Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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明/清 惲向 仿古山水圖 冊 紙本
Landscapes after old masters

Artist:
Yun Xiang (Chinese, 1586–1655)
Period:
Ming (1368–1644) or Qing (1644–1911) dynasty
Date:
datable to 1638 or 1650
Culture:
China
Medium:
Album of ten leaves; ink and color on paper
Dimensions:
10 1/4 x 6 in. (26 x 15.2 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Purchase, Douglas Dillon Gift, 1977
Accession Number:
1977.171a–j
Not on view
Hailed as "the foremost painter after Shen Zhou [1427-1509]" by the collector-critic Zhou Lianggong (1612-1672), Yun Xiang was an influential forerunner of such leading early Qing Nanjing painters as Gong Xian (1619-1689).

Living in retirement after the Manchu conquest as an yimin, or "leftover subject," of the Ming, Yun Xiang especially admired the dry-brush manner of Ni Zan (1306-1374), the archetypal reclusive scholar-painter of the late Yuan period. Three of the ten paintings in this virtuoso album, in which Yun Xiang interprets a wide range of earlier masters' styles through remarkable variations in brushwork and compositional motifs, were inspired by Ni Zan. The methods of interpretation, bearing the unmistakable influence of the late Ming theorist-painter Dong Qichang (1555-1636), were further developed by Gong Xian and other leading early Qing masters in the late seventeenth century.
Inscription: Artist’s inscriptions and signatures

Leaf AA (6 columns in standard script):

《春山競渡圖》 本趙大年作也。大家名令穰,宋宗室,擁富勢裘馬,而獨有筆墨之嗜。惜未能遍遊名山大川,其筆意尚少蒼龍入海氣色耳。昔人謂其胸次再加萬卷書便可通乎造化,蓋畫法通于讀書,其語非始於董宗伯也。然吾每見大年出筆頗類儒氣,豈石將軍不識字而行軍暗與古合者歟?今人亦有名讀書者而作畫友師匠人,則其先天之品不足道耳。惲向自題。

Leaf BB (5 columns in standard script):

畫家六法以氣韻為貴,然氣韻生乎法,非以法求氣韻也。猶之文字之妙生乎法,非以法求妙也。大家氣韻出於自然,作家則求之,其他並不知求矣。李成、王蒙、黃公望、王詵、倪元鎮、吳仲圭輩俱法董玄,其虛實避就,煩簡深淺,各自成家,而氣韻之自然者出。香山

Leaf CC (6 columns in semi-cursive script):

求其似處,又求其不似處,無所取之,取其遠也。明則不深,無所取之,取其蒙蒙然也。深則不明,無所取之,取其歷歷然也。直則不曲,無所取之,取其直而曲也。促則不濶,無所取之,取其促而濶也。于前篇似近而更遠,即摘出一筆中亦有遠處,學者知之,使古人出地可焉。暑中漫筆。道生

Leaf DD (5 columns in semi-cursive and standard script):

王右軍書如龍跳天門,虎踞鳳闕,歷代寳之,永以爲訓。蓋非筆筆正鋒,不足以尚,此畫家董北苑即書法中右軍書也。須觀其一筆中具有元氣。道生記于泗上之玻璃泉亭腳下。

Leaf EE (5 columns in semi-cursive script):

元人筆意所以勝於前代者,不過意勝而已,略用皴擦點綴,而神情變幻,縱橫百出。彼所稱張、王、顧、陸、大、小李將軍,極其形容,膚髮最細最似,未免格格傷氣,而此特以意盡之,寫意化工,豈刻畫之所能至也。然非獨子久,彼吳道子半日寫嘉陵山水百幅,此等妙境是教外別傳,文人粉本,豈依樣葫蘆可得。道生

Leaf FF (2 columns in semi-cursive script):

惠崇荒寒滅沒,人鳥欲藏之意每着筆。人言愁,我始欲愁。香山向

Leaf GG (5 columns in semi-cursive script):

帶筆帶墨,無筆無墨,又有筆有墨,此非狐禪語也,是迺謂之神氣。凡倪迂設色畫法多不出奇,余間以奇意出之,如娘子軍整暇忽出而取丈夫子,如擒曹蜍李囗[志],氣勢振壁上觀,為儒宗品外奪魄。道生父書于鎮陽水上。

Leaf HH (3 columns in standard script):

此篇近中之遠,不於遠取遠者。凡逸品多不變化,吾欲臨其丈六金身,遂多變化,姑作三種以俟悟人着眼。語云“急須着眼看僊人,莫看僲人手中扇。”香山

Leaf II (5 columns in standard and semi-cursive scripts):

王摩詰 《積雪圖》 雖似刻畫,而亦以意勝。道生
此圖又為《孤舟釣雪》,因念人在雪中多藏魚安得上鈎也。世人載雪而求頗多,不審彼此,《輞川》此本豈亦彭澤無弦之琴歟。道生再識。

Leaf JJ (10 columns in semi-cursive script):

此沒骨山水圖,其法出自僧繇。僧繇多窮工極變,即大米亦極變,而吾存其意,若所謂莖草者,大約畫不盡,固勝於盡也。道生
禪家南北二宗唐時始分,畫家之南北二宗亦唐時始分,但其人非南北耳。北宗則李思訓父子着色山,流傳而為宋之趙幹、趙伯駒、伯驌,以至馬、夏諸公。南宗則王摩詰始用渲淡,一變鈎斫之法,其傳為張璪、荊、關、郭忠恕、董、巨、米家父子,以至元之四大家。亦如六祖之後馬駒、雲門、臨濟兒孫之盛,而北宗微矣。摩詰所謂雲峰石跡,迥出天機,筆意縱橫,參乎造化者,真吾師耳。夏日訪藥老寫成一冊,並題發笑。寅年治弟惲本初

Artist's seals

Xiangshan 香山 (Leaf A–J, AA, JJ)
Yun Benchu yin 惲本初印 (Leaf BB, CC, DD, GG, JJ)
Yu Xiang yin 惲向印 (Leaf EE, FF, II, HH)
Xiangshan 香山 (Leaf EE, FF, HH, II)

Collector’s seals

Zhang Xueliang 張學良 (1901–2001)
Zhang Xueliang yin 張學良印
Zhang Xueliang yin 張學良印
Zhang Xueliang yin 張學良印
Zhang 張
Zhang Hanqing jia zhencang 張漢卿家珍藏
Xueliang 學良
Hanqing 漢卿
Hanqing suocang 漢卿所藏
Hanqing zhenshang 漢卿珍賞
Kanhua Xuan 看畫軒
Kanhua Xuan 看畫軒
Kanhua Xuan 看畫軒
Kanhua Xuan 看畫軒
Xinshang (5 times) 心賞
Dingyuan Zhai zhencang shuhua zhi zhang 定遠齋珍藏書畫之章
Dingyuan Zhai 定遠齋
Dingyuan Zhai 定遠齋
Dingyuan Zhai 定遠齋
Zhenmi (5 times) 珍祕
Linming Zhang shi zhencang 臨溟張氏珍藏
Linming Zhang shi zhencang 臨溟張氏珍藏
Dingyuan Zhai Zhuren 定遠齋主人
Yi’an (2 times) 毅庵
Yi’an Zhuren jiuyiba hou depin 毅庵主人九一八後得品
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