Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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Coffin of Khnumnakht

Period:
Middle Kingdom
Dynasty:
Dynasty 13
Date:
ca. 1802–1640 B.C.
Geography:
From Egypt, Middle Egypt, Khashaba excavations, 1910–15; Probably from Meir
Medium:
Wood, paint
Dimensions:
L. 207.5 cm (81 11/16 in); W. 51.8 cm (20 3/8 in); H. 68 cm (26 3/4 in)
Credit Line:
Rogers Fund, 1915
Accession Number:
15.2.2a, b
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 112
The brilliantly painted exterior of the coffin of Khnumnakht, an individual unknown except for his name, displays the multiplicity of texts and decorative panels characteristic of coffin decoration in the late Middle Kingdom. It has at least one feature—the figure of the goddess on the head end—that is rare before the late Middle Kingdom. The figures and hieroglyphs have been drawn by the confident hand of a skilled artist and each hieroglyph has been carefully painted in the prescribed manner of the time and place in which the coffin was made.

On the left side of the coffin box there is an architectural facade with a small doorway in the center at the bottom. This is the equivalent of the Old Kingdom false door, which allowed the spirit of the deceased to move between the land of the dead and the land of the living. In this case, it is painted to resemble two wooden door leaves secured with two door bolts. Above the door are two eyes that look forth into the land of the living. The face of the mummy would have been directly behind this panel. The rest of the exterior is inscribed with invocations to, and recitations by, various primeval deities, particularly those associated with death and rebirth, such as Osiris, foremost god of the dead, and Anubis, god of embalming.
#3340. Coffin of Khnumnakht
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For Audio Guide tours and information, visit metmuseum.org/audioguide.
Khashaba excavations, ceded to Sayyid Khashaba in the division of finds. Sold by Khashaba to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1915.

Hayes, William C. 1953. Scepter of Egypt I: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Part I: From the Earliest Times to the End of the Middle Kingdom. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 318, fig. 207.

Dorman, Peter F., Prudence Harper, and Holly Pittman 1987. Egypt and the Ancient Near East in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, pp. 34-35.

Allen, James P. 2015. "Coffin of Nakhtkhnum." In Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, edited by Adela Oppenheim, Dorothea Arnold, Dieter Arnold, and Kei Yamamoto. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, pp. 232–33, no. 169.

Arnold, Dorothea 2015. "Statues in Their Settings: Encountering the Divine." In Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, edited by Adela Oppenheim, Dorothea Arnold, Dieter Arnold, and Kei Yamamoto. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 19.

Yamamoto, Kei 2015. "The Art of the Stela." In Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, edited by Adela Oppenheim, Dorothea Arnold, Dieter Arnold, and Kei Yamamoto. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 36.

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