Eduard Firmenich-Richartz. Kunsthistorische Ausstellung Düsseldorf 1904: Katalog. Exh. cat.Düsseldorf, 1904, pp. 68–69, no. 147a, as School of Hans Memling; comments on its similarity to the Virgin in Memling's Maarten van Nieuwenhove Diptych in Bruges [now Memlingsmuseum, Sint-Janshospitaal]; notes that it has a 16th–century Venetian frame.
Max J. Friedländer. "De Verzameling von Kaufmann te Berlijn." Onze Kunst 10 (July–December 1906), p. 31, attributes it to Memling, but with some hesitation due to a weakness in rendering gesture, setting, and modeling; mentions a closely related but weaker Madonna and Child painting by "a younger artist," also sold at the 1904 Bourgeois auction [now generally attributed to Juan de Flandes, in the Thyssen collection, Paris].
Émile Durand-Gréville. "Les primitifs flamands a l'exposition de Guildhall." Les arts anciens de flandre 2 (1906–7), pp. 147–48, ill.
Salomon Reinach. Répertoire de peintures du moyen age et de la renaissance (1280–1580). Vol. 2, Paris, 1907, p. 360, ill. (engraving).
Max J. Friedländer. "Die niederländischen, französischen und deutschen Gemälde." Die Sammlung Richard von Kaufmann, Berlin. Cassirer and Helbing, Berlin. Vol. 2, December 4, 1917, vol. 2, p. 142, no. 70, ill., as by Memling; notes that the composition is repeated in a later panel by a different hand in the Bourgeois sale [now called Juan de Flandes, see Ref. Friedländer 1906] and in a painting in Budapest [Szépmüvészeti Muzeum; now ascribed to Michel Sittow or Jan Provost].
Martin Conway. The Van Eycks and Their Followers. London, 1921, p. 243, rejects Friedländer's attribution to Memling and includes it among studio works.
Max J. Friedländer. Die altniederländische Malerei. Vol. 6, Memling und Gerard David. Berlin, 1928, p. 126, no. 53, lists it as by Memling and identifies replicas.
Walter Heil. "The Jules Bache Collection." Art News 27 (April 27, 1929), p. 4.
A Catalogue of Paintings in the Collection of Jules S. Bache. New York, 1929, unpaginated, ill., as by Memling.
August L. Mayer. "Die Sammlung Jules Bache in New-York." Pantheon 6 (December 1930), p. 542.
Royal Cortissoz. "The Jules S. Bache Collection." American Magazine of Art 21 (May 1930), pp. 251, 258.
A Catalogue of Paintings in the Bache Collection. under revision. New York, 1937, unpaginated, no. 23, ill.
George Henry McCall. Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture from 1300–1800: Masterpieces of Art. Ed. William R. Valentiner. Exh. cat., World's Fair. New York, 1939, p. 122, no. 250, pl. 53, as by Memling.
Duveen Pictures in Public Collections of America. New York, 1941, unpaginated, no. 179, ill.
Ludwig von Baldass. Hans Memling. Vienna, 1942, p. 41, no. 48, relates it stylistically to Memling's standing Madonna of 1472 in the Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna.
Flemish Primitives: An Exhibition Organized by the Belgian Government through the Belgian Information Center, New York. Exh. cat., M. Knoedler & Co. New York, 1942, p. 46, ill.
A Catalogue of Paintings in the Bache Collection. rev. ed. New York, 1943, unpaginated, no. 22, ill.
Harry B. Wehle and Margaretta Salinger. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Early Flemish, Dutch and German Paintings. New York, 1947, pp. 71–72, ill., as by Memling; note that the MMA painting and a replica in the Art Institute of Chicago (Ryerson collection) reverse the composition of the Virgin and Child scene in the Nieuwenhove diptych and in the Shrine of Saint Ursula [both works in the Memlingmuseum, Sint–Janshospitaal, Bruges]; discuss related works.
Erik Larsen. Les primitifs flamands au Musée Metropolitain de New York. Utrecht, 1960, pp. 74, 120, fig. 21, as by "Memling and workshop"; finds the opaque modeling and the sullen expression of the Virgin remote from Memling's temperament; suggests that the Renaissance columns flanking the two figures are a sign of late execution.
Giorgio T. Faggin. L'opera completa di Memling. Milan, 1969, p. 105, no. 67, ill., lists it as "generally ascribed to Memling"; notes that the motif of the Christ Child touching his toes derives from Rogier van der Weyden.
Susan Urbach. Early Netherlandish Painting. New York, 1971, unpaginated, no. 16, discusses the dissemination of the Virgin and Child type in which Christ reaches for an apple with one hand and attempts to touch his toes with the other; catalogues the replica in the Szépmüvészeti Muzeum, Budapest, which she attributes to Michel Sittow, and also mentions a Memling workshop production in the Bob Jones University Collection, Greenville, South Carolina.
Max J. Friedländer et al. Early Netherlandish Painting. Vol. 6, Hans Memlinc and Gerard David. New York, 1971, part 1, pp. 52–53, no. 53, pl. 100.
Barbara G. Lane. Hans Memling: Werkverzeichnis. Frankfurt, 1980, p. 94, no. 93, ill., lists it with disputed works.
Matias Diaz Padron. "Una tabla procedente de la collección Thyssen–Bornemisza restituida a Juan de Flandes." Goya (March-April 1990), pp. 258, 260, ill., attributes our picture to Memling; accepts Urbach's attribution of the Budapest work to Sittow, and ascribes the Thyssen–Bornemisza Virgin and Child [the reversed replica sold in the 1904 Bourgeois sale] to Juan de Flandes.
Dirk De Vos. Hans Memling: The Complete Works. Ghent, 1994, pp. 340, 344, no. A11, 395, 400 n. 12, ill. (color), identifies a group of pictures, largely representing the Virgin and Child, as by the artist responsible for our panel; dubs this "second–ranking follower" the "Master of the Bache Virgin"; mentions other versions of the composition, including the Budapest painting, which he gives to Jan van Provost rather than Sittow, and the Thyssen picture, which he gives to Juan de Flandes; sees the prevalence of replicas of the composition as evidence that there was a lost prototype by Memling.
Maryan W. Ainsworth. "Hans Memling as a Draughtsman." Hans Memling: Essays. Ed. Dirk De Vos. Ghent, 1994, p. 84, lists it with works attributed to Memling followers; notes that its underdrawing is limited to the contours of forms, suggesting that a workshop pattern provided a ready model for it; mentions that the hands and contours are slightly shifted from the underdrawing to the final painting, indicating minor deviations from a standard pattern.
Dirk De Vos. Hans Memling: Catalogue. Exh. cat., Groeninge Museum, Bruges. Ghent, 1994, pp. 162, 164–65, 216, 224, no. 42, ill. (color), believes that the composition of the lost original must have been in reverse.
Matthias Weniger. "'Bynnen Brugge in Flandern': The Apprenticeships of Michel Sittow and Juan de Flandes." Memling Studies: Proceedings of the International Colloquium (Bruges, 10–12 November 1994). Ed. Hélène Verougstraete Roger van Schoute and Maurits Smeyers. Louvain, 1997, p. 116 n. 8, finds our panel quite close to the Master of Saint Catherine's Legend; doubts that there was a lost original by Memling himself; cites additional examples of this Madonna type.
Mary Sprinson de Jesús in From Van Eyck to Bruegel: Early Netherlandish Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Ed. Maryan W. Ainsworth and Keith Christiansen. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1998, pp. 71, 74, 85, 226, 234–35, no. 54, ill. (color), dates it about 1490 and considers it a workshop product made for the mass market.
Martha Wolff in The Robert Lehman Collection. Vol. 2, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Paintings. New York, 1998, p. 87.
Maurits Smeyers in Dirk Bouts (ca. 1410–1475): Een Vlaams primitief te Leuven. Ed. Maurits Smeyers. Exh. cat., Sint-Pieterskerk en Predikherenkerk, Leuven. Louvain, 1998, p. 412.
Mund et al. The Mayer van den Bergh Museum, Antwerp. Brussels, 2003, p. 55 n. 10, pp. 136–37 nn. 9, 15, 24, question de Vos's [Ref. 1994] attribution of this picture, MMA 32.100.35, MMA 1975.1.111, and several other works to the same hand.
Pilar Silva Maroto. Juan de Flandes. Salamanca, 2006.
Barbara G. Lane. Hans Memling: Master Painter in Fifteenth-Century Bruges. London, 2009, p. 98, fig. 79.