Charles Lock Eastlake. Notebook entry. September 1, 1862, vol. 1, fol. 10r [National Gallery Archive, London, NG 22/30: 1862 (I); published in Walpole Society 73 (2011), vol. 1, p. 596], records seeing it at the Villa Frizzoni, Bellagio; describes it and reproduces the inscription, wondering whether the initials refer to Hans Holbein.
Giovanni Morelli. Elenco dei Quadri componenti la Galleria del Signor Federico Frizzoni. n.d., no. 24 [private collection, Bergamo; published in Jaynie Anderson, "Frizzoneria in Bergamo," in Ex Fumo Lucem: Baroque Studies in Honour of Klára Garas, Budapest, 1999], as "Ritratto d'uomo" by Scuola Tedesca, with the observation "Holbein d. J. Coll a cifra H. H. 1493" [sic].
M. D. Henkel. "Versteigerung der Sammlung Schloß Nyenrode." Kunstchronik und Kunstmarkt no. 37/38 (June 15–22, 1923), p. 687, calls it an upper German work; relates it to a portrait of a girl in the Speck von Sternburg collection.
Primitifs néerlandais et maîtres des XVIe et XVIIe siècles: Collection du château de Nijenrode. Frederik Muller, Amsterdam. July 10, 1923, p. 7, no. 13, ill., records Friedländer's opinion that it is a South German work, probably by a Franconian painter.
Max J. Friedländer. Letter to Harry B. Wehle. January 15, 1924, calls it certainly south German, but very advanced for 1491, perhaps indicating contact with Venice; rejects the initials, suggesting that they were added later as a false Holbein signature.
August L. Mayer. Letter to Harry B. Wehle. January 21, 1924, considers it by a painter from the region near Frankfurt am Main, or even from the middle Rhine, but not from Nuremberg.
H[arry]. B. W[ehle]. "A German Portrait of 1491." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 19 (March 1924), pp. 61–63, ill., calls the inscribed date genuine, and states that the initials seem to date from about the same time; believes the picture is probably by a Nuremberg painter, and suggests "the unidentified artist . . . who painted the four best scenes of the Peringsdörffer altar now in the Germanic Museum, Nuremberg".
"Dans les galeries d'Amérique." Bulletin de l'art no. 704 (January 1924), pp. 136–37, ill., calls it certainly South German; thinks that it seems slightly later than its date of 1491; accepts Wehle's [see Ref. 1924] attribution.
Friedrich Winkler. Letter to Harry B. Wehle. February 3, 1930, acknowledges, after seeing a photograph of this painting, that it appears superior to the version in the upcoming Vieweg sale, but prefers to withhold judgment as he has not seen the actual painting itself.
Sammlung Vieweg Braunschweig. Rudolph Lepke's Kunst-Auctions-Haus, Berlin. March 18, 1930, p. 44, under no. 35, mentions it in the entry for another version of the composition attributed to a South German painter and dated about 1500; believes the two works are by the same painter; calls the Vieweg picture close to the young Dürer, noting that the MMA work had been incorrectly attributed to the Master of the Benedict Series in Darmstadt, sometimes identified with the young Dürer.
F[riedrich]. Winkler. "Die Sammlung Vieweg: I. Gemälde." Pantheon 5 (January–June 1930), p. 79, notes that in the Vieweg catalogue the MMA and Vieweg pictures are attributed to the same painter.
Bryson Burroughs. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Catalogue of Paintings. 9th ed. New York, 1931, p. 234, ill. opp. 241, attributes it to Master H. H., "an unknown South German master, probably Franconian".
Hans Tietze. Meisterwerke europäischer Malerei in Amerika. Vienna, 1935, p. 338, pl. 199 [English ed., "Masterpieces of European Painting in America," New York, 1939, p. 322, pl. 199], as South German school on p. 338, and as Franconian school in the plate caption.
Charles L. Kuhn. A Catalogue of German Paintings of the Middle Ages and Renaissance in American Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1936, p. 53, no. 194, pl. XXXVI, includes it among works of the Franconian school and states that it is probably by a Nuremberg painter; believes that the initials are a later addition, perhaps from the mid-sixteenth century; calls the Vieweg version a replica.
Erwin Panofsky. Letter to Margaretta Salinger. December 1, 1940, calls it "probably Upper-Rhenish or possibly Swiss"; thinks the initials are a well-intentioned addition of the later sixteenth century.
Juan Zocchi. Grünewald: Vida y arte paralelos espirituales. Buenos Aires, 1944, pl. 16, includes it among works by Grünewald.
Harry B. Wehle and Margaretta Salinger. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Early Flemish, Dutch and German Paintings. New York, 1947, pp. 174–75, ill., attribute it to the Master of the Augustine Altarpiece; see the influence of Flemish painting, especially a portrait by Bouts of 1462 (National Gallery, London); state that the Vieweg picture is by a different artist.
Millia Davenport. The Book of Costume. New York, 1948, vol. 1, p. 340, no. 891, ill. (cropped).
Ernst Buchner. Das Deutsche Bildnis der Spätgotik und der Frühen Dürerzeit. Berlin, 1953, pp. 133–34, 210, no. 148, pl. 148, sees no direct connection with the Master of the Augustine Altarpiece, proposing instead an attribution to the Master of the Darmstadt Passion and Legend Scenes (Master of the Legend of Saint Dominic), who he thinks was active in Strasbourg, suggesting a comparison of the MMA painting with a fragment of the Darmstadt Crucifixion in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich; calls the Vieweg portrait a simplified repetition by a different hand.
Alfred Stange. Deutsche Malerei der Gotik. Vol. 7, Oberrhein, Bodensee, Schweiz und Mittelrhein in der Zeit von 1450 bis 1500. Munich, 1955, p. 27, pl. 49, rejects the attribution to the Master of the Legend of Saint Dominic [see Ref. Buchner 1953], assigning this work and three others to the Master of the Benda Madonna (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna).
Alfred Stange. Kritisches Verzeichnis der deutschen Tafelbilder vor Dürer. Ed. Norbert Lieb. Vol. 2, Oberrhein, Bodensee, Schweiz, Mittelrhein, Ulm, Augsburg, Allgäu, Nördlingen, von der Donau zum Neckar. Munich, 1970, pp. 44–45, no. 133.
Albrecht Dürer, 1471–1971. Exh. cat., Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg. Munich, 1971, pp. 99–100, no. 167, ill. p. 102, attributes it to an Upper Rhenish painter, seeing similarities to the Master of the Augustine Altarpiece and adding that the connection with the Master of the Legend of Saint Dominic must still be clarified.
Geerd Westrum. Altdeutsche Malerei. Munich, 1979, pp. 61–62, ill., attributes it to the Master of the Augustine Altarpiece.