Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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Southern Gardens

Artist:
Paul Klee (German (born Switzerland), Münchenbuchsee 1879–1940 Muralto-Locarno)
Date:
1919
Medium:
Watercolor and ink on paper mounted on cardboard
Dimensions:
11 3/8 × 8 7/8 in. (28.9 × 22.5 cm)
Classification:
Drawings
Credit Line:
The Berggruen Klee Collection, 1984
Accession Number:
1984.208.2
On view at The Met Breuer on Floor 5
Inscription: Signed (lower left): Klee; dated and inscribed on cardboard (lower left): 1919.80. Südliche Gärten/ S.Kl.
the artist (1919–d. 1940); his widow, Lily Klee, Bern (1940–46); Douglas Cooper, London, Argilliers, Monte Carlo (by 1949–56; sold in June 1956 to Berggruen); [Berggruen & Cie, Paris, from 1956]; [Hanover Gallery, London]; Heinz Berggruen, Paris and Berlin (1962–84; his gift to MMA)

National Gallery, London. "Paul Klee 1879–1940," December 22, 1945–February 17, 1946, no. 35 (as "Southern Garden," lent by Frau Professor Klee, Bern).

Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery. "Paul Klee 1879–1940," May 11–June 1, 1946, no. 11 (as "Southern Garden," lent by Frau Professor Klee, Bern).

Sheffield. Graves Art Gallery. "Paul Klee 1879–1940," June 8–29, 1946, no. 11.

Stoke-on-Trent. Hanley Public Museum and Art Gallery. "Paul Klee 1879–1940," July 6–27, 1946, no. 11.

Aberdeen Art Gallery and Industrial Museum. "Paul Klee 1879–1940," August 3–24, 1946, no. 11.

Liverpool. Bluecoat Chambers. "Paul Klee 1879–1940," August 31–September 21, 1946, no. 11.

Manchester City Art Gallery. "Paul Klee 1879–1940," September 28–October 19, 1946, no. 11.

Suffolk. Lowestoft Art Centre. "Exhibition of Contemporary Paintings from the Private Collection of Douglas Cooper, including Original Works by Picasso, Braque, Léger," January 1951, no catalogue.

London. Hanover Gallery. "Paul Klee, 1879–1940," June 19–July 21, 1956, no. 61.

Saint-Paul. Fondation Maeght. "Paul Klee," July 9–September 30, 1977, no. 21 (as "Jardins méridionaux," lent by a private collection, Paris).

London. Hayward Gallery. "Dada and Surrealism Reviewed," January 11–March 27, 1978, no. 3.18 (lent by a private collection).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paul Klee: The Berggruen Klee Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," May 6–July 31, 1988, unnumbered cat. (p. 91).

Kunsthalle Tübingen. "Paul Klee: Die Sammlung Berggruen im Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York und im Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris," January 22–April 16, 1989, unnumbered cat. (p. 89).

London. Tate Gallery. "Paul Klee: The Berggruen Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and the Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris," May 17–August 13, 1989, unnumbered cat. (p. 89).

Mexico City. Centro Cultural Arte Contemporáneo. "Paul Klee: Selección de sesenta obras. The Berggruen Klee Collection. The Metropolitan Museum of Art," October 1989–January 1990, no. 9.

Nagoya. Aichi Prefectural Museum of Art. "Paul Klee Retrospective," April 2–May 23, 1993, no. 88.

Yamaguchi Prefectural Museum of Art. "Paul Klee Retrospective," June 1–July 25, 1993, no. 88.

Tokyo. Bunkamura Museum of Art. "Paul Klee Retrospective," July 31–September 21, 1993, no. 88.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Klee Landscapes," November 20, 1997–February 8, 1998, no catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Landscapes by Klee and Kiefer," January 19–September 30, 2001, no catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Klee's Best," May 24–September 22, 2002, no catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Klee the Voyager," February 4–May 4, 2003, no catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Klee Abstract," September 5–December 7, 2003, no catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Klee: Path to Abstraction," April 9–August 4, 2013, no catalogue.

Will Grohmann. Paul Klee. New York, [1967], pp. 74, 84, 138, ill. p. 85 (color), calls it "Southern (Tunisian) Gardens"; notes that a strip of paper was added along the right edge; discusses its colored squares and plant shapes as reminiscent of Klee's trip to Tunisia in 1914, adding that Klee recorded it as "Tunisian Gardens" in his oeuvre catalogue.

Daniel Abadie. Paul Klee. [Paris], 1977, p. 168, ill. p. 46, calls it "Jardins méridionaux" and locates it in a private collection, Paris.

Jean Duvignaud. Klee en Tunisie. Lausanne, 1980, ill. p. 53.

Eva-Maria Triska. "Die Quadratbilder Paul Klees—ein Beitrag zur Analyse formaler Ausdrucksmittel in seinem Werk und seiner Theorie. Mit einem Exkurs zur Ableitung von Klees Farbenlehre." PhD diss., Universität Wien, 1980, pp. 20–21, 185 n. 23, pl. 22.

Uta Gerlach-Laxner in Die Tunisreise: Klee, Macke, Moilliet. Ed. Ernst-Gerhard Güse. Exh. cat., Westfälisches Landesmuseum, Münster. Stuttgart, 1982, pp. 63–64, ill., calls it "Tunesische Gärten".

Margareta Benz-Zauner. Werkanalytische Untersuchungen zu den Tunesien-Aquarellen Paul Klees. Frankfurt, 1984, pp. 181–82.

Jim M. Jordan. Paul Klee and Cubism. Princeton, 1984, p. 165, observes that in 1919, Klee returned to his Munich studio after the war and was influenced by his past works, noting that this one is almost an "exact replica" of "St. Germain Near Tunis, Inland" (1914; Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris; Helfenstein and Rümelin 2000, no. 1320).

Sabine Rewald. Paul Klee: The Berggruen Klee Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1988, pp. 63, 90–91, 274, 317, ill. (color and bw), notes that it is one of seven watercolors painted after the gardens at St. Germain, belonging among the five executed from memory; states that this picture and "Tunisian Gardens" (1919; private collection, United States; Helfenstein and Rümelin 1999, no. 2144) once formed a single watercolor that Klee cut apart with scissors, gluing a strip from the right edge of "Tunisian Gardens" to the right edge of this picture.

Alain Bonfand. Paul Klee, l'oeil en trop. Paris, 1988, vol. 1, pp. 35–40; vol. 2, colorpl. 9, calls it "Jardin/s du Sud" and "Jardin/s tunisiens" in the text, "Jardins (tunisiens) du Sud" in the list of plates, "Südliche Gärten" in the caption.

Robin Stemp. "Artist as Transmitter." Artist (September 1989), p. 17.

Phyllis Williams Lehmann. "A Roman Source for Klee's 'Athlete's Head'." Art Bulletin 72 (December 1990), p. 646 n. 39.

Ulrich Bischoff. Paul Klee. Munich, 1992, p. 40.

Marc Le Bot. Paul Klee. [Paris], 1992, p. 75, ill. p. 68 (color), calls it "Jardin du Sud" in the caption and "Jardins tunisiens du Sud" in the text; erroneously locates it in the Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Alain Bonfand. Paul Klee: Le geste en sursis. [Paris], 1995, pp. 17–19, 91 n. 13.

Wolfgang Kersten and Osamu Okuda. Paul Klee. Im Zeichen der Teilung. Exh. cat., Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen. Düsseldorf, 1995, ill. p. 337, reproduce its original format as a single sheet with "Tunisian Gardens" (HR 1999, no. 2144).

Stefan Frey in Paul Klee: Reisen in den Süden. "Reisefieber praecisiert". Ed. Uta Gerlach-Laxner and Ellen Schwinzer. Exh. cat., Gustav-Lübcke Museum, Hamm. Ostfildern, 1997, p. 247.

Josef Helfenstein and Christian Rümelin, ed. Paul Klee: Catalogue Raisonné. Ed. Paul Klee Foundation, Museum of Fine Arts, Berne. Vol. 3, 1919–1922. New York, 1999, pp. 47, 86–87, no. 2143, ill.

Josef Helfenstein and Christian Rümelin, ed. Paul Klee: Catalogue Raisonné. Ed. Paul Klee Foundation, Museum of Fine Arts, Berne. Vol. 4, 1923–1926. New York, 2000, p. 120, under no. 3269.

Josef Helfenstein and Christian Rümelin, ed. Paul Klee: Catalogue Raisonné. Ed. Paul Klee Foundation, Museum of Fine Arts, Berne. Vol. 2, 1913–1918. New York, 2000, p. 212, under no. 1320, p. 440, under no. 1865.

Vivian Endicott Barnett. The Blue Four Collection at the Norton Simon Museum. [Pasadena], 2002, p. 274 n. 1.

Will Grohmann. Der Maler Paul Klee. 4th ed. (1st ed., 1966). Cologne, 2003, pp. 54, 64, 118, no. 8, ill. p. 65 (color) [German ed. of Ref. Grohmann 1967].

Michael Baumgartner in The Journey to Tunisia, 1914: Paul Klee, August Macke, Louis Moilliet. Ed. Zentrum Paul Klee. Exh. cat., Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern. Ostfildern, 2014, pp. 118, 126 n. 48, p. 127 n. 52, p. 322, no. 67, ill. p. 155 (color).

Osamu Okuda in Paul Klee. L'ironie à l'oeuvre. Ed. Angela Lampe. Exh. cat., Centre Pompidou, Musée national d'art moderne, Galerie 2. Paris, 2016, pp. 62–63, fig. 3 (color).



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