Edward Grosvenor Paine. Inventory of the miniatures in the Fredrick collection. 1960, p. 8, no. 57, calls it possibly Spanish, and dates it about 1640.
Graham Reynolds with the assistance of Katharine Baetjer. European Miniatures in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1996, pp. 182–83, no. 241, ill., date it about 1630 and note that the pendant cross indicates that the sitter, who might be Flemish, is a Roman Catholic.