Art/ Collection/ Art Object

明 董其昌 倣倪瓚山水圖 軸
Landscape with Trees in the Manner of Ni Zan (1301–1374)

Dong Qichang (Chinese, 1555–1636)
Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
ca. 1622–25
Hanging scroll; ink on paper
Image: 45 1/2 x 18 in. (115.6 x 45.7 cm) Overall with mounting: 94 7/8 x 27 1/2 in. (241 x 69.9 cm) Overall with knobs: 94 7/8 x 31 1/2 in. (241 x 80 cm)
Credit Line:
Bequest of John M. Crawford Jr., 1988
Accession Number:
Not on view
Dong Qichang revived the tenets of the scholar-painter: to follow the ancient models and to apply the principles of calligraphy to painting. In proposing a "great synthesis" of all ancient landscape idioms, Dong turned landscape forms into calligraphic abstractions. The most desirable element in painting, according to Dong, was brushwork rather than representation: "If one considers the wonders of brush and ink, real landscape can never equal painting."

This painting is an interpretation of the Yuan master Ni Zan's (1306–1374) art. Dong Qichang regarded Ni's painting as a calligraphic abstraction of the tenth-century master Dong Yuan's style and used Dong Yuan's "hemp-fiber" texture strokes to re-create Ni Zan's brush landscape idiom.
Inscription: Artist's inscription and signature (2 columns in semi-cursive script)


Artist’s seals


Label strip

Song Xuefan 宋雪帆 (1802–1874), 2 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1868:



1. Chen Jiru 陳繼儒 (1558–1639), 5 columns in semi-cursive script; 2 seals:


2. Wang Wenzhi 王文治 (1730–1802), 3 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1786; 2 seals:

此香光仿倪迂之作,而筆端具有癡翁勝場,蓋癡翁與迂翁同師北苑,臨濟兒孫正不妨旁參洞下也。此幅為香雨大兄所藏。丙午春日觀於納書楹,因記。文治 [印]:夢樓、王禹卿氏

Collector's seals

Gu Luofu 顧洛阜 (John M. Crawford, Jr., 1913–1988)
London. Victoria and Albert Museum. "Chinese Painting and Calligraphy from the Collection of John M. Crawford, Jr.," June 17, 1965–August 1, 1965.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Text and Image: The Interaction of Painting, Poetry, and Calligraphy," January 23, 1999–August 16, 1999.

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