Art/ Collection/ Art Object
{{img.publicCaption}}

元 忽哥赤 和 佚名 耕稼圖 卷
Rice Culture, or Sowing and Reaping

Artist:
Unidentified Artist Chinese, mid-14th century
Period:
Yuan dynasty (1271–1368)
Date:
before 1353
Culture:
China
Medium:
Handscroll; ink and color on silk
Dimensions:
Image: 10 1/2 x 199 3/8 in. (26.7 x 506.4 cm) Overall with mounting: 12 1/4 x 389 in. (31.1 x 988.1 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Purchase, W. M. Keck Foundation Gift and other gifts, in memory of Douglas Dillon, 2005
Accession Number:
2005.277
Not on view
Rice Culture depicts China's most fundamental economic activity: the cultivation and harvesting of rice. It is based closely on a set of texts and illustrations first created by the Southern Song court painter Lou Shou (1090–1162). The scroll, which preserves the final nine scenes from this series, bears an inscription, dated 1353, by a Mongolian named Hugechi that states that, after he acquired this painting, he had it remounted and presented it to the Grand Preceptor as a resource for establishing policy.

The work not only documents the continuation of the Song-style court painting tradition but demonstrates how Mongol officials, in spite of their nomadic heritage, had come to appreciate both the fundamental nature of agriculture in Chinese society and its importance in sustaining the fiscal health of the dynasty.
Inscription: Artists’ inscriptions and signature[1]

Unidentified artist (64 columns in standard script)

[灌溉] (irrigating)

揠苗鄙宋人,抱甕[慚蒙莊。
何如銜尾]鴉,倒流竭池塘。
䆉[稏舞]翠浪,蘧蒢[生]晝涼。
斜陽掛高柳,笑歌閑女郎。

收刈 (harvesting)
田家刈穫時,腰鐮競倉卒。
霜濃手龜坼,日永身罄折。
兒童行拾穗,風色[淩短]褐。
歡呼荷檐歸,望望屋山月。

登場 (stacking)
禾黍已登場,稍覺農事優。
黃雲滿高架,白水空西疇。
用此可卒嵗,願言免[防]秋。
太平本無象,村舍炊煙浮。

持穗 (threshing)
霜時天氣佳,風[勁]木葉脫。
持穗及此時,連枷聲亂發。
黃雞啄遺粒,烏鳥喜聒聒。
歸家抖塵埃,夜屋燒榾柮。

簸揚 (winnowing)
臨風細簸揚,糠粃零風前。
傾瀉雨聲碎,把玩玉粒圓。
短帬箕帚婦,收拾亦已[專]。
豈圖較斗升,未敢忘凶年。

礱 (hulling)
推挽人摩肩,碾轉石礪齒。
殷床作春雷,旋風落雲子。
有如布山川,培塿執相峙。
前時斗量珠,滿眼俄有此。

舂碓 (grinding)
娟娟月過墻,蔌蔌風吹葉。
田家當此時,村舂響相答。
行聞炊玉香,會見流匙滑。
更須水轉輪,地碓勞蹴蹋。

籭 (sifting)
茅檐閑杵臼,竹屋細籭簸。
照人[珠]璣[光],奮臂風雨過。
計功初不淺,飽食良[自]賀。
西鄰華屋兒,醉飽正高臥。

入倉 (storing)
天寒牛在欄,嵗莫粟入庾。
田父有餘樂,曝背臥檐廡。
卻愁催租稅,胥吏來旁午。
輸官王事了,索飯兒叫怒。

Hugechi 忽哥赤 (active mid-14th century), 29 columns in standard script, partially damaged, dated 1353:

農之為務重矣,其來遠矣。自神農[斲木]為耜,揉木為耒,而農器始矣。后稷教民稼[穡] 囗藝五穀,而農功始盡。嘗攷囗三代以來,[有﹖]司以農事開國,故於詩書之所載尤詳。周[公﹖]欲成王知稼穡之艱難,則有無逸之書,陳[風?]則有七月之詩,故[從古?]之務農者,必以周為稱。自月令天子有三推之典,凡有天下者,一以此為先務。洪惟我囗至元之囗,有司相風土之所宜,厚民生之所用,復囗囗農司以提其綱,囗聖相承,靡不加意。茲者伏睹太師陳開荒之榮興,萬世囗囗王之意合囗興而為億兆之民,使定囗囗囗囗,紓囗漕[之?]勞,豈不偉歟!當微賤而樂,處以畎畝者易;若伊尹耕於有[莘之野],應湯之聘,而卒能堯舜其君囗囗囗囗功蓋[天?]下,位極人臣,而留意於農務者難,若太師任燮理之職是也。伊尹、太師道同志同,所遇之時不同耳。至若使[君?]為堯舜之君,民為堯舜之民,易地則皆然。忽囗囗囗囗囗囗備員司農幙府,興以[月?] 囗囗囗囗囗囗囗夫,得《耕稼圖》舊本,[已?]盡[精?] 囗,囗囗俗囗,有不問其大略,於此可見矣。謹裝潢囗卷以獻,非敢自衒玉求庸,蓋[以?]紀太師富囗裕民之遠略,亦庶乎囗[運] 囗智、修紀綱之一助云。至正癸巳二月中澣忽哥赤敘。

Hugechi’s seals

2 illegible


Label strips

1. Unidentified artist, 1 column in clerical script, 2 columns in standard script, undated (mounted on brocade wrapper):

元大司農所藏江南舊本《耕稼圖》卷九段
風雨樓舊藏。元忽哥赤、清翁覃溪跋。

2. Unidentified artist, 1 column in clerical script, 2 columns in standard script, undated (mounted in front of painting):

元大司農司所藏江南舊本《耕稼圖》卷
翁蘇齋題詩,風滿樓舊藏

Colophons

1. Weng Fanggang 翁方綱 (1733–1832), 11 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1817; 3 seals:

樓攻媿卷虞公頌,
稼穡艱難勸相時。
指說東西門壁記,
農官十道係分司。

忽哥赤敍太師陳,
幅幅江南井里春。
玉粒棘抽來庾億,
楚茨可是繼龡豳。

題元人〈耕稼圖〉二詩,應雲谷農部二兄屬。丁丑七月,八十五叟方綱 [印]:蘇齋、恩加二品重讌瓊林、内閣學士内閣侍讀學士翰林侍讀學士

2. Huang Muhan 黃慕韓 (active early 20th c.), 4 columns in standard script, undated:

忽哥赤於史無徴,想當為太史陳風之意,披圖足見其時風土人物。翁詩載《復初齋詩集》。此卷昔藏葉氏風滿樓,《書畫錄》錄及,前輩亦重視之者。南海黃慕韓記。


Collectors’ seals

Ye Menglong 葉夢龍 (1775–1832)
葉夢龍鑑藏

Huang Muhan 黃慕韓 (active early 20th c.)
Quxue Zhai cang 劬學齋藏
南海黃伯子慕韓劬學齋金石書畫之章
慕韓囗囗

Unidentified
黃裳銘心之品
吉喬

[1] The Chinese characters in the brackets in the transcriptions are missing on the scroll due to surface damages
Related Objects

Scholars of the Liuli Hall

Date: late 13th century Medium: Handscroll; ink and color on silk Accession: 1977.49 On view in:Not on view

Ink Making

Date: early 19th century Medium: Gouache on paper Accession: 1994.409 On view in:Not on view

Palace banquet

Medium: Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk Accession: 2010.473 On view in:Not on view

Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute: The Story of Lady Wenji

Date: early 15th century Medium: Handscroll; ink, color, and gold on silk Accession: 1973.120.3 On view in:Not on view

Welcoming Spring

Date: 15th century Medium: Silk embroidery on silk gauze Accession: 1981.410 On view in:Not on view