"Havemeyer Collection at Metropolitan Museum: Havemeyers Paid Small Sums for Masterpieces." Art News 28 (March 15, 1930), p. 43.
Harry B. Wehle. "The Exhibition of the H. O. Havemeyer Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 25 (March 1930), p. 58, comments that this picture expresses "a morbid inner conflict, a compelling agony of spirit".
"The H. O. Havemeyer Collection." Parnassus 2 (March 1930), p. 7, dates it after Cézanne's "Mont Sainte-Victoire" (MMA 29.100.64) and "Vue de l'Estaque" (MMA 29.100.67), based on execution and coloring, which he calls "a turgid and menacing purple"; comments that Cézanne is "reverting to the romanticism of his youth, and veering away from Poussin in the direction of El Greco".
Frank Jewett Mather Jr. "The Havemeyer Pictures." The Arts 16 (March 1930), pp. 450, 483, suggests that Arthur B. Davies advised Mrs. Havemeyer to purchase her Cézanne paintings.
H. O. Havemeyer Collection: Catalogue of Paintings, Prints, Sculpture and Objects of Art. n.p., 1931, p. 57.
Erle Loran. "Cézanne at the Pennsylvania Museum." American Magazine of Art 28 (February 1935), p. 89, ill., calls it "Rocks and Trees"; states that it was probably painted in the forest of the Château Noir near Aix rather than in Fontainebleau.
Lionello Venturi. Cézanne: son art—son oeuvre. Paris, 1936, vol. 1, p. 209, no. 673; vol. 2, pl. 216, no. 673, dates it 1894–98 and states that it was probably painted at Fontainebleau.
Robert J. Goldwater. "Cézanne in America: The Master's Paintings in American Collections." Art News Annual, section I (The 1938 Annual), 36 (March 26, 1938), p. 158, ill. p. 156, compares it to two similar landscapes from the same period (Museum of Modern Art, New York, V774, R906 and Cleveland Museum of Art, V783, R766).
Albert C. Barnes and Violette De Mazia. The Art of Cézanne. New York, 1939, p. 43 n. 77, p. 419, no. 171, compare its "deep lavender tone" to that of two other works (Musée d'Orsay, Paris, V786, R909 and Kunsthaus Zürich, V674, R776), dating all three pictures to the late 1890s.
Six Masters of Post-Impressionism. Exh. cat., Wildenstein & Co., Inc. New York, 1948, pp. 17, 25, no. 9, ill., dates it 1895–1900.
Meyer Schapiro. Paul Cézanne. 1st ed. New York, 1952, pp. 118–19, ill. (color), dates it 1894–98; notices "a vague human profile in the lower right and physiognomic intimations—a reclining head—in the brighter central rock with scallopped [sic] edge"; compares it to a passage from Flaubert's novel "The Sentimental Education" describing the forest of Fontainebleau.
Lillian Ross. Portrait of Hemingway. New York, 1961, p. 60, recalls Hemingway's remark before this painting at the MMA: "This is what we try to do in writing, this and this, and the woods, and the rocks we have to climb over".
Leopold Reidemeister. Auf den Spuren der Maler der Ile de France. Berlin, 1963, ill. p. 35.
Douglas Cooper. Letter to Margaretta Salinger. March 13, 1964, dates it about 1898, and believes it was painted near the Château Noir, rather than at Fontainebleau; mistakenly refers to our painting as V784, and relates it to a group of similar landscapes: Museum of Modern Art, New York, V774, R906; Henry and Rose Pearlman Foundation, V780, R907; Musée d'Orsay, Paris, V786, R909; Stiftung Langmatt Sidney and Jenny Brown, Baden, V788, R908; and collection H. W. Ritchie, Dallas, V792, R888.
Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 3, XIX–XX Centuries. New York, 1967, p. 117, ill.
Richard W. Murphy et al. The World of Cézanne: 1839–1906. New York, 1968, pp. 90–91, ill. (color, overall and detail).
Frank Elgar. Cézanne. New York, , pp. 175–76, 279, fig. 100.
Chuji Ikegami. Cézanne. Tokyo, 1969, p. 133, no. 54, ill. (color and black and white).
Sandra Orienti in L'opera completa di Cézanne. [French ed., 1975; English ed., 1985]. Milan, 1970, pp. 116–17, no. 691, ill.
John Rewald. Letter to Margaretta Salinger. May 9, 1971, citing Leo Marchutz's assertion that this picture does not represent the area around the Château Noir, rejects Cooper's [Ref. 1964] opinion that it does.
Adrien Chappuis. The Drawings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné. Greenwich, Conn., 1973, vol. 1, p. 263, under no. 1155, compares it to a landscape sketch (1889–92; collection Edmée Maus, Geneva) which includes "a smooth-surfaced rock, often seen by the artist both in Fontainebleau Forest and the Aix countryside".
Meyer Schapiro. P. Cézanne. Paris, 1973, unpaginated, colorpl. 36, dates it 1894–98.
René Huyghe Lydie Huyghe in La Relève du réel: la peinture française au XIXe siècle: impressionnisme, symbolisme. Paris, 1974, p. 436, fig. 182, date it 1894–98 and believe it represents the forest of Fontainebleau.
Theodore Reff in Cézanne: The Late Work. Ed. William Rubin. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1977, pp. 22–23, ill., states that it was "probably painted at Fontainebleau in 1894"; describes the mood of the picture as "somber and hermetic".
John Rewald in Cézanne: The Late Work. Ed. William Rubin. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1977, p. 389, no. 8, pl. 67 [French ed., "Cézanne, les dernières années (1895–1906)," Paris, 1978, pp. 156–58, no. 58, ill.], dates it 1893–94; observes that the color (which is different from the chromatism of the Château Noir paintings), the "cold blue light," and the straight horizon line seen at left all point to a Northern motif, and states that "Cézanne is known to have worked at Fontainebleau around 1893".
Donald E. Gordon. "The Expressionist Cézanne." Artforum 16 (March 1978), p. 38, ill., dates it about 1893.
Douglas Cooper. "Masters, Maniacs & Magna-opera." Books and Bookmen 24 (April 1979), p. 30, repeats his assertion that this picture was painted near Aix, rather than at Fontainebleau [see Ref. Cooper 1964], and dates it 1897.
Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, p. 430, fig. 796 (color), tentatively dates it about 1898 and identifies the location as "presumably in the south, near the Château Noir".
François Duret-Robert. "New York—Bordeaux." Connaissance des arts no. 353 (July 1981), p. 76, ill. (color), dates it about 1897.
John Pope-Hennessy in Profil du Metropolitan Museum of Art de New York: de Ramsès à Picasso. Exh. cat., Galerie des Beaux-Arts. Bordeaux, 1981, pp. 28, 97, no. 116, ill. (color and black and white).
Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 202–3, 254, ill. (color).
Gary Tinterow et al. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 8, Modern Europe. New York, 1987, pp. 9, 55, colorpl. 34, date it about 1893; call it an "artificial, generated space" and compare it to Picasso's "Still Life" (MMA 49.70.33) and Braque's "Le guéridon" (MMA 1979.481).
Ann Dumas in Sarah Faunce and Linda Nochlin. Courbet Reconsidered. Exh. cat., Brooklyn Museum. Brooklyn, 1988, p. 141, under no. 36, relates it to Courbet's earlier "The Fringe of the Forest" (Philadelphia Museum of Art), suggesting that both works may depict a view from the forest of Fontainebleau.
Richard Kendall, ed. Cézanne by Himself: Drawings, Paintings, Writings. London, 1988, pp. 218, 316, ill. (color), dates it about 1894–98.
John Rewald with the research assistance of Frances Weitzenhoffer. Cézanne and America: Dealers, Collectors, Artists and Critics, 1891–1921. The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, Princeton, 1989, p. 128 n. 44, pp. 311, 349, fig. 158, dates it 1893–94.
Susan Alyson Stein in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 285.
Gary Tinterow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 47, colorpl. 52.
Gretchen Wold in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 303–4, no. A79, ill.
Michael Kimmelman. "At the Met with Elizabeth Murray: Looking for the Magic in Painting." New York Times (October 21, 1994), p. C28, relates that Murray sees "a human profile and sexual allusions in the outlines of the rocks" as well as ambiguous passages in this picture.
Maria Teresa Benedetti. Cézanne. [Italian ed., 1995]. Paris, 1995, pp. 170, 212, ill. (color), dates it 1894–98 and states that it represents an impenetrable terrain full of obstacles.
Joseph J. Rishel in Cézanne. Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris. Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 381–83, 486, no. 158, ill. (color) [French ed., Paris, 1995], dates it about 1893, in agreement with Rewald [Ref. 1996].
Walter Feilchenfeldt in Cézanne. Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris. Philadelphia, 1996, p. 574 [French ed., Paris, 1995].
Richard Schiff. "Dense Cézanne." Apollo 143 (June 1996), pp. 53–54, colorpl. 1, dates it about 1893.
John Rewald, in collaboration with Walter Feilchenfeldt, and Jayne Warman. The Paintings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné. New York, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 469–70, 532–33, 568–73, no. 775; vol. 2, p. 268, fig. 775, calls it "Rochers à Fontainebleau" and dates it about 1893; rejects the suggestion that it was painted near the Château Noir [see Refs. Cooper 1964 and 1979]; relates it to "Rochers dans le bois" (about 1893; Kunsthaus Zurich; V674, R776), "Intérieur de forêt" (1898–99; Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; V784, R905), and "Pins et rochers (Fontainebleau?)" (about 1897; Museum of Modern Art, New York; V774, R906).
Pavel Machotka. Cézanne: Landscape into Art. New Haven, 1996, pp. xiv, 26–27, 92–94, 102, fig. 62 (color), dates it 1897–98, based on the overlapping patches of color, which appear closer to Cézanne's style at the end of the nineteenth century and derive from his watercolor technique; reproduces a photograph of a section of the Fontainebleau forest that he believes must be close to the site of this picture; identifies the trees as Scotch pines, a relatively recent introduction to the forest.
Gary Tinterow in La collection Havemeyer: Quand l'Amérique découvrait l'impressionnisme. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 1997, pp. 71–72, 106, no. 38, ill., dates it about 1893–94.
Friedrich Teja Bach in Cézanne: Finished, Unfinished. Ed. Simon Lèbe. Exh. cat., Kunstforum Wien. 2000, pp. 79–80, fig. 28, dates it about 1893; interprets the thin tree trunk in front of the central sharp-edged rock as a gesture of self-assertion and individuality.
Mary Tompkins Lewis. Cézanne. London, 2000, p. 297, fig. 185 (color), dates it about 1894–95.
Chiao-Mei Liu. Cézanne: La série de Château Noir. PhD diss., Université de Paris. Villeneuve d'Ascq, 2001, pp. 82, 84–85, 87, 320, fig. 45.
Guy Cogeval in Right under the Sun: Landscape in Provence from Classicism to Modernism (1750–1920). Ed. Guy Cogeval and Marie-Paule Vial. Exh. cat., Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. Montreal, 2005, pp. 176–77, 249, no. 34, ill. (color), notes that whether it depicts the Fontainebleau forest or Château Noir area, "it is heavily impregnated with the abstract, jerky rhythms that Cézanne drew from his native Provence in the 1890s".
Jayne S. Warman in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Ed. Rebecca A. Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, p. 340 n. 3, under no. 36, identifies this picture among the seven Cézannes shipped to the Havemeyers by Vollard on June 5, 1901.
Philip Conisbee in Philip Conisbee and Denis Coutagne. Cézanne in Provence. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2006, pp. 198–200, fig. 14 (color), calls it "Rocks at Fontainebleau" and dates it about 1893–95.
Kimberly Jones in Kimberly Jones. In the Forest of Fontainebleau: Painters and Photographers from Corot to Monet. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2008, p. 27, fig. 32 (color).
Jayne S. Warman in Gail Stavitsky and Katherine Rothkopf. Cézanne and American Modernism. Exh. cat., Montclair Art Museum. Montclair, 2009, p. 88 n. 34.
Emily Schuchardt Navratil in Gail Stavitsky and Katherine Rothkopf. Cézanne and American Modernism. Exh. cat., Montclair Art Museum. Montclair, 2009, p. 361.