Giuseppe Richa. Notizie istoriche delle chiese fiorentine. 7, Florence, 1758, p. 35, records an altarpiece in San Niccolò in Cafaggio representing the Madonna and Child flanked by Saints John the Baptist, Matthew, Nicholas, and Benedict, attributing it to Lorenzo di Bicci.
August Schmarsow. Masaccio Studien. 4, 1920 ed. Kassel, 1898, pp. 88–89, as in the Charles Butler collection; ascribes to Masaccio the predella panels of the Quaratesi altarpiece in the Pinacoteca Vaticana, Vatican City [see Notes], and publishes this scene as a copy by a later, less skillful painter.
Mary Logan Berenson. "Opere inedite di Bicci di Lorenzo." Rassegna d'arte 15 (1915), pp. 210–11, ill. p. 209, attributes the MMA panels to Bicci di Lorenzo, associating them with the Madonna and Child from the San Niccolò in Cafaggio altarpiece (Galleria Nazionale, Parma), and noting Bicci's dependence on Gentile da Fabriano's Quaratesi altarpiece.
B[ryson]. B[urroughs]. "A Miracle of Saint Nicholas by Bicci di Lorenzo." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 11 (November 1916), pp. 237–38, ill., says the MMA panels are from the predella of Bicci's 1433 altarpiece, wrongly recording the provenance as a monastery church of San Niccolò at Parma.
Raimond van Marle. "Late Gothic Painting in Tuscany." The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. 9, The Hague, 1927, pp. 16, 18, fig. 10, calls the MMA panels and the scene of Saint Nicholas Rebuking the Tempest (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) part of the predella from the same altarpiece as the Parma Madonna.
M[ario]. S[almi]. in Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti. 6, [Rome], 1930, p. 973, reconstructs the altarpiece, identifying two paintings in the Pinacoteca Stuard, Parma, as the side panels that originally flanked the Parma Madonna.
Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 85, lists the MMA panels as by Bicci.
Antonino Santangelo. "Provincia di Parma." Inventario degli oggetti d'arte d'Italia. 3, Rome, 1934, p. 119, considers the two Stuard panels the wings of the San Niccolò in Cafaggio altarpiece, but observes that the saints represented do not correspond to Richa's description [see Ref. 1758].
Margaretta M. Salinger. Letter to George Sarton. January 3, 1934, believes the marks on the wall are necromancer's tablets or cabalistic signs.
Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 73.
A[rmando]. O[ttaviano]. Quintavalle. La Regia Galleria di Parma. Rome, 1939, p. 168, under no. 456, accepts the reconstruction of the altarpiece that includes the Stuard panels.
Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, pp. 22–23, ill., states that the marks on the wall are probably mystic symbols.
Edward C. Streeter. Letter to Margaretta M. Salinger. [February 21, 1945], identifies the marks on the wall as alchemical symbols.
Walter Paatz and Elisabeth Paatz. Die Kirchen von Florenz. 4, Frankfurt am Main, 1952, pp. 389, 391 n. 19, identify the MMA and Oxford panels as from the predella of the San Niccolò in Cafaggio altarpiece, stating that the side panels are either lost or may be the paintings in the Pinacoteca Stuard.
Richard Krautheimer in collaboration with Trude Krautheimer-Hess. Lorenzo Ghiberti. Princeton, 1956, p. 259 n. 12.
Federico Zeri. "Una precisazione su Bicci di Lorenzo." Paragone 9, no. 105 (1958), pp. 67–71, fig. 46, rejects the connection to the Stuard panels; reconstructs the altarpiece with the Parma Madonna at the center, flanked on the left by Saints Benedict and Nicholas (Museo del Monumento Nazionale della Badia Greca, Grottaferrata) and on the right by Saints John the Baptist and Matthew (MMA, Robert Lehman Collection, 1975.1.68); adds to the predella another panel showing a Miracle of Saint Nicholas of Bari (sale, Christie's, London, July 9, 2003, no. 75 [see Ref.]).
M. Michalska. Studye do Dziejów Wawelu. 2, 1959 [see Ref. Zeri and Gardner 1971], accepts the reconstruction of the altarpiece suggested by Zeri and adds to the predella the scene of Pilgrims at Saint Nicholas' Tomb (Wawel Castle, Kraków).
W. Cohn. "Maestri sconosciuti del Quattrocento fiorentino." Bollettino d'arte 44 (January–March 1959), pp. 61–62, 68 n. 2, accepts Zeri's reconstruction [see Ref. 1958], but identifies the figure on the right of the Lehman painting as Saint John the Evangelist; publishes documents indicating the collaboration of Stefano di Antonio in the execution of the altarpiece (Florence, Archivio di Stato, Convento di San Niccolò Maggiore, vol. 4, c. 1v); attributes 88.3.89, the Parma Madonna, and the Lehman painting to Bicci, assigning this work and the Grottaferrata painting to Stefano di Antonio.
La Peinture italienne des XIVe et XVe siècles. Exh. cat., Musée National de Cracovie. Kraków, 1961, p. 48, under no. 26.
Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Florentine School. London, 1963, vol. 1, p. 30, pl. 507, tentatively connects the MMA and Oxford panels to the Parma Madonna.
Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Florentine School. New York, 1971, pp. 69–72, ill., describe the predella as including the MMA, Oxford, and Kraków panels as well as a scene of the Birth of Saint Nicholas (private collection); state that the marks on the wall are probably alchemists' symbols; identify the saint on the right of the Lehman painting as John the Evangelist
Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 29, 436, 606.
Le choix de l'amateur. Exh. cat., Galerie Heim. Paris, 1974, unpaginated, under no. 5, believes the predella was composed of the MMA and Oxford panels, the Birth of Saint Nicholas (then in the Galerie Heim, Paris), and another scene from the life of the saint in a private collection in New York; identifies the saint on the right of the Lehman painting as Thomas
Federico Zeri. Italian Paintings in the Walters Art Gallery. Baltimore, 1976, vol. 1, p. 33, discusses Bicci's partnership with Stefano di Antonio, noting that they worked together on the altarpiece for San Niccolò in Cafaggio
Christopher Lloyd. A Catalogue of the Earlier Italian Paintings in the Ashmolean Museum. Oxford, 1977, pp. 32–34, repeats Zeri and Gardner's [see Ref. 1971] reconstruction of the predella; mentions a letter of February 12, 1972 in which Zeri revises his 1958 reconstruction [see Ref.] by calling the panel showing a Miracle of Saint of Nicholas part of a different altarpiece.
Francesca Petrucci in La pittura in Italia: il Quattrocento. revised and expanded ed. [Milan], 1987, p. 585, repeats Zeri's 1958 [see Ref.] reconstruction of the predella.
John Pope-Hennessy assisted by Laurence B. Kanter in "Italian Paintings." The Robert Lehman Collection. 1, New York, 1987, p. 173, under no. 73.
Adam S. Labuda in Opus Sacrum. Exh. cat., Royal Castle, Warsaw. Vienna, 1990, pp. 48–49.
Bruno Santi in The Dictionary of Art. 4, New York, 1996, p. 31.
Maria Merlini in "Catalogo delle opere dall'Antico al Cinquecento." Galleria Nazionale di Parma. 1, Milan, 1997, pp. 68–69, records the history of the center panel of the altarpiece upon its sale to Alfonso Tacoli Canacci.
Andrea G. De Marchi in La Spezia, Museo Civico Amedeo Lia: Dipinti. Cinisello Balsamo (Milan), 1997, pp. 64, 66, fig. g, associates two figures of prophets as pinnacles to the altarpiece as well as two figures of Saint Mary of Egypt and the Archangel Michael as elements from the pilasters.
Sonia Chiodo. "Osservazioni su due polittici di Bicci di Lorenzo." Arte cristiana 88 (July–August 2000), pp. 270–72, 276, 280 nn. 21, 25, fig. 3, proposes a reconstruction of the polyptych (fig. 13).
Old Master Pictures. Christie's, London. July 9, 2003, p. 136, under no. 75, ill., accepts Zeri's 1958 [see Ref.] reconstruction of the predella.
Keith Christiansen et al. in Gentile da Fabriano and the Other Renaissance. Exh. cat., Spedale di Santa Maria del Buon Gesù, Fabriano. Milan, 2006, pp. 288–89, no. VI.13b, ill. (color) [Italian ed., "Gentile da Fabriano e l'altro Rinascimento"].
Guido Cornini in Beato Angelico: L'alba del Rinascimento. Exh. cat., Musei Capitolini, Rome. Milan, 2009, p. 202, under no. 24.
The Barbara Piasecka Johnson Collection: Renaissance & Baroque Masterworks. Sotheby's, London. July 8, 2009, p. 10, under no. 1.