Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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From Williamsburg Bridge

Artist:
Edward Hopper (American, Nyack, New York 1882–1967 New York)
Date:
1928
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
29 3/8 × 43 3/4 in. (74.6 × 111.1 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
George A. Hearn Fund, 1937
Accession Number:
37.44
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 902
In From Williamsburg Bridge, Hopper depicts the austere facades of four apartment buildings and reduces the steel suspension bridge that gives the painting its name to the margins. Completed in 1903 and connecting Brooklyn with Manhattan, the structure is indicated only by the unobtrusive railing rising at a slight diagonal along the bottom of the canvas. As opposed to focusing on the bridge that facilitates movement in and out of the city, Hopper creates an image absent of noise or motion. He emphasizes the alienation and anonymity of urban life by including a single figure: a woman sitting alone in a top story window.
Inscription: Signed (lower right): EDWARD HOPPER
[Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery, New York, 1928–37; received from the artist on February 22, 1928; sold to MMA]

New York. Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery. "Exhibition by Edward Hopper," January 21-February 2, 1929, brochure no. 2 (as "Williamsburg Bridge," lent anonymously).

Cambridge, Mass. Harvard Coöperative Building. "An Exhibition of American Art," February 19–March 15, 1929, brochure no. 4 (as "Williamsburg Bridge," lent by Mr. F. K. M. Rehn).

Philadelphia. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. "125th Annual Exhibition," January 26-March 16, 1930, no. 376 (as "Williamsburg Bridge").

Detroit Institute of Arts. "Sixteenth Annual Exhibition of American Art," April 4-28, 1930, no. 62.

Cleveland Museum of Art. "Tenth Exhibition of Contemporary American Oil Painting," June 6–July 7, 1930, no catalogue.

Pittsburgh. Carnegie Institute. "Twenty-Ninth Annual International Exhibition of Paintings," October 16–December 7, 1930, no. 113 (lent by Frank K. M. Rehn).

Art Institute of Chicago. "Forty-Fourth Annual Exhibition of American Paintings and Sculpture," October 29–December 13, 1931, no. 89.

Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition," November 1–December 7, 1933, no. 12 (as "Williamsburg Bridge," lent by Frank K. M. Rehn, New York).

Arts Club of Chicago. "Exhibition of Paintings by Edward Hopper," January 2–16, 1934, no. 12 (as "Williamsburg Bridge," lent by Mr. Frank K. M. Rehn, New York).

Art Institute of Chicago. "A Century of Progress: Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture 1934," June 1–November 1, 1934, no. 596 (as "Williamsburg Bridge," lent by Mr. Frank K. M. Rehn, New York).

Boston. Institute of Modern Art. "Ten Americans," October 20–November 21, 1943, no. 11.

American Academy of Arts and Letters and the National Institute of Arts and Letters, New York. "Exhibition of Sculpture by Paul Manship, Works by Newly Elected Members and Recipients of 'Arts and Letters Grants'," May 19–June 29, 1945, no. 6.

New York. Whitney Museum of American Art. "Edward Hopper Retrospective Exhibition," February 11–March 26, 1950, no. 29.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Edward Hopper Retrospective Exhibition," April 13–May 14, 1950, no. 29.

Detroit Institute of Arts. "Edward Hopper Retrospective Exhibition," June 4–July 2, 1950, no. 29.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "20th Century Painters: A Special Exhibition of Oils, Water Colors and Drawings Selected from the Collections of American Art in the Metropolitan Museum," June 16–October 29, 1950, unnum. brochure (p. 7).

Seattle Art Museum. "Contemporary American Painting and Sculpture," February 4–April 5, 1953, unnum. brochure.

Kent, Conn. Kent School. September 12–November 29, 1955, no catalogue.

Washington, D.C. St. Albans School. May 20–June 3, 1959, no catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Three Centuries of American Painting," April 9–October 17, 1965, unnum. checklist.

Bienal Internacional de São Paulo, Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo. "São Paulo 9, United States of America. Edward Hopper. Environment U. S. A., 1957–1967," September 22, 1967–January 8, 1968, no. 8.

Waltham, Mass. Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University. "Edward Hopper. Environment U. S. A., 1957–1967," February 26–March 31, 1968, no. 8.

Osaka. Japan World Exposition. "Images of America: American Painting," March 1–September 30, 1970.

Bronx County Courthouse. "Paintings from the Metropolitan, Pinturas del Metropolitano," May 12–June 13, 1971, no. 19.

The University of Texas at Austin Art Museum. "Not So Long Ago: Art of the 1920s in Europe and America," October 15–December 17, 1972, unnumbered cat. (p. 50).

Allentown, Penn. Allentown Art Museum. "The City in American Painting," January 20–March 4, 1973, unnumbered cat. (p. 15).

American Embassy, Moscow. "American Painting, 1830–1970," opened June 1974, no. 15.

Museum of the Borough of Brooklyn at Brooklyn College. "Brooklyn Themes: Art in the Years of Roosevelt and La Guardia," October 26–December 7, 1982, unnum. brochure.

Bronx Museum of the Arts. "The Artist Celebrates New York: Selected Paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," February 2–March 24, 1985, unnum. brochure.

Long Island University, Brooklyn Campus. "The Artist Celebrates New York: Selected Paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," April 17–June 2, 1985, unnum. brochure.

Queens. Jamaica Arts Center. "The Artist Celebrates New York: Selected Paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," June 15–July 27, 1985, unnum. brochure.

Staten Island Museum. "The Artist Celebrates New York: Selected Paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 8–October 20, 1985, unnum. brochure.

New York. City College of New York. "The Artist Celebrates New York: Selected Paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," October 25–December 13, 1985, unnum. brochure.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "New York City," January 12–July 1, 1990, no catalogue.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "14 Americans," July 16, 1990–January 2, 1991, no catalogue.

Tulsa, Okla. Philbrook Museum of Art. "The Landscape in Twentieth-Century American Art: Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," April 14–June 9, 1991, no. 12.

Miami. Center for the Fine Arts. "The Landscape in Twentieth-Century American Art: Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," June 29–August 24, 1991, no. 12.

Omaha. Joslyn Art Museum. "The Landscape in Twentieth-Century American Art: Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 14–November 10, 1991, no. 12.

Tampa Museum of Art. "The Landscape in Twentieth-Century American Art: Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," December 14, 1991–February 8, 1992, no. 12.

Greenville, S. C. Greenville County Museum of Art. "The Landscape in Twentieth-Century American Art: Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," March 17–May 10, 1992, no. 12.

Madison, Wisc. Madison Art Center. "The Landscape in Twentieth-Century American Art: Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," June 6–August 2, 1992, no. 12.

Grand Rapids, Mich. Grand Rapids Art Museum. "The Landscape in Twentieth-Century American Art: Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 11–November 8, 1992.

Berlin. Martin-Gropius-Bau. "Amerikanische Kunst im 20. Jahrhundert: Malerei und Plastik; 1913–1993," May 8–July 25, 1993, no. 59.

London. Royal Academy of Arts. "American Art in the 20th Century: Painting and Sculpture 1913–1993," September 16–December 12, 1993, no. 59.

London. Tate Modern. "Edward Hopper," May 27–September 5, 2004, unnumbered cat. (pp. 150–51).

Cologne. Museum Ludwig. "Edward Hopper," October 9, 2004–January 9, 2005, unnumbered cat.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Edward Hopper," May 6–August 19, 2007, no. 58.

National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. "Edward Hopper," September 16, 2007–January 21, 2008, no. 58.

Art Institute of Chicago. "Edward Hopper," February 16–May 11, 2008, no. 58.

Madrid. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. "Hopper," June 12–September 16, 2012, no. 118.

Paris. Grand Palais. "Hopper," October 10, 2012–January 28, 2013, extended to February 3, 2013, no. 118.

New York. Whitney Museum of American Art. "Hopper Drawing," May 23–October 6, 2013, unnumbered cat. (fig. 161).

Dallas Museum of Art. "Hopper Drawing: A Painter's Process," November 17, 2013–February 16, 2014, unnumbered cat. (fig. 161).

Minneapolis. Walker Art Center. "Hopper Drawing: A Painter's Process," March 15–June 22, 2014, unnumbered cat. (fig. 161).

"Exhibitions in the New York Galleries: Edward Hopper, Rehn Galleries." Art News 27 (January 26, 1929), p. 11, calls it "View from Williamsburg Bridge".

Dorothy Grafly. "American Artists Reflect 25 Years of Transition Era." Public Ledger 190 (October 26, 1930), p. 8.

W. M. M. "The Tenth Exhibition of Contemporary American Oils." Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 17 (June 1930), p. 118, ill. p. 122.

Guy Pène du Bois. Edward Hopper. New York, 1931, ill. p. 35, calls it "Williamsburg Bridge" and notes that it is in the collection of Mr. Frank K. M. Rehn, New York.

"The Forty-Fourth Annual American Exhibition." Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 25 (December 1931), p. 121, notes that this painting "shows how ugly material, seen through the temperament of the artist, becomes moving and even beautiful".

C. J. Bulliet. Art Masterpieces in a Century of Progress Fine Arts Exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 1933, vol. 2, unpaginated, under no. 114, calls it "Williamsburg Bridge".

Horace Gregory. "A Note on Hopper." New Republic (December 13, 1933), p. 132.

Mary Morsell. "Hopper Exhibition Clarifies a Phase of American Art." Art News 32 (November 4, 1933), p. 12.

Alfred H. Barr Jr. in Edward Hopper: Retrospective Exhibition. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1933, pp. 13–14, pl. 12.

C. J. Bulliet. "Hopper Poet of Solitudes Just Deserted." Chicago Daily News (January 6, 1934), p. 28, calls it "Williamsburgh Bridge".

"Edward Hopper Painting Bought by Metropolitan." New York Herald Tribune (March 26, 1937), p. 19.

"Carnegie Traces Hopper's Rise to Fame." Art Digest 11 (April 1, 1937), p. 14, notes the Museum's acquisition of this work as evidence of the artist's recent success, despite previously only selling two paintings in his twenty-three year career.

Ernest Brace. "Edward Hopper." Magazine of Art 30 (May 1937), p. 275, ill. p. 276, praises the artist's "stark" and "haunting" portrayal of city life through commonplace buildings.

W. Clifford. "Notes." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 32 (April 1937), p. 102.

"Museum Buys Painting." New York Times (March 26, 1937), p. L19.

Forbes Watson. American Painting Today. Washington, D.C., 1939, ill. p. 89.

Edward Hopper. New York, 1945, unpaginated, ill.

Oliver W. Larkin. Art and Life in America. New York, 1949, p. 427.

Robert Beverly Hale. 100 American Painters of the 20th Century: Works Selected from the Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1950, p. xvi, ill. p. 61.

Henry Geldzahler. "Edward Hopper." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 21 (November 1962), p. 115.

Henry Geldzahler. American Painting in the Twentieth Century. New York, 1965, p. 79, ill. p. 78.

A. L. Chanin. Art Guide/ New York. New York, 1965, p. 98, fig. 146.

Eric F. Goldman and Tracy Atkinson. The Beauty of America in Great American Art. Waukesha, Wis., 1965, ill. p. 114 (color).

"Edward Hopper is Dead at 84; Painter of the American Scene." New York Times (May 17, 1967), p. 32.

Lloyd Goodrich. Edward Hopper. New York, [1971], ill. p. 202.

James F. Pilgrim. Paintings from the Metropolitan, Pinturas del Metropolitano. Exh. cat., Bronx County Courthouse. New York, 1971, unpaginated, no. 19.

Nancy Heller and Julia Williams. "Edward Hopper: Alone in America." American Artist 40 (January 1976), ill. p. 73 (color).

Nancy Heller and Julia Williams. The Regionalists. New York, 1976, pl. 27 [reprinted as "Painters of the American Scene" 1982].

Magdalena Dabrowski. "Hopper, Edward." Academic American Encyclopedia. Vol. 10, Princeton, 1980, p. 233, ill., notes that the cropping in this picture alludes to a larger panorama while a lone figure in a window adds depth.

Gail Levin. Edward Hopper: The Art and the Artist. Exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 1980, pl. 243.

André Fermigier. "L'Amerique selon Hopper." Le Monde (March 12, 1981), ill. p. 15.

Charles W. Millard. "Edward Hopper." Hudson Review 34 (Autumn 1981), p. 394, cites this picture as a characteristic example of the artist's architectural and "spatial elisions" that developed in his work during the 1920s.

Gail Levin. "Edward Hopper's 'Nighthawks'." Arts Magazine 55 (May 1981), p. 161 n.15.

Shelly Mehlman Dinhofer. Brooklyn Themes: Art in the Years of Roosevelt and La Guardia. Exh. brochure, Museum of the Borough of Brooklyn at Brooklyn College. Brooklyn, 1982, unpaginated, ill.

Gail Levin. Hopper's Places. New York, 1985, p. 19.

Lowery S. Sims. The Artist Celebrates New York: Selected Paintings from The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. brochure, Bronx Museum of the Arts. New York, 1985, unpaginated, ill. (color).

William S. Lieberman. 20th Century Art: Selections from the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Vol. 1, Painting: 1905–1945. New York, 1986, pp. 42–43, 63, ill. (color, overall and detail).

Lisa M. Messinger in The Landscape in Twentieth-Century American Art: Selections from The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., Philbrook Museum of Art. New York, 1991, pp. 47–48, no. 12, ill. p. 49 (color).

Nicholas Fox Weber. Patron Saints: Five Rebels Who Opened America to a New Art, 1928–1943. New York, 1992, p. 40, calls it "Williamsburg Bridge" and notes its depiction of tenement housing as indicative of the desire to "dwell on the shadows as much as the sunlight" in American culture.

Andrew Hemingway. "Critical Realism in the History of American Art." Visions of America Since 1492. Ed. Deborah L. Madsen. New York, 1994, p. 131, fig. 7.3.

Gail Levin Whitney Museum of American Art. Edward Hopper: A Catalogue Raisonné. Vol. 3, Oils. New York, 1995, p. 179, no. O-258, ill. (color), as "Williamsburg Bridge"; reproduces the only extant study for this work (1928; conté crayon on paper; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York).

Deborah Lyons. "Record Books I, II, III, V." Edward Hopper: A Journal of His Work. New York, 1997, p. 41, reproduces the artist's record book noting that the MMA purchased this work in March 1937.

Virginia M. Mecklenburg with Margaret Lynne Ausfeld. Edward Hopper: The Watercolors. Exh. cat., National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C., 1999, p. 158.

Merlin James. "Edward Hopper: London." Burlington Magazine 146 (September 2004), p. 632, fig. 40, notes the psychological resonance of this work and calls it one of the high points of Exh. London and tour 2004-5.

Carol Troyen in Edward Hopper. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston, 2007, pp. 121, 135–36, 141, 233 n. 30, 248, no. 58, colorpl. 58.

Gail Levin. Edward Hopper: An Intimate Biography. 2nd rev. ed. [1st ed., 1995]. New York, 2007, pp. 213, 215, fig. 39 (color), ill. p. 772 (detail).

Elliot Bostwick Davis in Edward Hopper. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston, 2007, p. 32.

Carter E. Foster in Edward Hopper. Ed. Carter E. Foster. Exh. cat., Palazzo Reale. Milan, 2009, p. 28.

Carol Troyen in Edward Hopper. Ed. Carter E. Foster. Exh. cat., Palazzo Reale. Milan, 2009, p. 50.

Tomàs Llorens in Hopper. Exh. cat., Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid, 2012, colorpl. 118.

Valeriano Bozal in Hopper. Exh. cat., Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid, 2012, pp. 17, 23, no. 34, ill. p. 111.

Rosalind Ormiston. Edward Hopper Masterpieces. London, 2012, p. 46, ill. pp. 74-75 (color).

Bonnie Tocher Clause. Edward Hopper in Vermont. Hanover, N.H., 2012, p. 41.

Caroline Hancock in Hopper. Exh. cat., Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza. Madrid, 2012, p. 328.

Daniel S. Palmer in Carter E. Foster. Hopper Drawing. Exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 2013, pp. 96, 97 n. 14, p. 233, fig. 161 (color).

Richard Meyer. "Changing Partners: Richard Meyer on 'Reimagining Modernism' at the Met." Artforum (November 2015), p. 146.

David Peters Corbett. "The Painting of Urban Life, 1880-1930." A Companion to American Art. Ed. John Davis, Jennifer A. Greenhill, and Jason D. LaFountain. West Sussex, England, 2015, pp. 574-75.



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