H. Kervyn de Lettenhove et al. Les chefs-d'oeuvre d'art ancien à l'exposition de la Toison d'or à Bruges en 1907. Brussels, 1908, p. 80, no. 179, pl. 37, find this picture stylistically closer to the Merode triptych in spite of its attribution to Jan van Eyck in the exhibition catalogue.
Émile Durand-Gréville. Hubert et Jean van Eyck. Brussels, 1910, pp. 117–19, ill. opp. p. 118, notes that the painting's owner has the courage to attribute it to Hubert van Eyck; supports this attribution and compares the sitter's costume to that of Jodocus Vijd in the Ghent Altarpiece; dates the panel shortly before 1426.
Max J. Friedländer. Von Eyck bis Bruegel: Studien zur Geschichte der Niederländischen Malerei. Berlin, 1916, pp. 39, 176, attributes it to Dieric Bouts.
Martin Conway. The Van Eycks and Their Followers. London, 1921, pp. 163–64, includes it in a group of early works by Dieric Bouts, painted before 1447.
Max J. Friedländer. "Dierick Bouts und Joos van Gent." Die altniederländische Malerei. 3, Berlin, 1925, pp. 45, 107, no. 10, pl. 17, finds it a highly individual head, almost in the spirit of Jan van Eyck; places it fairly early in Bouts's career, noting that the haircut supports this.
Frits Lugt. Collection Warneck: Tableaux anciens et modernes. Galerie Georges Petit. May 27–28, 1926, p. 15, no. 2, ill., accepts Friedländer's [Refs. 1916 and 1925] attribution to Dieric Bouts.
Max J. Friedländer in The Michael Friedsam Collection. [completed 1928], p. 145, as a masterpiece of Thierry Bouts in a wonderful state of preservation.
Belvedere 8 (1929), ill. opp. p. 464 (pl. 40), as by Dieric Bouts.
Franz Dülberg. Niederländische Malerei der Spätgotik und Renaissance. Potsdam, 1929, p. 71.
Sidney P. Noe. "Flemish Primitives in New York." American Magazine of Art 21 (January 1930), pp. 36–37, ill. p. 34.
"Friedsam Bequest to be Exhibited Next November." Art News 30 (January 2, 1932), p. 13.
Ludwig von Baldass. "Die Entwicklung des Dirk Bouts." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, n.s., 6 (1932), pp. 100, 104, 108–9, 114, fig. 95, considers it a work from Bouts's late period, although he finds it stylistically close to a group of pictures that Karl Voll (in Altniederländische Malerei, Leipzig, 1905) attributed to the "Master of the Pearl of Brabant" [an artist he saw as responsible for the Adoration triptych—known as The Pearl of Brabant—in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich, and other works usually given to Bouts's late career].
Bryson Burroughs and Harry B. Wehle. "The Michael Friedsam Collection: Paintings." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27, section 2 (November 1932), pp. 16–17, no. 15, ill., as by Dieric Bouts.
Wolfgang Schöne. Dieric Bouts und seine Schule. Berlin, 1938, pp. 39–41, 170, no. 53, pl. 59, rejects the attribution to Bouts and ascribes it to the painter responsible for the Betrayal of Christ and Resurrection in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich; compares the head with that of the man in the spiked helmet, just above Saint Peter, in the Betrayal; dates the Munich panels between 1455 and 1465 and places our portrait in the same period, or (in his catalogue entry) about 1460.
Harry B. Wehle and Margaretta Salinger. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Early Flemish, Dutch and German Paintings. New York, 1947, pp. 16–17, ill., attribute it to a follower of Jan van Eyck from the middle of the fifteenth century, observing that the sitter is not "inward-looking" in the manner of Bouts's subjects; date this picture between 1430 and 1450 on the basis of his costume and haircut; note that x-rays reveal the hand of a patron saint resting on the sitter's shoulder, evidence that the portrait was cut from a larger panel.
J. Francotte. Dieric Bouts: Zijn Kunst—zijn laatste Avondmaal. Louvain, 1951, pp. 51, 183, pl. 30, as by Bouts, dates it about 1460.
Dieric Bouts. Exh. cat., Palais des Beaux-Arts. Brussels, [1957?], pp. 40–41, no. 10, ill., as by Bouts; notes that there are surviving portraits that postdate 1450 in which men wear their hair cut above the ears.
Erik Larsen. Les primitifs flamands au Musée Metropolitain de New York. Utrecht, 1960, pp. 34–35, 108, attributes it to an anonymous fifteenth-century follower of the Van Eycks.
Max J. Friedländer et al. "Dieric Bouts and Joos van Gent." Early Netherlandish Painting. 3, New York, 1968, pp. 28, 60–61, 87 n. 32, no. 10, pl. 19, as by Bouts; suggests a relatively early date.
Sylvia Hochfield. "Conservation: The Need is Urgent." Art News 75 (February 1976), p. 26, ill., illustrates the picture before and after the 1949 cleaning, when the background figure was revealed.
Colin Eisler. "European Schools Excluding Italian." Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. 4, London, 1977, p. 54.
Lorne Campbell. Unpublished text for MMA Bulletin. 1981, suggests that the presenting saint is John the Baptist; notes that the style shows some similarity to Albert van Ouwater's "Raising of Lazarus" in the Berlin Museum [Staatliche Museen, Berlin] and suggests that it may be from his circle, possibly executed about 1450.
Guy Bauman. "Early Flemish Portraits, 1425–1525." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 43 (Spring 1986), p. 16, ill. (color), rejects Friedländer's [see Refs. 1916, 1925] attribution to Dieric Bouts; notes stylistic similarities to Ouwater's "Raising of Lazarus," and ascribes the portrait to a "very gifted follower of Ouwater in Bouts's circle, probably before 1450".
Peter Klein. "Dendrochronological Findings of the Van Eyck–Christus–Bouts Group." Petrus Christus in Renaissance Bruges: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York, 1995, p. 152, gives 1437 as the estimated felling date for the tree from which this panel was cut.
James Snyder in The Dictionary of Art. 4, New York, 1996, p. 593, ascribes it to Dieric Bouts.
Peter Klein. Letter. May 13, 1997, suggests "from 1447 upwards" as a probable date of creation for this picture.
Maryan W. Ainsworth. "A Meeting of Sacred and Secular Worlds." From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1998, pp. 156–57, no. 24, ill. (color), catalogues it as "Circle of Dieric Bouts" and dates it about 1460–65 on the basis of the man's costume; notes that an attribution to the young Bouts should not be ruled out, although his heads are usually more elongated; calls the patron saint probably John the Baptist.
Catheline Périer-d'Ieteren. Dieric Bouts: The Complete Works. Brussels, 2006, pp. 194, 201–2, 205–6, 343, no. A6, ill. p. 343 and fig. 189 (color), includes it in a group of five works, including the Adoration triptych in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich, that she attributes to Bouts and the Master of the Munich Betrayal [see Schöne 1938].