
Bohn, Henry George. Catalogue of the Pictures, Miniatures, and Art Books, Collected During the Last Fifty Years by Henry George Bohn. London: privately printed, 1884. p. 4.

Richter, Jean Paul. "Die Ausstellung italienischer Renaissancewerke in der New Gallery in London." Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft 17 (1894). p. 238.

Ulmann, Hermann. "Photographische Reproductionen der in der New Gallery 1894 aus englischem Privatbesitz ausgestellten italienischen Bilder." Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft 17 (1894). p. 490.

Douglas, Robert Langton. Exhibition of pictures of the school of Siena, and examples of the minor arts of that city. London: Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1904. no. 20, pp. 49–50.

Douglas, Robert Langton. Illustrated catalogue of pictures of Siena and objects of art: Exhibition of pictures of the school of Siena, and examples of the minor arts of that city. London: Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1904. no. 20, pp. 55–56, pls. XVII–XVIII.

Reinach, Salomon. Répertoire de peintures du moyen age et de la renaissance (1280–1580). Vol. 1. Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1905. p. 413, fig. 1–2.

Nicola, Giacomo de. "L'affresco di Simone Martini ad Avignone." L'arte 9 (1906). p. 340.

Sirén, Osvald. Giotto: en ledning vid studiet af mästarens verk. Ett försök till framställning af det kronologiska problemet. Stockholm: Ljus, 1906. p. 97.

Cust, Lionel. "La collection de M. R.-H. Benson (Londres)." Les Arts 6, no. 70 (October 1907). p. 24, ill. p. 8.

Venturi, Adolfo. Storia dell'arte italiana: Volume 5, La pittura del trecento e le sue origini. Milan: Ulrico Hoepli, 1907. pp. 631, 1030.

Crowe, Joseph Archer, and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in Italy: Umbria, Florence and Siena from the Second to the Sixteenth Century. Volume 3, The Sienese, Umbrian, & North Italian Schools, edited by Robert Langton Douglas. Milan: John Murray, 1908. p. 70 n. 2.

Nicola, Giacomo de. "Opere del miniatore del Codice di San Giorgio." L'arte 11 (1908). p. 385.

Pératé, André. "La peinture italienne au XVe siècle." In Histoire de l'art depuis les premiers temps chrétiens jusqu'à nos jours, edited by André Michel. Vol. 3, pt. 2. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1908. p. 614.

Suida, William Emil. "Kritische Bemerkungen über: Adolfo Venturi, Storia dell'arte italiana vol. V. La pittura del Trecento e le sue origini." Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft 31, no. 3 (1908). p. 213.

Mesnil, Jacques. "Les mystères et les arts plastiques II." L'art flamand & hollandais 12 (July–December 1909). pp. 102–3, ill. (Entombment).

Ricci, Seymour de. Description raisonnée des peintures du Louvre: Volume 1, Écoles étrangères. Italie et Espagne. Paris: Imprimerie de l'art, 1913. pp. 190–91, (under no. 1666).

Weigelt, Curt H. "Einzelminiaturen im Königl. Kupferstichkabinett." Amtliche Berichte aus den Königl. Kunstsammlungen 34, no. 6 (March 1913). p. 108.

Catalogue of Italian pictures at 16, South street, Park Lane, London and Buckhurst in Sussex, Collected by Robert and Evelyn Benson. London: Chiswick Press, 1914. no. 6–7, pp. 9–10, ill.

Perkins, F. Mason. "Alcune opere d'arte ignorate." Rassegna d'arte 18 (1918). p. 112.

Marle, Raimond van. Simone Martini et les peintres de son école. Strasbourg: J. H. Ed. Heitz, 1924. pp. 113–15.

Marle, Raimond van. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting: Volume 2, The Sienese School of the 14th Century. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1924. pp. 278, 281.

Vitzthum, Georg Graf, and W. F. Volbach. Die Malerei und Plastik des Mittelalters in Italien. Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft. Wildpark-Potsdam: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Athenaion, 1924. p. 279.

Hautecoeur, Louis. Catalogue des peintures exposées dans les galeries: Volume 2, École italienne et école espagnole. Paris: Musée du Louvre, 1926. p. 150, (under no. 1666).

Perkins, F. Mason. "Two Sienese Pictures of the 'Annunciation'." Apollo 6, no. 35 (July–December 1927). p. 201.

Venturi, Adolfo. Studi dal vero: Attraverso le raccolte artistiche d'Europa. Milan: Ulrich Hoepli, 1927. p. 82.

Ameisenowa, Zofja. Minjatury wloskie Bibljoteki Jagiellonskiej: Trecento. Kraków: Nakladem Drukarni W. L. Anczyca i Spólki, 1929. p. 34, (under no. 18).

Hautecoeur, Louis. "L'Ecole italienne (primitifs)." In La peinture au Musée du Louvre: Volume 2, Écoles étrangères, edited by Jean Guiffrey. Paris: L'Illustration, 1929. pp. 5–6.

Greene, Belle da Costa. The Pierpont Morgan Library. New York: Plandome Press, Inc., 1930. p. 63.

Venturi, Adolfo. "Una tavoletta inedita del 'Maestro del Codice di San Giorgio'." L'arte 33, no. 4 (July 1930). p. 377.

Weigelt, Curt H. Sienese Painting of the Trecento. Florence: Pantheon, 1930. p. 82 n. 62.

Hautecoeur, Louis. Les primitifs italiens. Paris: Henri Laurens, 1931. pp. 132–33.

Marle, Raimond van. "Le Maitre du Codex de Saint Georges et la peinture française du XIVe siècle." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 5, no. 1 (January 1931). pp. 9–10, 27–28, fig. 11 (Lamentation), ill. opp. p. 14 (Crucifixion).

Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: a List of the Principal Artists and Their Works. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1932. p. 346.

Marle, Raimond van. Le Scuole della Pittura Italiana: Volume 2, La Scuola Senese del XIV Secolo. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1934. pp. 298–99, 305–6.

Berenson, Bernard. Pitture italiane del Rinascimento: catalogo dei principali artisti e delle loro opere con un indice dei luoghi. Valori plastici. Milan: Ulrich Hoepli, 1936. p. 282.

"A Crucifixion by the Master of the St. George Codex." Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 16, no. 2 (November 1936). p. 18.

Lavagnino, Emilio. Storia dell'arte medioevale italiana. Turin: Unione Tipografico–Editrice Torinese, 1936. p. 655.

Ameisenowa, Sofia. "Opere inedite del Maestro del codice di San Giorgio." Rivista d'arte 21 (April–June 1939). pp. 108, 119, 124.

Vollmer, Hans, ed. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. Vol. 37. Leipzig: E. A. Seemann, 1950. p. 183.

Volpe, Carlo. "Una Crocifissione di Niccolò Tegliacci." Paragone 2 (September 1951). p. 40.

Carli, Enzo. Sienese Painting. Great Masters of the Past, Vol. 7. Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society, 1956. pp. 34–35.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Ninety-First Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year 1960-1961." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 20, no. 2 (October 1961). p. 68.

C. R. F. "New York: Nuove opere d'arte medioevale ai Cloisters del Metropolitan Museum." Emporium 136 (September 1962). pp. 121–22, ill. pp. 125–26.

Freeman, Margaret Beam. "The Avignon Panels: A Preliminary View." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 20, no. 10 (June 1962). pp. 303–4, ill. pp. 306–7.

Rorimer, James J. The Cloisters: The Building and the Collection of Medieval Art in Fort Tryon Park. 3rd revised ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1963. pp. 191–93, fig. 96.

Werner, Alfred. "Berichte: Amerika." Pantheon 21 (January–February 1963). p. 56.

Wildenstein, Georges. "La chronique des arts." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 61 (February 1963). p. 1, fig. 93–94.

Marcucci, Luisa. Gallerie nazionali di Firenze: I dipinti toscani del secolo XIV. Cataloghi dei musei e gallerie d'Italia. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Libreria dello Stato, 1965. pp. 165–66.

Bellosi, Luciano. La pittura dell'Italia centrale nell'età gotica. I Maestri del colore, Vol. 252. Milan: Fratelli Fabbri Editori, 1966. fig. 23 (Lamentation), (unpaginated).

Dal Poggetto, Paolo, ed. Omaggio a Giotto. Celebrazioni nazionali nel VII centenario della nascita di Giotto. Florence: Orsanmichele, 1967. pp. 44–45.

Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Central Italian and North Italian Schools. Volume 2, Plates. London: Phaidon Press, 1968. pls. 110–11.

Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Central Italian and North Italian Schools. Volume 1, Text. London: Phaidon Press, 1968. p. 250.

Howett, John. "The Master of the St. George Codex." PhD diss., University of Chicago, 1968. no. 11, pp. 71, 82–94, 118–19, fig. 50–51.

Bologna, Ferdinando. I pittori alla corte angioina di Napoli, 1266-1414, e un riesame dell'arte nell'età fridericiana. Saggi e studi di storia dell'arte, Vol. 2. Rome: Ugo Bozzi, 1969. p. 232 n. 231.

Deuchler, Florens. "The Cloisters: Ein Museum für mittelalterliche Kunst in New York." Du 32, no. 2 (1972). p. 122.

Fredericksen, Burton B., and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972. pp. 127, 291, 297, 609.

Nickel, Helmut. "Arms and Armor." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 32, no. 4 (1973-1974). p. 72.

Volpe, Carlo. "Ristudiando il maestro di Figline." Paragone 24 (March 1973). p. 21.

Bellosi, Luciano. Buffalmacco e il Trionfo della Morte. Turin: Giulio Einaudi, 1974. p. 79, fig. 149.

De Benedictis, Cristina. "Naddo Ceccarelli." Commentari, n.s., 25 (July–December 1974). p. 146, fig. 5.

Howett, John. "Two Panels by the Master of the St. George Codex in The Cloisters." Metropolitan Museum Journal 11 (1976). pp. 85–102, fig. 1.

Baetjer, Katharine. European Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art by artists born in or before 1865: A summary catalogue. Vol. 1. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. p. 118.

Baetjer, Katharine. European Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art by artists born in or before 1865: A summary catalogue. Vol. 2. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. p. 51.

Hibbard, Howard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Harper & Row, 1980. pp. 164, 169.

Zeri, Federico, and Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Sienese and Central Italian Schools. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. pp. 41–43, pls. 18–19.

Ciardi Dupré Dal Poggetto, Maria Grazia. Il Maestro del Codice di San Giorgio e il Cardinale Jacopo Stefaneschi. Florence: Edam, 1981. pp. 162–71, 233 n. 363, 262, fig. 220–21.

Previtali, Giovanni, ed. Il gotico a Siena: Miniature, pitture, oreficerie, oggetti d'arte. Siena: Palazzo Pubblico, 1982. pp. 166–67.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide, edited by Kathleen Howard. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983. no. 24, p. 369.

Boskovits, Miklós. The Fourteenth Century: The Painters of the Miniaturist Tendency. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting, Section 3, Vol. 9. New ed. Florence: Giunti, 1984. pp. 40–41, 44, 68 n. 250, pp. 86, 209–11, pls. LXXVI–LXXVII.

Husband, Timothy B., and Charles T. Little. Europe in the Middle Ages. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987. no. 115, pp. 124-125.

Gaeta Bertelà, Giovanna, and Beatrice Paolozzi Strozzi, ed. Arti del Medio Evo e del Rinascimento: Omaggio ai Carrand, 1889–1989. Florence: Museo Nazionale del Bargello, 1989. p. 387.

Eisenberg, Marvin. Lorenzo Monaco. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989. p. 163.

Cristiani, Maria Laura Testi. "'Circostanze avignonesi': Il Crocifisso double-face del Cardinale Godin a Tolosa, 1." Critica d'arte 55, no. 4 (October–December 1990). p. 59, fig. 38, 40.

Gregori, Mina. Paintings in the Uffizi & Pitti Galleries. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1994. p. 31.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide, edited by Kathleen Howard. 2nd ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994. no. 24, p. 403.

Boehm, Barbara Drake, and Laurence B. Kanter. Painting and Illumination in Early Renaissance Florence, 1300–1450. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994. no. 9, pp. 100–105.

Baetjer, Katharine. European Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art by artists born in or before 1895: A summary catalogue. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995. pp. 4-5.

Camille, Michael. Master of Death: The Lifeless Art of Pierre Remiet, Illuminator. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. pp. 66–67.

Firmani, Domenico G. "Master of the Codex of St George." In The Dictionary of Art, edited by Jane Turner. Vol. 20. New York: Grove, 1996. p. 650.

Schmidt, Victor M. "Portable Polyptychs with Narrative Scenes: Fourteenth-Century 'De luxe' Objects between Italian Panel Painting and French 'Arts somptuaires'." In Italian Panel Painting of the Duecento and Trecento, edited by Victor M. Schmidt. Studies in the History of Art, Vol. 61. Washington, D.C.: National Art Gallery, 2002. pp. 400–401, 415–16.

Barnet, Peter, and Nancy Y. Wu. The Cloisters: Medieval Art and Architecture. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. no. 68, pp. 104, 196.

Cantelli, Giuseppe, Lucia Simona Pacchierotti, and Beatrice Pulcinelli, ed. Il segreto della civiltà: La Mostra dell'antica arte senese del 1904, cento anni dopo. Siena: Palazzo Pubblico, 2005. pp. 229–30.

Schmidt, Victor M. Painted Piety: Panel Paintings for Personal Devotion in Tuscany, 1250–1400. Florence: Centro Di, 2005. pp. 247, 288, fig. 200–201.

Tartuferi, Angelo, and Daniela Parenti, ed. Lorenzo Monaco: A Bridge from Giotto's Heritage to the Renaissance. Florence: Galleria dell'Accademia, 2006. p. 172.

Boskovits, Miklós, ed. The Alana Collection: Volume 1, Italian Paintings from the 13th to 15th Century. Florence: Edizioni Polistampa, 2009. pp. 160, 162 n. 3.

Barnet, Peter, and Nancy Y. Wu. The Cloisters: Medieval Art and Architecture. 75th Anniversary ed. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012. p. 106.

Borsook, Eve. "Painting for 'The Most Noble City in the World'." In Florence at the Dawn of the Renaissance: Painting and Illumination, 1300–1350, edited by Christine Sciacca. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2012. p. 14.

Keene, Bryan C. "Preparing the Soul for Heaven through Text and Song: Liturgical Manuscripts." In Florence at the Dawn of the Renaissance: Painting and Illumination, 1300–1350, edited by Christine Sciacca. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2012. p. 94.

Pasut, Francesca. "Florentine Illuminations for Dante's Divine Comedy: A Critical Assessment." In Florence at the Dawn of the Renaissance: Painting and Illumination, 1300–1350, edited by Christine Sciacca. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2012. p. 164.

Sciacca, Christine, ed. Florence at the Dawn of the Renaissance: Painting and Illumination, 1300–1350. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2012. no. 34.1, pp. 75, 181-86, 308.



Related Objects

The Lamentation

Artist: Master of the Codex of Saint George (Italian, active Florence, ca. 1315–35) Date: ca. 1330–35 Medium: Tempera on wood, gold ground Accession: 61.200.2 On view in:Gallery 14

Leaf from a Beatus Manuscript: Christ in Majesty with Angels and the Angel of God Directs Saint John to Write the Book of Revelation

Date: ca. 1180 Medium: Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment Accession: 1991.232.3 On view in:Gallery 304

The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, Queen of France

Artist: Jean Pucelle (French, active Paris, 1319–34) Date: ca. 1324–28 Medium: Grisaille, tempera, and ink on vellum Accession: 54.1.2 On view in:Gallery 13

The Adoration of the Shepherds

Artist: Bartolo di Fredi (Italian, active by 1353–died 1410 Siena) Date: 1374 Medium: Tempera on poplar, gilding Accession: 25.120.288 On view in:Gallery 8