A. R. von Perger. Die Kunstschätze Wien's in Stahlstich nebst erläuterndem Text. Trieste, 1854, p. 82, mentions two portraits of men in the Schönborn collection [our portrait and one now in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, representing a member of the same family].
G. Parthey. "A–K." Deutscher Bildersaal. 1, Berlin, 1863, p. 608, lists under Holbein, nos. 21 and 22, the two portraits of men in the Schönborn collection, Vienna.
G. F. Waagen. Die vornehmsten Kunstdenkmäler in Wien. part 1, Vienna, 1866, pp. 313–14.
Alfred Woltmann. Holbein und seine Zeit. 2, Leipzig, 1868, pp. 230–31, suggests that the portraits from the Schönborn collection represent Englishmen who favored the Reformation, and that the book shown here with the piece of paper inscribed "Veritas odium ponit [sic]" may be one of those writings which the German Reformation was exporting to England at the time.
W. Bürger [Théophile Thoré]. "Nouvelles études sur la Galerie Suermondt à Aix-la-Chapelle." Gazette des beaux-arts, 2nd ser., 1 (1869), p. 16, notes that the two portraits from the Schönborn collection [see Ref. Parthey 1863] were there in 1746 and adds that each sitter wears a ring bearing the same coat of arms; reports that the other portrait [now in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin] was recently acquired by the Suermondt collection.
Carl von Lützow. "Ergebnisse der Dresdener Holbein-Austellung." Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst 6 (1871), p. 350, states that the two Holbeins from the Schönborn collection were exhibited in Munich in 1869.
Alfred Woltmann. Holbein and his Time. London, 1872, pp. 358–59.
Alfred Woltmann. "Des Kunstlers Familie, Leben und Schaffen." Holbein und seine Zeit. , 2nd rev. ed. Leipzig, 1874, p. 369, refers to this portrait and the related work in Berlin as pendants and discusses them among Holbein's likenesses of German merchants of the Steelyard in London.
Alfred Woltmann. "Excurse, Beilagen, Verzeichnisse der Werke von Hans Holbein d. Ä., Ambrosius Holbein, Hans Holbein d. J." Holbein und seine Zeit. 2, 2nd rev. ed. Leipzig, 1876, p. 155, no. 262, notes that both sitters have the same coat of arms on their signet rings.
Julius Meyer and Wilhelm Bode. Beschreibendes Verzeichniss der während des umbaues ausgestellten Gemälde. Berlin, 1878, p. 167, under no. 586C, refers to the Berlin and Schönborn Holbeins as pendants.
Paul Mantz. Hans Holbein. Paris, , p. 191.
L. Scheibler and W. Bode. Beschreibendes Verzeichniss der Gemälde. 2nd ed. Berlin, 1883, p. 207, under no. 586C, note that according to Privy Councilor Dielitz, the coats of arms on the signet rings are those of the Trelawnay family of England, but that Woltmann thinks the two sitters are merchants of the Stahlhof.
W[ilhelm von]. Bode. "La Renaissance au musée de Berlin." Gazette des beaux-arts, 2nd ser., 35 (1887), p. 442, mentions it as a pendant to the related portrait in the Berlin Gemäldegalerie, and identifies the sitter in the latter as a member of the Trelawnay family.
Th. Frimmel. "Kunsthistorisches: Zwei Bildnisse von Hans Holbein d. J." Kunstchronik [in Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst] 22 (1887), cols. 379–80, identifies the coats of arms on the rings in the two portraits as those of the Wedigh family of Cologne; believes the classical inscription may be an indication that the book is by Pietro Aretino, to whom he attributes this device.
J. J. Merlo. "Die Bildnisse der Gebrüder Wedigh aus Köln, von Hans Holbein dem Jüngern gemalt." Kölnischen Volkszeitung 28, no. 117 (April 29, 1887 (morning edition)), unpaginated, front page, using the family tree in Anton Fahne's "Geschichte der Kölnischen, Jülichschen und Bergischen Geschlechter," vol. 1, Cologne, 1848, p. 445, and based on the inscription "HER WID," suggests that the sitter's name was Hermann, a name that appears in all generations of the Wedigh family (also spelled Widigh and Wedich); finds it impossible to suggest an identification for the Wedigh in the Berlin picture, but believes both sitters were the sons of Heinrich von Wedigh; remarks that Heinrich's house in Cologne—Falkenstein—lodged Frederick the Wise and John the Constant during the 1505 Reichstag in Cologne.
Theodor von Frimmel. "Galerie des Grafen Schönborn-Buchheim: Hans Holbein der Jüngere, Bildniss von Hermann Wedig." Wiener Galerien 6. Lieferung (1888), unpaginated, ill. [reprinted as "Das Wedigh-Bildnis von Hans Holbein dem Jüngeren in der Wiener Galerie Schönborn-Puchheim [sic]," in Von alter und neuer Kunst: Ausgewählte kunstgeschichtliche Aufsätze, Vienna, 1922, pp. 48–49, ill. opp. p. 48], identifies the sitter as Hermann Wedig, probably one of the German merchants active in London's Stahlhof.
Klassischer Bilderschatz. 1, Munich, 1889, p. XIV, no. 94, ill., erroneously illustrate it as a self-portrait of Holbein at the age of 29.
Theodor von Frimmel. "Die gräflich Schönborn-Buchheim'sche Gemäldesammlung in Wien." Kleine Galeriestudien. n.s., 3. lieferung, Leipzig, 1896, pp. 41–43, no. 41, reiterates his belief that the sitter is a member of the Wedigh family of Cologne, probably Hermann Wedigh.
Bernard Berenson. Letter to Isabella Stewart Gardner. December 10, 1897, recommends this portrait to Mrs. Gardner for purchase, calling it "the best, the very best [Holbein], to be had at all," and in "perfect preservation".
H. Knackfuss. Holbein. Bielefeld, 1899, p. 132, fig. 118, as a portrait of a German merchant in London "conceived in a sympathetic and simple manner".
Hermann Freytag. "Das Bildnis eines Danzigers, von Hans Holbein gemalt." Zeitschrift des westpreussischen Geschichtsvereins no. 40 (1899), p. 108, identifies a group of six Steelyard portraits by Holbein, including our picture, then in the Schönborn collection.
Gerald S. Davies. Hans Holbein the Younger. London, 1903, p. 216, as "Portrait of a Young Man"; notes that the ring is said to show the same coat of arms as the Berlin portrait, identified as those of the Cornish family of Trelawney.
François Benoit. Holbein. Paris, , p. 159.
forward by [Wilhelm von] Bode. Beschreibendes Verzeichnis der Gemälde im Kaiser Friedrich-Museum. 6th ed. Berlin, 1906, pp. 177–78, under no. 586B, calls the Berlin picture "Portrait of a Young Man," but in the text identifies the sitter as Hermann Hillebrandt Wedigh and the sitter in the Schönborn gallery "pendant" as one of his brothers.
Salomon Reinach. Répertoire de peintures du moyen age et de la renaissance (1280–1580). 2, Paris, 1907, p. 317, ill. (engraving).
Paul Ganz. Hans Holbein d. J.: Des Meisters Gemälde. Stuttgart, 1912, pp. 240, 257, ill. p. 97.
Arthur B. Chamberlain. Hans Holbein the Younger. London, 1913, vol. 2, pp. 15–17, considers the sitters in the related "companion" portraits brothers or near relations from the Wedigh family, identifying the Berlin subject as Hermann Hillebrandt Wedigh.
H. Knackfuß. Holbein der Jüngere. 5th German ed. Bielefeld, 1914, p. 127, fig. 126.
Wilhelm Geelen. "Mitteilungen über Porträts des Kölner Patriciergeschlechts von Wedigh und Unterlagen zur Bestimmung derselben." Beiträge zur Kölnischen Geschichte, Sprache, Eigenart 2, parts 10–11 (January 1917), pp. 178–80, 194, ill. p. 177, identifies our sitter as Hermann III von Wedigh "zu den Kannegeißern," who married Sophia Hörners, was a "Schöffe" [judge?] in Niedrich in 1557, later "Ratsherr" [city councilor] in Cologne, and died in 1560 or after 1567; believes the "H. H." on the book cover stands for Hermann Hermannsohn and suggests that the Latin inscription is the device of either the sitter or of the Wedigh family; does not believe there is enough evidence to identify the Berlin sitter with Hermann Hillebrandt Wedigh.
H. A. Schmid in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. 17, Leipzig, 1924, p. 349.
"Summer Loan Exhibitions." Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 18 (September 1924), ill. p. 79.
W. A. P. "Loan Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Frank D. Stout." Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 18 (October 1924), p. 90.
Malcolm Vaughan. "Holbein Portraits in America." International Studio 88 (November 1927), pp. 23–24, ill.
Frederick Bentz. "Holbein's Technique." Burlington Magazine 51 (August 1927), pp. 67–68, discusses the technique as seen in his examination of this portrait with a microscope.
Wilhelm Stein. Holbein. Berlin, 1929, pp. 226–28, fig. 86, identifies the sitter as "a Wedigh from Cologne," the brother of Hermann Hillebrandt Wedigh, whose portrait is in Berlin.
Daniel Catton Rich. "Die Ausstellung 'Fünf Jahrhunderte der Frühmalerei' in Chicago." Pantheon 12 (1933), p. 372, ill. p. 375.
Paul Ganz. "The Castle Howard Portrait of Henry VIII." Burlington Magazine 64 (February 1934), p. 85, notes that in this portrait Holbein placed "two single H's on the prayer-book by way of ornament".
Charles L. Kuhn. A Catalogue of German Paintings of the Middle Ages and Renaissance in American Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1936, p. 81, no. 360, pl. 74, as "Portrait of a Member of the Wedigh Family" in the collection of Mrs. Frank D. Stout; believes this is likely a pendant to the Berlin portrait of "Hermann Wedigh".
Wilhelm Waetzoldt. Hans Holbein der Jüngere: Werk und Welt. Berlin, 1938, p. 174, pl. 83, identifies the sitter as "Hans Wedigh".
George Henry McCall. Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture from 1300–1800: Masterpieces of Art. Exh. cat., World's Fair. New York, 1939, p. 95, no. 197, pl. 43.
Paul Wescher. Grosskaufleute der Renaissance: In Biographien und Bildnissen. Basel, 1941?, p. 187, ill. p. 151.
Alfred Leroy. Hans Holbein et son temps. Paris, 1943, p. 170, as a portrait of a member of the Wedigh family of Cologne.
Harry B. Wehle and Margaretta Salinger. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Early Flemish, Dutch and German Paintings. New York, 1947, pp. 214–16, ill., as "Portrait of a Member of the Wedigh Family," either the brother or cousin of the sitter in the Berlin portrait, noting that this Cologne family was connected with the London Steelyard by 1480; read the motto as "Veritas Odiu[m] parit (Truth breeds hatred)" and identify its source as Terence, "Andria," line 69.
Heinrich Alfred Schmid. Hans Holbein der Jüngere: Sein Aufstieg zur Meisterschaft und sein englischer Stil. 1–2, Basel, 1948, vol. 1, p. 84; vol. 2, pp. 357, 367, as a Wedigh from Cologne; notes that the picture could only have been painted in London; identifies the Berlin picture as Hermann Hillebrandt Wedigh.
Ulrich Christoffel. Hans Holbein d. J. Berlin, 1950, pp. 40–41, fig. 185 [1924 ed., p. 96].
Paul Ganz. The Paintings of Hans Holbein. London, 1950, p. 240, no. 65, pl. 103, as "The Merchant Hermann Wedigh of Cologne," noting that he was been identified by Geelen [Ref. 1917] as Hermann Wedigh III.
"List of Gifts and Bequests of Mr. and Mrs. Harkness." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 10 (October 1951), notes inside front cover, p. 85, ill. on front cover (color).
Wilhelm Pinder. "Holbein der Jüngere und das Ende der altdeutschen Kunst: Text und Tafeln." Vom Wesen und Werden Deutscher Formen: Geschichtliche Betrachtungen. 4, Cologne, 1951, p. 88, mentions it among the Hanseatic merchants painted by Holbein.
Hans Werner Grohn. Hans Hollbein d. J. als Maler. Leipzig, 1955, p. 31, as a portrait of the merchant Hermann Wedigh of Cologne, which should be considered with the 1533 portrait of Hermann Hillebrandt Wedigh in Berlin.
Hildegard Krummacher. "Zu Holbeins Bildnissen rheinischer Stahlhofkaufleute." Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch 25 (1963), pp. 181, 184 n. 10, pp. 185–88,190, fig. 161, identifies the sitter as Hermann Wedigh; notes that the portrait was in Cologne by 1539, as it served as a prototype for Bartel Bruyn's 1539 portrait of an "unknown young man" in the Herzog-Anton-Ulrich Museum in Braunschweig (fig. 159); concludes that with few exceptions, the Steelyard portraits were sent home to serve a private function; sees the influence of Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" [Louvre, Paris] in our portrait and in Holbein's portrait of Derich Born (Windsor Castle).
Hildegard Westhoff-Krummacher Universität Bonn. Barthel Bruyn der Ältere als Bildnismaler. [Munich], 1965, pp. 38–40, fig. 23.
Gert von der Osten and Horst Vey. Painting and Sculpture in Germany and the Netherlands 1500 to 1600. Baltimore, 1969, p. 229, note that the Roman lettering in Holbein's portraits is "arranged with a supreme feeling for the distribution of planes, and in its turn it contributes to a feeling of abstractness just on the level of the head"; add that "the eyes seem to be seeking something in the distance behind us . . . In the companion portraits of the Wedighs . . ., the anomaly of eyes of different size is stressed as an element of alienation, and only finds its formal compensation in the brim of the cap".
Hans Werner Grohn in L'opera pittorica completa di Holbein il Giovane. Milan, 1971, p. 100, no. 70, ill. p. 99.
Gert von der Osten. Deutsche und niederländische Kunst der Reformationszeit. Cologne, 1973, p. 250.
Katalog der ausgestellten Gemälde des 13.–18. Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1975, p. 205, under no. 586B, identifies our sitter as Hermann Wedigh, probably the brother of Hermann Hillebrandt Wedigh, the subject of the Berlin portrait; observes that their differences in composition, date, and dimensions make them unlikely pendants.
Deborah Markow. "Hans Holbein's Steelyard Portraits, Reconsidered." Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch 40 (1978), pp. 39–40, fig. 1, following Krummacher [Ref. 1963] sees Holbein's Steelyard portraits—which she counts as seven, including the present work—as souvenirs sent home while the sitter was away in London, or as keepsakes should they die while abroad; remarks on the recurrence in these portraits of the parapet placed between sitter and viewer, noting that the device brings to mind epitaph portraits.
Rollin van N. Hadley. "What Might Have Been: Pictures Mrs. Gardner Did Not Acquire." Fenway Court (1979), p. 43, no. 25, ill.
Jane Roberts. Holbein. London, 1979, p. 67, no. 56, ill., as "A Member of the Wedigh Family" and the Berlin portrait as "Hillebrandt Wedigh".
Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, pp. 261, 263, 266, fig. 477 (color).
Thomas S. Holman. "Holbein's Portraits of the Steelyard Merchants: An Investigation." Metropolitan Museum Journal 14 (1980), pp. 139, 144–46, 155, figs. 4, 16 (detail of book), identifies the sitter here as Hermann Wedigh III and calls the young man in the Berlin portrait an undocumented brother or cousin, noting that the latter's identification as Hermann Hillebrandt Wedigh remains open to question; doubts the two portraits were intended as pendants; suggests that the "device separating HER and WID on the fore-edge of the book, most probably stands for the name of Wedigh, but a W within just such a shield was also the symbol of the Windeck, a professional and political organization for members of the Cologne Merchant . . . Guild"; asserts that the same mark appears in the painting of Hans of Antwerp (Royal Collection, Windsor).
Steven David Ross. "The Work of Art and Its General Relations." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 38 (Summer 1980), p. 429.
John Fletcher and Margaret Cholmondeley Tapper. "Hans Holbein the Younger at Antwerp and in England, 1526–28." Apollo 117 (February 1983), p. 93, fig. 10.
John Rowlands. Holbein: The Paintings of Hans Holbein the Younger. Oxford, 1985, pp. 137, 139, no. 37, pl. 71, remarks that "the identification of the sitter as Hermann Wedigh is uncertain, although HER WID would seem to suggest that it is correct"; likewise considers the identification of the Berlin sitter as "Hermann Hildebrandt [sic]" no more than a surmise.
Kurt Löcher. "Der Londoner Stahlhof und Hans Holbein." Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgertums in Norddeutschland, 1150–1650. Exh. cat.Stuttgart, 1985, vol. 3, pp. 674, 676–77, 679, fig. 8, rejects the notion that the Steelyard portraits were intended to be hung as a group in the merchant's Guildhall [see Ref. Chamberlain 1913, p. 4], noting that they differ in size, background, the absence of any reference to the Stahlhoff in some of the portraits, and the use of gold inscriptions in some but not in all cases; is inclined to believe the portraits were meant to be sent home to the sitters' families.
Introduction by James Snyder in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: The Renaissance in the North. New York, 1987, pp. 16, 118–19, ill. (color).
Mark Roskill and Craig Harbison. "On the Nature of Holbein's Portraits." Word & Image 3 (January–March 1987), p. 23, believe the book shown here was "probably used for the settling of accounts," and incorrectly state that the sitter holds bills or invoices in his hand; see the inscription from Terence's "Andria" as a sign of the "animosity and belligerence which German merchants had experienced in London, and with which Holbein presumably identified".
Maryan Ainsworth. "'Paternes for phiosioneamyes': Holbein's Portraiture Reconsidered." Burlington Magazine 132 (March 1990), p. 186, examines the underdrawing of three of Holbein's Steelyard portraits, the present work, Derek Berck [MMA 49.7.29], and an unknown male portrait in the Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven; finds in all three "a preliminary, quite cursive underdrawing, perhaps in black chalk, which simply indicates the contour of the head and features of the face," observing that none of them reveal the "schematic, traced underdrawing" typical of other Holbein portraits, in which a drawn study was essentially used as a cartoon for the painting.
J. G. Links. Letter to Katharine Baetjer. September 13, 1993, notes that "the bit of lining [on the overcoat] which shows might be anything but is most probably miniver".
Die Maler tom Ring. Exh. cat., Westfälisches Landesmuseum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte. Münster, 1996, vol. 1, p. 93, fig. 12, mentions this portrait and similar examples by Holbein as compositional precedents for portraits by Hermann and Ludger tom Ring.
Stefan Gronert. Bild-Individualität: Die "Erasmus"-Bildnisse von Hans Holbein dem Jüngeren. Basel, 1996, pp. 42–47, 172, 180, fig. 4 (color), interprets the sitter's pose as expressive of doubt and skepticism; notes that the citation from Terence was popular in Humanist circles of the time, and used by Erasmus and Amerbach, among others; sees the phrase "veritas odium parit" as a comment on the contrast between appreciation of the value of Humanist learning ("truth . . .") and acknowledgement of the limited social applicability of that learning (". . . breeds hatred").
Susan Foister in The Dictionary of Art. 14, New York, 1996, p. 671.
Stephanie Buck. Holbein am Hofe Heinrichs VIII. Berlin, 1997, pp. 30, 280, fig. 88.
Susan Foister et al. Making & Meaning: Holbein's Ambassadors. Exh. cat., National Gallery. London, 1997, pp. 82–83, pl. 96 (color), discuss the technique.
D. M. Klinger and Antje Höttler. Die Malerbrüder Ambrosius und Hans d. J. Holbein. Cheb, Czech Republic, 1998, p. 156, no. 40, ill. p. 157 and colorpl. 26.
Rainald Grosshans in Gemäldegalerie Berlin: 200 Meisterwerke. 1, Berlin, 1998, p. 106, ill., notes that the identification of the sitter in the Berlin portrait is uncertain, but he may be Hermann Hillebrandt Wedigh, a brother of the sitter in our portrait.
Stephanie Buck. Hans Holbein, 1497/98–1543. Cologne, 1999, p. 95, observes that the inscription "fulfills an important function in introducing a marked horizontal element into the picture, thus lending the figure additional stability . . .".
Ashok Roy and Martin Wyld. "'The Ambassadors' and Holbein's Techniques for Painting on Panel." Hans Holbein: Paintings, Prints, and Reception. Washington, 2001, pp. 104, 106, compare the modeling of the head in this "stunningly well-preserved" portrait to that of the two heads in Holbein's "The Ambassadors" (National Gallery, London); note that the gilded book in the foreground is all gold leaf applied to an adhesive base.
Katrin Petter. "'Wenn du die Stimme hinzufügst, ist hier Derich selbst, . . .'." Belvedere no. 1 (2002), pp. 7–10, 15, fig. 3 (color), considers it unlikely that Wedigh would have had Holbein paint him in London without some reference to the Steelyard if he had included, as he does here, the shield with a W on the side of the book, referring to the Windeck [or merchants' guild] of Cologne; concludes that the portrait was painted in Cologne, where Holbein could have stopped on his journey from Antwerp to London
Quentin Buvelot in Hans Holbein the Younger, 1497/98–1543: Portraitist of the Renaissance. Exh. cat., Mauritshuis, The Hague. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 2003, pp. 80–83, 156, 166–67, no. 12, ill. in color (overall and detail), identifies the "volume with gilt clasps" as "probably a bible" and the citation from Terence as a reference to the Bible as a source of the 'true' faith, a commonly held view among Reformers of the time; asserts that in this painting Holbein uses for the first time the pictorial motif of the inscription on either side of the sitter's head providing the date and the sitter's age, a motif that would become characteristic of his portraits; comments on the importance Holbein attached to the rendering of the eyes, noting that infrared examination shows that he altered the position of the left eye.
Meryle Secrest. Duveen: A Life in Art. New York, 2004, p. 449, states that Duveen paid $100,000 for the painting.
Susan Foister. Holbein and England. New Haven, 2004, pp. 10, 12, 36, 206–9, 253, fig. 211 (color) and frontispiece (color detail).
Susan Foister. "Hans Holbein: The Hague." Burlington Magazine 146 (January 2004), p. 51, finds the brilliant blue of this portrait particularly striking in the context of the exhibition and "conceivably a sign that the pigment was mixed with some ultramarine".
Dana Bentley-Cranch. The Renaissance Portrait in France and England: A Comparative Study. Paris, 2004, p. 160 n. 45.
Jochen Sander. Hans Holbein d. J.: Tafelmaler in Basel, 1515–1532. Munich, 2005, p. 29 n. 12, pp. 305, 345, fig. 278, as "Bildnis des Hermann (?) Wedigh".
Kurt Löcher in "Von Bartholomäus Bruyn zu Jakob Seisenegger: Neue Ansätze in der deutschen Bildnismalerei ab 1525." Hans Holbein und der Wandel in der Kunst des frühen 16. Jahrhunderts [papers from the Johann David Passavant-Colloquium, Städelsches Kunstinstitut, 2003]. Turnhout, Belgium, 2005, p. 30, fig. 5.
Didier Martens. "Un témoin oublié de la Renaissance colonaise au Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lille: Le triptyque du 'Calvaire' par Barthel Bruyn le Jeune." Revue des musées de France: Revue du Louvre 55 (February 2005), pp. 56, 58 nn. 29–30, fig. 18, illustrates a triptych by Barthel Bruyn the Younger now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lille, commissioned by Hermann Wedigh III as an older man in about 1560; reproduces a 19th-century drawing (by Peter Deckers; fig. 3) after the missing interior wings showing a large donor family including the figure of the father, Hermann, in the left foreground with his coat of arms on the prie-dieu at his right.
Jane Roberts. Holbein. rev. ed. London, 2005, pp. 26, 99, colorpl. 60.
Susan Foister. Holbein in England. Exh. cat., Tate Britain. London, 2006, pp. 64–66, 165, 176, no. 62, ill. (color), identifies the sitter as "Hermann von Wedigh" and notes that he "engages our attention with the central placing of his enlarged right eye, and arched eyebrow"; in relation to the panel in Berlin, notes that "the identity of this sitter has not been firmly established: the Hillebrandts were related to the von Wedighs, but no individual with London Hanseatic connections has been identified".