Art/ Collection/ Art Object
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清 佚名 大運河地圖 (從北京至長江) 卷
Map of the Grand Canal from Beijing to the Yangzi River

Artist:
Unidentified Artist Chinese, late 18th or early 19th century
Period:
Qing dynasty (1644–1911)
Date:
late 18th or early 19th century
Culture:
China
Medium:
Handscroll; ink and color on silk
Dimensions:
21 7/8 x 367 in. (55.6 x 932.2 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Purchase, Friends of Asian Art Gifts, 2003
Accession Number:
2003.417
Not on view
Managing China's complex network of rivers, canals, and irrigation systems has been one of the abiding concerns of its rulers. From the fourteenth century, the Grand Canal served as the major artery for transporting grain from the wealthy agricultural regions south of the Yangzi River to the capital city of Beijing in the north. Of equal importance was the constant threat of flooding from the Yellow River and other river systems that traversed the canal. Under the Manchu Qing dynasty (1644–1911), both the Kangxi (r. 1662–1722) and Qianlong (r. 1736–95) emperors personally inspected the hydraulic management measures in this region on their periodic tours of the empire.

This map follows the course of the Grand Canal from the vicinity of Beijing southward to the Yangzi River. Artistically, it stands halfway between modern cartographic records and the more pictorial approach to mapmaking that was commonly used prior to the twentieth century in China. While most elements are schematically rendered, images of the Forbidden City, the Yangzi River, and certain mountains and topographic features are treated in pictorial terms. All of the rivers, canals, dams, sluice gates, dikes, and catchment basins as well as the walled cities and important towns situated near the canal are depicted and labeled. The linchpin of the entire hydraulic system was the confluence of the Yellow and Huai Rivers with the Grand Canal. Based on documented changes to the configuration of the Huang-Huai confluence and other areas, the content of the map can be dated to the period from 1737 to 1761.
Inscription: Artist’s inscriptions (multiple columns in standard script)

通惠河源出昌平州神山泉會,馬眼諸泉至通州與潞河會。大通橋—慶豐閘—平津上閘—平津下閘—普濟閘—八里橋—通惠河—通州—越城—石(土具)—土(土具)—土橋—紅橋
富河即沙榆二河合流至通州與白河會,西浮橋—富河。
白河源出密雲西通州會,富河通西渾河至天津。東浮橋—白河—潞河—東(水甸)—西(水甸)—海口—三岔河—戴家莊閘—上橋閘—梁家鄉陽—永通閘—通濟橋閘—李海縣閘—荊門下閘—荊門上閘—李海務閘—周家店閘—七級下閘—七級上閘—阿城下閘—夾河—沙河—沙灣小閘—棗林河—老黃河口—三空橋—戴家廟閘—安山湖今淤—似蛇溝閘—八里灣閘—積水淵閘—安山湖—安山閘—通湖閘—靳家口閘—魚營坡—袁家口閘— 開河閘—南旺下閘—馬路湖—蜀山湖—分水口—汶河—南旺上閘—南旺湖—利運閘—芒生閘—寺前鋪閘—滾水舊閘—坡石橋—馬場湖—通濟閘—耐牢坡閘—減水閘—減水閘—
南新河源自大興縣流至張家灣,與渾河會入潞河。
弘仁橋—新河
張家灣
渾河源出大同桑乾山至張家灣入潞河。
渾河—大西橋
香河縣
河女務
武清縣
寳 縣
東安縣
永清縣
天津衛
靜海縣
青縣
滹北河出大鉄山至青縣入漕河。
滄州
白頭鎭
南皮縣
交河縣
景州
吳橋縣
德州
故城縣
城縣
濤河縣
夏津縣
臨清州
閘津橋—天橋—小閘—磚閘—南板閘—鱉頭尖
衛河源出輝縣蘇門山石門泉,引小丹河及淇洹漳諸水至臨清與汶水合。
舘陶縣
進水閘
減水閘
減水閘
進水閘
減水閘
減水閘
減水閘
清平縣
減水入清平縣境由漯河東入于海。
博平縣
堂邑縣
進水閘
東昌府鄆城縣
減水閘
減水閘
坡水入運。
減水閘
減水閘
黑龍潭
張秋城
戊巳山
減水閘
夾河—沙河—五空橋
夾河水源濟源縣東南流入黃河。
溴河—濟河—洛河—(水廛)河—伊河—洛河口—汜河—沁河—積水—
濟水發源至王屋山入黃河。
伊水源出盧氏縣至偃師與洛河交流,洛水源出陝西 南縣至河南鞏縣入黃河。(水廛)河源出沌池縣至洛陽。
入洛河。
沁水出西沁源縣至武陟縣入黃河。
孟縣
孟津縣
偃師縣
汜水縣
武陟縣
河陰縣
廣武山
新滎澤縣
舊滎澤縣
新城縣
原武縣
鄭州
陽武賢
汶河發源太山,諸泉至汶上縣南旺河口南北分流。
泰安萊蕪新泰諸泉源入汶河者。
蜀山
鼠王廟
鳳凰臺
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