Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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明 錢榖 蘭亭修禊圖 卷
Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion

Artist:
Qian Gu (Chinese, 1508–ca. 1578)
Period:
Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
Date:
datable to 1560
Culture:
China
Medium:
Handscroll; ink and color on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 9 1/2 x 171 1/2 in. (24.1 x 435.6 cm) Overall with mounting: 9 3/4 x 491 3/8 in. (24.8 x 1248.1 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Ex coll.: C. C. Wang Family, Gift of Douglas Dillon, 1980
Accession Number:
1980.80
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 210
In 353, the renowned calligrapher Wang Xizhi (307–365) and his friends met at the Orchid Pavilion (at Shanyin, in modern Zhejiang Province) to celebrate the spring festival of purification. Sitting by a stream, they held a poetry competition. When the time was up, eleven men had finished two poems, and fifteen had finished one; the sixteen who failed to come up with anything (among them, Wang’s son Xianzhi) were penalized by having to drink three additional cups of wine. In Qian Gu’s representation of this famous literary event, cups of wine float downstream as the poets, lined up on both sides, drink freely and struggle to complete their poems.

Orphaned at an early age, Qian Gu did not receive a formal education until adulthood, when he became a pupil of Wen Zhengming (1470–1559). This painting is modeled after a composition said to have been originated by Li Gonglin (ca. 1049–1106).
Inscription: Artist’s inscriptions and signature (195 columns in standard script, dated 1560; mounted after the painting)

永和九年,嵗在癸丑,暮春之初,會于会稽山陰之蘭亭,修禊事也。群賢畢至,少長咸集。此地有崇山峻領,茂林修竹;又有清流激湍,映带左右,引以爲流觴曲水,列坐其次。雖無絲竹管弦之盛,一觴一詠,亦足以暢叙幽情。是日也,天朗氣清,惠風和暢,仰觀宇宙之大,俯察品類之盛,所以遊目騁懷,足以極視聽之娱,信可樂也。夫人之相與,俯仰一世,或取諸懷抱,晤言一室之内;或因寄所託,放浪形骸之外。雖趣舍萬殊,静躁不同,當其欣於所遇,暫得於己,怏然自足,不知老之將至。及其所之既惓,情隨事遷,感慨係之矣。向之所欣,俯仰之間以為陳跡,猶不能不以之興懷,况修短隨化,終期於盡。古人云死生亦大矣,豈不痛哉!每攬昔人興感之由,若合一契,未嘗不臨文嗟悼,不能喻之於懷。固知一死生為虛誕,齊彭殤為妄作。後之視今,亦由今之視昔。悲夫!故列叙時人,錄其所述,雖世殊事異,所以興懷,其致一也。後之攬者,亦將有感於斯文。

三春陶和氣,萬物齊一歡。明后欣時豐,駕言映清瀾。
亹亹德音暢,蕭蕭遺世難。望巖媿脫屐,臨川謝揭竿。
郡功曹魏滂

代謝鱗次,忽焉以周。欣此暮春,和氣載柔。
詠彼舞雩,異世同流。廼擕齊契,散懷一丘(四言)
仰視碧天際,俯瞰淥水濱。寥阒無涯觀,寓目理自陳。
大矣造化工,萬殊莫不均。群籟雖參差,適我無非親。(五言)
右將軍王羲之

溫風起東谷,和氣振柔條。端坐興遠想,薄言遊近郊。
散騎常侍郗曇

主人雖無懷,應物貴有尚。宣居遨沂津,蕭然心神王。
數子各言志,曾生發清唱。今我欣斯遊,慍情亦暫暢。
滎陽桓偉

莊浪濠梁[點去]津,巢步潁看。冥心真寄,千載同歸。(四言)
煙熅柔風扇,煕怡和氣淳。駕言興時遊,逍遙映通津。
王凝之

馳心域表,寥寥遠邁。理感則一,冥然斯會。
潁川庾友

去來悠悠子,披褐良足欽。超蹟修獨往,真契齊古今。
王渙之

茫茫大造,萬化齊軌。罔悟云同,競異標旨。平勃運謀,黃綺隱几。凡我仰希,期山期水。(四言)
地主觀山水,仰尋幽人踪。囘沼激中逵,疏竹閒修桐。因流轉輕觴,冷風飄落松。時禽吟長澗,萬籟吹連峰。(五言)
前餘杭令孫統

伊昔先子,有懷春遊。契玆言執,寄傲林丘。森森連領,茫茫原疇。迥霄垂霧,凝泉散流。(四言)
相與欣佳節,率爾同搴裳。薄雲羅景物,微風翼輕航。醇醪陶丹府,兀若遊羲皇[點去]唐。萬殊混一理,安復覺彭殤。(五言)
琅瑘王友謝安

時來誰不懷,寄散山林間。尚想方外賓,超超有餘閒。
行參軍曹茂之

春詠登臺,亦有臨流。懷彼伐木,宿此良儔。修竹陰沼,旋瀨縈丘。穿池激湍,連濫觴舟。(四言)
流風拂狂渚,停雲蔭九臯。鶯語吟修竹,游鱗戲瀾濤。擕筆落雲藻,微言剖纖毫。時珍豈不甘,忘味在聞韶。(五言)
左司馬孫綽

仰想虛舟說,俯歎世上賓。朝榮雖云樂,夕斃理自因。
潁川庾蘊

在昔暇日,味存林領。今我司遊,神怡心靜。(四言)
嘉會欣時游,豁爾暢心神。吟詠曲水瀨,淥波轉素鱗。(五言)
王宿之

神散宇宙内,形浪濠梁津。寄暢須臾歡,尚想味古人。
鎭軍司馬虞說

松竹挺巖厓,幽澗激清流。消散肆情志,酣暢豁滯憂。
王玄之

丹崖疏立,葩藻映林。淥水揚波,載浮載沉。(四言)
鮮葩映林薄,游鱗戲清渠。臨川欣投釣,得意豈在魚。(五言)
王彬之

縱暢任所適,囘波縈游鱗。千載一朝,沐浴陶清塵。
郡五官謝繹

散懷山水,蕭然忘羈。秀薄粲潁,疏松籠涯。遊羽扇霄,鱗躍清池。歸目寄歎,心冥二奇。(四言)
先師有冥藏,安用羈世羅。未若保沖真,齊契箕山阿。
王徽之

俯揮素波,仰掇芳蘭。尚想佳客,希風永歎。(四言)
清響擬絲竹,班荊對綺疏。零觴飛曲律,歡然朱顏舒。
行參軍徐豐之

願與達人遊,解結遨濠梁。狂吟任所知,邊浪流無鄉。
徐州西平曹華

散豁情志暢,塵纓忽已捐。仰詠挹餘芳,怡情味重淵。
王蘊之

肆眺崇阿,寓目高林。青蘿翳岫,修竹冠岑。谷流清響,條鼓鳴音。玄崿吐潤,霏霧成陰。(四言)
司冥卷陰旗,勾芒舒陽旌。靈液被九區,光風扇鮮榮。碧林輝翠萼,紅葩擢新莖。翔禽撫翰游,騰鱗躍清泠。
司徒左西屬謝萬

林榮其鬱,浪激其隈。汎汎輕觴,載欣載懷。
上虞令華茂

望巖懷逸許,臨流想奇莊。誰云真風絕,千載挹餘芳。
中軍參軍孫嗣

人亦有言,得意則歡。佳賓即臻,相與遊盤。微音迭詠,馥焉若蘭。苟齊一致,遐想揭竿。(四言)
四眺華林茂,俯仰晴川渙。激水流芳醪,豁爾累心散。遐想逸民軌,遺音良可玩。古人詠舞雩,今也同斯嘆。
陳郡袁嶠之

肆盻巖岫,臨泉濯趾。感興魚鳥,安居幽跱。
行參軍王豐之

一十一人詩兩篇成。
一十五人詩一篇成。
一十六人詩不成,各飲酒三觥。
前餘杭令謝藤
侍郎謝瑰
行參軍事丘旄
府主簿任凝
王獻之
行參軍楊模
府主簿后綿
任城呂系
參軍鎦密
參軍孔盛
府功曹勞夷
前長岑令華耆
鎭國大將軍卞迪
任城呂本
彭城曹諲
山陰令虞谷

後序 孫綽
古人以水喻性有方哉,非所以淳之則清,淆之則濁耶!故振轡於市朝,則充屈之心生,閒步於林野,則寥落之意興。仰瞻羲唐,邈然遠矣;近詠臺閣,顧探增懷。聊於曖昧之中,期乎瑩拂之道。暮春之始,禊於南澗之濱,高領千尋,長湖萬頃,乃藉芳草,鑑清流,覽卉物,觀魚鳥,具類同榮,資生咸暢。於是和以醇醪,齊以達觀,怏然兀矣,焉復覺鵬鷃之二物哉。耀靈縱轡,急景西邁,樂與時去,悲亦係之。往復推移,新秋相換,今日之跡,明復陳矣。原詩人之致興,諒歌詠之有由,文多不載,大略如此。所賦詩亦裁而綴之,如前四言、五言焉。

《蘭亭帖》古今石刻並題識不下數十種,惟以定武為佳。然定武亦有肥瘦不同,政不知何者為勝。壽寧方丈僧椿齡雅好詞翰,從予游藝,因見周王府石刻本粘此三舊紙,請予繪之,因坐以事中間,屢作屢輟,經五月始克就緒。圖成復強予摹定武本,冀諸篇詠姓氏于後,以爲全玩。予非學書者,辭之不獲,遂勉為之。自顧筆力拙惡 ,用意粗疏,豈敢追踪古人,但以圖文並存,留作山中私居展玩可也。倘出以示人,則遺誚多矣。執筆慚愧,時嘉靖庚申夏六月望日彭城錢穀識。


Artist's seals

Qian Gu 錢穀
Qianshi Shubao 錢氏叔寳
Qian Shubao 錢叔寳
Qian Gu siyin 錢穀私印
Shubao 叔寳
Sangzi li 桑梓里
Xuanqing Shi huayin 懸磬室畫印
Xuanqing Shi 懸磬室
Yiyuan Xuan 意遠軒
Wu Yue wangsun 吳越王孫
Mengzhi Zhai 夢雉齋
Pengcheng 彭城
Juwu yimin 句吳逸民
Youzhu shanchuang 幽竹山窗


Label strip

Unidentified artist, 1 column in standard script, undated (mounted on brocade wrapper):

錢榖蘭亭修禊圖


Frontispiece

Wang Guxiang 王穀祥 (1501–1568), 4 large characters in seal script, followed by 1 column in semi-cursive script, undated; 3 seals:

蘭亭修禊
穀祥 [印]: 王祿之印、堅白齋、酉室


Colophon

Qian Yunzhi 錢允治 (1541–?), 7 columns in standard script, dated 1624; 2 seals:

周世子刻《蘭亭圖》,大小不同,榻本精妙。今世所傳尤有存者,頃益府所刻不啻徑庭,存其影響已耳。先君為冰壺上足作此卷,雖不規規舊本,間用本色,而蒼然之色、淵然之光溢於毫素,是可寳也。今其孫覺林什襲珍藏,可謂能善守矣。屢擕示乞題,乃為書此。天啓甲子二月十九日清明,男允治敬記,時年八十四。 [印]:錢允治印、功父 


Collectors' seals

Qing emperor Qianlong 清帝乾隆 (r. 1736–1795)
Qianlong yulan zhi bao 乾隆御覽之寳
Qianlong jianshang 乾隆鋻賞
Shiqu baoji 石渠寳笈
Shiqu dingjian 石渠定鋻
Qianqing Gong jiancang xi 乾清宮鋻藏寳
Baoji chongbian 寳笈重編
Sanxi Tang jingjian xi 三希堂精鋻璽
Yi zisun 宜子孫

Qing emperor Jiaqing 清帝嘉慶 (r. 1795–1820)
Jiaqing yulan zhi bao 嘉慶御覽之寳

Qing emperor Xuantong 清帝宣統 (r. 1909–1911)
Xuantong yulan zhi bao 宣統御覽之寳
Wuyi Zhai jingjian xi 無逸齋精鋻璽
Xuantong jianshang 宣統鋻賞

Wang Jiqian 王季遷 (1907–2003)
Wang Jiqian haiwai suojian mingji 王季遷海外所見名跡
Ceng cang Wang Jiqian chu 曾藏王季遷處
Zhenze Wangshi Baowu Tang tushu ji 震澤王氏寳武堂圖書記
Zhenze Wangshi Jiqian shoucang yin 震澤王氏季遷收藏印
Huaiyun Lou jianshang shuhua zhi ji 懷雲樓鋻賞書畫之記

Earl Morse 穆思 (1908–1988)
Mu Si shoucang mingji 穆思收藏名迹
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