Illustrated Catalogue of the Third Series of 100 Paintings by Old Masters . . . Paris, 1896, p. 112, no. 64, ill.
Bernard Berenson. Letter. November 7, 1912, attributes this picture to Antonello da Messina.
Max J. Friedländer. Letter to Mr. Kleinberger. November 26, 1912, considers it a "beautiful original" by Antonello da Messina.
Catalogue des tableaux anciens dépendant des collections formées par M.-C. Hoogendijk de La Haye. Frederik Muller, Amsterdam. May 14, 1912, p. 22, no. 61.
"The Benjamin Altman Bequest." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 8 (November 1913), p. 233.
Handbook of the Benjamin Altman Collection. New York, 1914, pp. 60–61, refutes the idea that it is a self-portrait and dates it well after 1465.
Adolfo Venturi. "La pittura del Quattrocento." Storia dell'arte italiana. Vol. 7, part 4, Milan, 1915, p. 28, fig. 13.
Bernard Berenson. Venetian Painting in America: The Fifteenth Century. New York, 1916, pp. 30–31, fig. 16, suggests that it was painted in Milan in 1476 and comments on the "curious Luinesque aspect of the sitter".
François Monod. "La galerie Altman au Metropolitan Museum de New-York (1er article)." Gazette des beaux-arts, 5th ser., 8 (September–October 1923), pp. 179, 188–90, ill.
Bernard Berenson. "Una santa di Antonello da Messina e la pala di San Cassiano." Dedalo 6 (1925–26), pp. 638, 645, ill.
Lionello Venturi. Pitture italiane in America. Milan, 1931, unpaginated, pl. 284.
Bryson Burroughs. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Catalogue of Paintings. 9th ed. New York, 1931, p. 7, believes the sitter to be "about seventeen".
Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 25.
Lionello Venturi. Italian Paintings in America. Vol. 2, Fifteenth Century Renaissance. New York, 1933, unpaginated, pl. 379, dates it after the portrait by Antonello in the Johnson collection in Philadelphia.
Johann Lauts. "Antonello da Messina." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, n.s., 7 (1933), p. 56, fig. 54, dates it to the first half of the 1470s.
Raimond van Marle. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. Vol. 15, The Renaissance Painters of Central and Southern Italy. The Hague, 1934, pp. 494–96, fig. 298, dates it before 1470.
Helen Comstock. "The Connoisseur in America: Van Marle's Attributions to Antonello da Messina." The Connoisseur 94 (December 1934), p. 394.
Hans Tietze. Meisterwerke europäischer Malerei in Amerika. Vienna, 1935, p. 328, pl. 66 [English ed., "Masterpieces of European Painting in America," New York, 1939, p. 312, pl. 66].
W. R. Valentiner. "Christ at the Column by Antonello da Messina." Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 14 (January 1935), p. 44.
Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 21.
Stefano Bottari. Antonello da Messina. Milan, , pp. 75–76, 82, 137, 145, pl. 41 [see Ref. Zeri and Gardner 1973], dates it 1472 or 1473.
Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, pp. 174–75, ill., notes that it has been seriously damaged by overcleaning, although the most important parts are intact.
Jan Lauts. Antonello da Messina. Vienna, 1940, pp. 21, 38, pl. 33, mentions it among Antonello's late portraits, including those of young men in the Johnson Collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art, and in the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum, Berlin [now Gemäldegalerie], noting that the latter is dated 1474.
Margaret Breuning. "Metropolitan Re-Installs Its Treasures in Attractive Settings." Art Digest 18 (June 1, 1944), p. 6.
Art Treasures of the Metropolitan: A Selection from the European and Asiatic Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1952, p. 225, no. 84, colorpl. 84.
Giorgio Vigni. Tutta la pittura di Antonello da Messina. Milan, 1952, p. 22, pl. 17, dates it about 1470; comments on its ruined state, noting that at this point it tells us little about Antonello.
Stefano Bottari. Antonello. Milan, 1953, pp. 23, 97, pl. 74 [see Ref. Zeri and Gardner 1973].
Luigi Coletti. Pittura veneta del Quattrocento. Novara, 1953, p. 65, dates it to the artist's Venetian period, after 1475.
Stefano Bottari. Antonello da Messina. Greenwich, Conn., 1955, p. 16, pl. 4.
Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Venetian School. London, 1957, vol. 1, p. 6.
Giorgio Vigni. All the Paintings of Antonello da Messina. New York, 1963, pp. 13, 24, pl. 13.
Raffaello Causa. Antonello da Messina. Milan, 1964, unpaginated.
Gabriele Mandel. L'opera completa di Antonello da Messina. Milan, 1967, p. 91, no. 30, colorpl. 11, dates it 1470 and comments on the compromised state of the picture.
Francis Haskell. "The Benjamin Altman Bequest." Metropolitan Museum Journal 3 (1971), p. 275.
Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 10, 523, 606.
Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Venetian School. New York, 1973, p. 1, pl. 1, observe that this picture was long known as a self-portrait, but that Antonello had not yet achieved such an accomplished style when he was as young as this sitter appears to be; date it about 1470.
Bernard Berenson. Looking at Pictures with Bernard Berenson. Ed. Hanna Kiel. New York, 1974, pp. 252–53, ill. (color).
Maria Grazia Paolini. Storia della Sicilia. Vol. 5, Antonello e la sua scuola. Naples, 1979, p. 32.
Gioacchino Barbera in Antonello da Messina. Exh. cat., Museo Regionale, Messina. Rome, 1981, pp. 109–10, no. 12, ill., discusses the dating.
Jessica Rutherford. "Henry Willett as a Collector." Apollo 115 (March 1982), pp. 178–79, ill.
Fiorella Sricchia Santoro. Antonello e l'Europa. Milan, 1986, pp. 102, 159–60, no. 19, places it in the early 1470s, when Antonello "resolutely took on the problem of Italian formal synthesis".
Joanne Wright in "Antonello the Portraitist." Antonello da Messina. Messina, 1987, pp. 187, 189, fig. 9, calls our picture the "high point of the first phase of Antonello's portraiture" and dates it about 1473.
Ellen Markgraf. Antonello da Messina und die Niederlande. PhD diss., Bochum University. Frankfurt am Main, 1990, pp. 112, 118, fig. 29, dates it about 1470, comparing it with Antonello's other early portraits of this date in the Museo della Fondazione Mandralisca, Céfalu, the Museo Civico Malaspina, Pavia, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art.
Luciana Arbace. Antonello da Messina: catalogo completo dei dipinti. Florence, 1993, pp. 46–47, no. 15, ill. (color), dates it to the beginning of the 1470s.
Dominique Thiébaut. Le Christ à la colonne d'Antonello de Messine. Exh. cat., Musée du Louvre. Paris, 1993, pp. 103–4, ill.
Maryan W. Ainsworth. Petrus Christus: Renaissance Master of Bruges. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, p. 65 n. 79.
Joanne Wright in The Dictionary of Art. Ed. Jane Turner. Vol. 2, New York, 1996, p. 180.
Gioacchino Barbera. Antonello da Messina. Milan, 1998, p. 50, ill. (color).
Chiara Savettieri. Antonello da Messina. Palermo, 1998, pp. 15, 122, no. 3, ill., dates it to the beginning of the 1470s.
Giuseppe Consoli Guardo. Antonello fuori dai luoghi comuni. Milan, 2001, pp. 105, 108, considers it a portrait of Giovanni Bellini, but offers no explanation for this identification.
Andrea Bayer in Antonello da Messina: Sicily's Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, p. 44, no. 5, ill. p. 45 and frontispiece (color), states that Antonello's early portraits, like this one, "are rarely surpassed for the charm and vitality of their sitters"; mentions the impact of Antonello's portraits on Venetian art, and their possible influence on Giovanni Bellini and Jacometto.
Mauro Lucco in Antonello da Messina: l'opera completa. Ed. Mauro Lucco. Exh. cat., Scuderie del Quirinale, Rome. Cinisello Balsamo (Milan), 2006, pp. 164–65, 174, 196, no. 15, ill. (color).
Karen Wilkin. "Antonello da Messina at the Met." New Criterion 24 (February 2006), p. 48.
Maria Clelia Galassi. "Aspects of Antonello da Messina's Technique and Working Method in the 1470s: Between Italian and Flemish Tradition." Cultural Exchange Between the Low Countries and Italy (1400–1600). Ed. Ingrid Alexander-Skipnes. Turnhout, Belgium, 2007, p. 69, based on an email from Dorothy Mahon of June 19, 2002, states that examination of the painting with infrared digital photography has revealed a very faint underdrawing, adding that this indicates that assumptions about the lack of underdrawing on Antonello's panels may sometimes be untrue.
Patricia Rubin in The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Ed. Keith Christiansen and Stefan Weppelmann. Exh. cat., Bode-Museum, Berlin. New York, 2011, p. 6.
Andrea Bayer in The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Ed. Keith Christiansen and Stefan Weppelmann. Exh. cat., Bode-Museum, Berlin. New York, 2011, pp. 335–37, no. 147, ill. (color) [German ed., "Gesichter der Renaissance: Meisterwerke italienischer Portrait-Kunst," Berlin, 2011].
Sabine Hoffmann in The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Ed. Keith Christiansen and Stefan Weppelmann. Exh. cat., Bode-Museum, Berlin. New York, 2011, pp. 282, 340 [German ed., "Gesichter der Renaissance: Meisterwerke italienischer Portrait-Kunst," Berlin, 2011, p. 340].
Andrew Butterfield. "They Clamor for Our Attention." New York Review of Books 59 (March 8, 2012), p. 12, ill. on cover (color).