Graham Reynolds with the assistance of Katharine Baetjer. European Miniatures in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1996, pp. 140–41, no. 152, ill., reject the attribution to Cosway inscribed on the backing card, stating that "the work is probably by Philip Jean, who made many miniatures of naval commanders, no doubt a result of his early service in the navy"; note that the identification of the sitter "is supported by comparison with the portrait by John Singleton Copley in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich".