Max J. Friedländer. "De Verzameling von Kaufmann te Berlijn." Onze Kunst 10 (July–December 1906), p. 34, considers it unlikely to be a self-portrait and suggests that the initials on the hat could stand for "Jesus Maria".
Ernst Weisz. Jan Gossart gen. Mabuse: Sein Leben und Seine Werke. Parchim i. M., Germany, 1913, pp. 84–85, 115 n. 66, 117, pl. 18, fig. 54, calls it "Herrenporträt" and dates it about 1520–25; considers the monogram J.M. on the hat likely to stand for "Jesus Maria"; compares the treatment of the hand holding an inscribed document with that of Jan van Eyck's "Tymotheos" in the National Gallery, London.
Max J. Friedländer. Von Eyck bis Bruegel: Studien zur Geschichte der Niederländischen Malerei. Berlin, 1916, p. 187.
T[ancred]. B[orenius]. "Monthly Chronicle: The Kaufmann Sale." Burlington Magazine 32 (January 1918), p. 36, no. 91.
Achille Ségard. Jean Gossart dit Mabuse. Brussels, 1924, pp. 178, no. 11, ill. opp. p. 136, calls it Portrait of a Man.
Max J. Friedländer in The Michael Friedsam Collection. [completed 1928], p. 121, as a self-portrait.
Max J. Friedländer. Die altniederländische Malerei. Vol. 8, Jan Gossart Bernart van Orley. Berlin, 1930, p. 161, no. 63, pl. 47, as Portrait of a Man.
Bryson Burroughs and Harry B. Wehle. "The Michael Friedsam Collection: Paintings." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27, section 2 (November 1932), pp. 26–28, ill., identify it tentatively as a self-portrait; observe that the type of the signature indicates that the painting dates after 1516.
"Sir Joshua Reynolds' Collection of Pictures—III." Burlington Magazine 87 (November 1945), p. 263, lists it with works from the Reynolds sale, giving buyer and price information.
Harry B. Wehle and Margaretta Salinger. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Early Flemish, Dutch and German Paintings. New York, 1947, pp. 141–42, ill., comment that "it has not the look of a self-portrait," suggesting, nevertheless, that the monogram on the hat probably stands for "Ioannes Malbodius".
Erik Larsen. Les primitifs flamands au Musée Metropolitain de New York. Utrecht, 1960, pp. 88–89, 130, fig. 32, doubts it is a self-portrait; suggests that the monogram on the sitter's hat may indicate that he was guild doyen for the year, having drawn the winning wax ball marked with J M for "Jesus Maria" from the traditional guild lottery.
H. Pauwels, H. R. Hoetink, and S. Herzog. Jean Gossaert dit Mabuse. Exh. cat., Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen. [Bruges], , pp. 65–66, no. 4, ill., states that the sitter bears no resemblance to the portraits of Gossart engraved by Hondius, Wiericz and Galle, all of which derive from the same prototype; finds it credible that the initials on the hat might relate to guild status as explained in Ref. Larsen 1960.
Sadja Jacob Herzog. "Jan Gossart, called Mabuse (ca. 1478–1532): A Study of his Chronology with a Catalogue of his Works." PhD diss., Bryn Mawr College, 1968, vol. 2, pp. 238–39, no. 14; vol. 3, fig. 18, based on the vertical format, crowded subject, expressionless face, and dark background, places this portrait with Gossaert's early portraits, before about 1516; the latinized signature, however, suggests to her that the portrait cannot date much earlier than 1516.
Lorne Campbell. Unpublished text for MMA Bulletin. 1981, tentatively dates this portrait to the 1520s; believes the letters on the sitter's hat are likely to stand for "Iesus Maria" and to be a mark of the sitter's piety.
Guy Bauman. "Early Flemish Portraits, 1425–1525." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 43 (Spring 1986), pp. 42, 48, ill. (color), places it during the first half of the 1520's and believes the letters on the hat ornament are most likely an abbreviation for "the common Christian invocation 'Ihesus Maria'"; sees the portrait as a conscious revival of Eyckian models such as Jan's "Tymotheos" of 1432 [National Gallery, London].
Introduction by Walter A. Liedtke in Flemish Paintings in America: A Survey of Early Netherlandish and Flemish Paintings in the Public Collections of North America. Antwerp, 1992, pp. 24, 338, no. 255, ill.
Véronique Sintobin in From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Ed. Maryan W. Ainsworth and Keith Christiansen. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1998, pp. 69, 74, 190–91, no. 39, ill. (color)
, dates it 1520–25.
Ariane Mensger. Jan Gossaert: Die niederländische Kunst zu Beginn der Neuzeit. Berlin, 2002, p. 160, fig. 88.
Maryan W. Ainsworth in Man, Myth, and Sensual Pleasures: Jan Gossart's Renaissance. Ed. Maryan W. Ainsworth. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2010, pp. 69–70, 81, 86 n. 1, 252, 256–58, 268, no. 44, ill. (color) and fig. 6G (color detail).