Osvald Sirén. Letter to George Blumenthal. February 20, 1916, attributes it to Simone Martini.
Osvald Sirén and Maurice W. Brockwell. Catalogue of a Loan Exhibition of Italian Primitives. Exh. cat., F. Kleinberger Galleries, Inc. New York, 1917, pp. 120–21, no. 44, ill., as "A Prophet" by Simone Martini; lent by George and Florence Blumenthal; as formerly in the collection of R. Langton Douglas.
F. Mason Perkins. "Some Sienese Paintings in American Collections: Part Two." Art in America 8 (October 1920), pp. 281–82, 287, ill. p. 279, identifies the figure as probably an apostle; connects it with the Madonna and Child and Saints Peter and Ansanus then all in the Lehman collection (the Madonna and Child and the Saint Ansanus are now in the Robert Lehman Collection, MMA; the Saint Peter is in the collection of Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid); attributes all four pictures to Lippo Vanni; suggests that they may have formed a dossal or have been set into a shrine and notes that there must have been a fifth panel, a saint which would have been located to the right of the Madonna and Child, next to this panel.
Raimond van Marle. Simone Martini et les peintres de son école. Strasbourg, 1920, pp. 30, 199, attributes it to Simone Martini and dates it slightly after 1320; identifies the figure as Saint John the Baptist; groups it with the Saints Peter and Ansanus, reporting, however, that Perkins [see Ref. 1920] also includes the Madonna and Child as part of the series, and attributes the group to Lippo Vanni.
Raimond van Marle. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. Vol. 2, The Sienese School of the 14th Century. The Hague, 1924, pp. 275, 277, 465 n. 1, identifies it as an Apostle; accepts Perkins's [see Ref. 1920] connection of this work with the Madonna and Child and Saints Peter and Ansanus, but rejects his attribution to Lippo Vanni; attributes the four panels to a close follower of Simone Martini.
B[ernard]. Berenson. "Un antiphonaire avec miniatures, par Lippo Vanni." Gazette des beaux-arts, 5th ser., 9 (May 1924), p. 276 n. 1, connects it to the three Lehman panels; attributes the series to Lippo Vanni and dates it about 1335.
Stella Rubinstein-Bloch. Catalogue of the Collection of George and Florence Blumenthal. Vol. 1, Paintings—Early Schools. Paris, 1926, unpaginated, pl. XIX, as "An Apostle," possibly by Lippo Vanni and painted under the direct influence of Simone Martini; states that it formed part of a polyptych with the three Lehman panels.
Robert Lehman. The Philip Lehman Collection, New York: Paintings. Paris, 1928, unpaginated, under pls. XXXIII and XXXIV, adds a fifth panel to the series, a work in the Lederer collection, Vienna, that he identifies as Saint Andrew (Saint Luke; now J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles); calls the Blumenthal panel "Saint Luke (or Apostle)," perhaps confusing it with the Lederer work; attributes the series to Lippo Vanni under the influence of Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi.
[Curt H.] Weigelt in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. Ed. Hans Vollmer. Vol. 23, Leipzig, 1929, pp. 277–78, tentatively identifies it as Saint Andrew; finds the attribution to Lippo Vanni of this panel and those in the Lehman collection unconvincing.
Philip Hendy. "'Ugolino Lorenzetti': Some Further Attributions." Burlington Magazine 55 (November 1929), p. 232, calls it "An Apostle"; attributes the Saint Peter to Ugolino Lorenzetti, rejecting its connection to the other four panels.
Bernhard Berenson. Studies in Medieval Painting. New Haven, 1930, p. 53 n. 2, identifies it as "the Evangelist," groups it with the Lehman panels, and attributes the series to Lippo Vanni.
Lionello Venturi. Pitture italiane in America. Milan, 1931, unpaginated, pl. LXXIX, identifies it as Saint James and attributes the series to Lippo Vanni.
Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 588, lists it as "Bust of Apostle," by Lippo Vanni.
George Harold Edgell. A History of Sienese Painting. New York, 1932, pp. 152–53, attributes this work and the three Lehman panels to Lippo Vanni.
Lionello Venturi. Italian Paintings in America. Vol. 1, Romanesque and Gothic. New York, 1933, unpaginated, pl. 98, identifies this figure as Saint James and attributes the series to Lippo Vanni.
Robert Langton Douglas. Storia della repubblica di Siena. Vol. 2, L'arte senese. [Siena], , ill. opp. p. 104, as a saint, by Simone Martini.
Raimond van Marle. Le scuole della pittura italiana. Vol. 2, La scuola senese del XIV secolo. The Hague, 1934, pp. 488, 490 n. 4, as an apostle; attributes it and the Lehman panels to Lippo Vanni.
Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 506.
Charles Sterling, ed. Exposition de la collection Lehman de New York. Exh. cat., Musée de l'Orangerie. Paris, 1957, p. 47, under no. 57, attributes the series to Lippo Vanni, calling it one of his earliest works.
Guy-Philippe de Montebello. "Four Prophets by Lorenzo Monaco." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 25 (December 1966), p. 160, fig. 7, as Saint John the Evangelist, by Lippo Vanni.
Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Central Italian and North Italian Schools. London, 1968, vol. 1, pp. 442–43, lists it as an early work by Lippo Vanni, connecting it with the Lehman and Lederer panels.
Ferdinando Bologna. I pittori alla corte Angioina di Napoli, 1266–1414. Rome, 1969, p. 288, attributes the series to Lippo Vanni's earliest period.
Luisa Vertova. "Lippo Vanni Versus Lippo Memmi." Burlington Magazine 112 (July 1970), p. 441, attributes the five panels to Lippo Vanni and dates them to the 1350s.
Luciano Bellosi. "Jacopo di Mino del Pellicciaio." Bollettino d'arte 57 (April–June 1972), p. 75, rejects the attribution of the series to Lippo Vanni, ascribing it to an artist trained in the workshop of Simone Martini.
Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 208, 459, 608, as an anonymous male saint by Lippo Vanni.
Miklòs Boskovits. "A Dismembered Polyptych, Lippo Vanni and Simone Martini." Burlington Magazine 116 (July 1974), pp. 368, 371–72, 375–76, fig. 12, identifies the figure as an apostle, probably Saint Andrew; analyzes the five panels of the series, rejecting the attribution to Lippo Vanni and ascribing them instead to Simone Martini and dating them to the end of the 1320s; tentatively suggests that they may have formed the altarpiece of 1326 made for the Cappella dei Signori in the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.
Dizionario enciclopedico Bolaffi dei pittori e degli incisori italiani. Vol. 10, Turin, 1975, p. 325.
Carlo Volpe. "Su Lippo Vanni da miniatore a pittore." Paragone 27 (November 1976), p. 56, rejects the attribution to Lippo Vanni and calls the series Simonesque.
Antonino Caleca. "Tre polittici di Lippo Memmi: un'ipotesi sul Barna e la bottega di Simone di [sic for "e"] Lippo, 2." Critica d'arte 42 (January–June 1977), pp. 70–71, accepts Boskovits' [see Ref. 1974] tentative identification of the series as Simone's altarpiece of 1326 from the chapel of the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.
Hayden B. J. Maginnis. Letter to John Pope-Hennessy. June 6, 1977, questions Boskovits' [see Ref. 1974] attribution and dating of the series, ascribing the panels to an artist in Simone's immediate circle but not to Simone himself, and suggesting that the rectangular format (if not originally crowned by pinnacles) may indicate a date later than that proposed by Boskovits.
Mojmír S. Frinta. "The Quest for a Restorer's Shop of Beguiling Invention: Restorations and Forgeries in Italian Panel Painting." Art Bulletin 58 (March 1978), p. 7 n. 3, attributes the series to an associate of Simone; implies that the frames are modern reproductions.
Cristina De Benedictis. La pittura senese, 1330–1370. Florence, 1979, p. 60 n. 24.
Denys Sutton. "Robert Langton Douglas, Part III, XV: The War Years." Apollo 109 (June 1979), p. 436, fig. 20, states that Douglas acquired the picture at the Northesk sale and sold it to Blumenthal [n.b., a second picture (Giovanni di Paolo, "The Presentation in the Temple," MMA 41.100.4) mentioned by Sutton as having been acquired at the Northesk sale was actually sold to Douglas by Lord Southesk; there is no corroboration that this picture was acquired by Douglas from either Northesk or Southesk].
S[erena]. Padovani. "Restauri." Prospettiva no. 17 (April 1979), p. 85, attributes the series to Simone and dates it to the 1320s.
Edna Carter Southard. The Frescoes in Siena's Palazzo Pubblico, 1289–1539: Studies in Imagery and Relations to other Communal Palaces in Tuscany. PhD diss., Indiana University. New York, 1979, p. 161, rejects Boskovits's [see Ref. 1974] tentative identification of the five panels with Simone's 1426 altarpiece; does not believe the panels belong together or that they are by Simone.
Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Sienese and Central Italian Schools. New York, 1980, pp. 94–95, pl. 5, attribute the five panels to Simone Martini, possibly with the assistance of Lippo Memmi; compare them with Simone's altarpiece of the Blessed Agostino Novello (Museo dell'Opera della Metropolitana, Siena) of the 1320s; state that, contrary to what had been generally assumed, the frames on the five panels are modern reproductions.
Marvin Eisenberg. "The First Altar-piece for the 'Cappella de'Signori' of the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena: '. . . tales figure sunt adeo pulcre . . .'." Burlington Magazine 123 (March 1981), p. 147 n. 49, refutes Boskovits' [see Ref. 1974] suggestion identifying these five panels with the altarpiece of 1326 for the Cappella dei Signori, and also finds his attribution to Simone unconvincing.
Keith Christiansen. "Fourteenth-Century Italian Altarpieces." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 40 (Summer 1982), pp. 32–33, 35–36, figs. 33 (color), 34 (reconstruction), states that the five panels comprised a folding, portable altarpiece painted for an organization rather than a private individual; identifies the frame of this work as original and those of the other four panels as either copies or heavily restored originals; attributes this panel to Simone and the altarpiece as a whole to Simone with some workshop assistance; dates it after Simone's "Annunciation" (Museo degli Uffizi, Florence) of 1333.
Keith Christiansen. Note to the files. June 14, 1982, reports the results of a technical examination of the frame, which led to the conclusion that it is original to the painting, although no longer engaged; adds that the frame of the Madonna and Child is a copy and that of the Saint Ansanus appears to be a heavily reworked original.
Marianne Lonjon. "Quatre médaillons de Simone Martini." Revue du Louvre et des musées de France 33, no. 3 (1983), p. 211 n. 33, attributes the series to Simone Martini and believes it must have formed a portable polyptych.
John Pope-Hennessy assisted by Laurence B. Kanter in The Robert Lehman Collection. Vol. 1, Italian Paintings. New York, 1987, pp. 18, 20–21, fig. 10, attributes this panel to Simone himself and the altarpiece as a whole to Simone with workshop assistance; dates it after 1333 and before the artist's departure for Avignon.
Keith Christiansen in Painting in Renaissance Siena: 1420–1500. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1988, pp. 147–48, believes Boskovits' [see Ref. 1974] tentative identification of the series with Simone's 1326 altarpiece should not be rejected [see Ref. Eisenberg 1981].
Andrew Martindale. Simone Martini. New York, 1988, pp. 38, 40, 44 nn. 11, 12, pp. 168, 194–95, no. 17iii, fig. 4, pl. 83 (reconstruction), attributes the altarpiece to Simone's workshop; finds the association with the 1326 altarpiece unlikely.
Pierluigi Leone de Castris. Simone Martini: Catalogo completo dei dipinti. Florence, 1989, pp. 93–96, ill. (overall and reconstruction), attributes the altarpiece to Simone with some workshop assistance, especially in the panels depicting Saints Ansanus and Peter and perhaps the Madonna and Child; dates it about 1326.
Timothy J. Newbery and Laurence B. Kanter in Italian Renaissance Frames. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1990, pp. 32–33, no. 1c, ill., state that the altarpiece was painted by Simone between 1324 and 1336.
Important Paintings by Old Masters. Christie's, New York. January 11, 1991, p. 134, under no. 76.
Keith Christiansen. "Simone Martini's altar-piece for the commune of Siena." Burlington Magazine 136 (March 1994), pp. 148–60, figs. 9 (detail), 14, 18 (reconstruction), produces evidence that these five panels can be identified with the altarpiece for which Simone received payment from the commune of Siena in 1326 and which was first placed in the Palazzo del Capitano, and later in the Cappella dei Signori of the Palazzo Pubblico.
Erling S. Skaug. Punch Marks from Giotto to Fra Angelico: Attribution, Chronology, and Workshop Relationships in Tuscan Panel Painting. Oslo, 1994, vol. 1, p. 218; vol. 2, punch chart 7.2, states that the punchwork on this panel is typical of Simone's style of about 1320 and appears to be earlier than that of the Lehman panels.
M[arco]. Pierini in Enciclopedia dell'arte medievale. Vol. 8, Rome, 1997, p. 249.
Burton Fredericksen in Masterpieces of the J. Paul Getty Museum: Paintings. Los Angeles, 1997, p. 8.
Mojmír S. Frinta. "Part I: Catalogue Raisonné of All Punch Shapes." Punched Decoration on Late Medieval Panel and Miniature Painting. Prague, 1998, pp. 247, 255, 310, 388, 458, classifies the punch marks appearing in this painting.
Alessandro Bagnoli. La Maestà di Simone Martini. [Milan], 1999, pp. 124–25, 135–36, 142, 150 n. 162, p. 151 nn. 166, 178, fig. 153, ill. p. 135 (reconstruction), attributes the altarpiece to Simone and dates it about 1318–20.
Marco Pierini. Simone Martini. [Milan?], 2000, pp. 122, 126, 234–35 n. 13, ill. in color (overall and reconstruction), attributes the altarpiece to Simone and dates it about 1320.
Hayden B. J. Maginnis. The World of the Early Sienese Painter. University Park, Pa., 2001, p. 128 n. 39, attributes all five panels to Simone's shop; rejects Christiansen's [see Ref. 1994] identification of the series as the Palazzo Pubblico altarpiece, stating that the dimensions do not match those of Sano di Pietro's predella panels and calling the proposed framing of the altarpiece "bizarre".
Pierluigi Leone de Castris. Simone Martini. Milan, 2003, pp. 244, 248–49, 294 nn. 43, 46, p. 358, no. 26d, ill. in color pp. 242 (reconstruction), 247, identifies the series as the altarpiece painted in 1326 for the commune of Siena [see Refs. Boskovits 1974 and Christiansen 1994]; attributes the MMA panel to Simone and workshop.
Victor M. Schmidt. Painted Piety: Panel Paintings for Personal Devotion in Tuscany, 1250–1400. Florence, 2005, pp. 283, 323 n. 6, fig. 191 (reconstruction).
Wolfgang Loseries in Maestri senesi e toscani nel Lindenau-Museum di Altenburg. Ed. Miklós Boskovits and Johannes Tripps. Exh. cat., Complesso museale. Siena, 2008, pp. 126, 129–30 n. 13, reviews the theories relating to the reconstruction of the Palazzo dei Signori altarpiece and the attribution of the main panels to Simone Martini.
Gabriele Fattorini in Da Jacopo della Quercia a Donatello: le arti a Siena nel primo rinascimento. Ed. Max Seidel. Exh. cat., Santa Maria della Scala et al., Siena. Milan, 2010, p. 147, fig. 13 (reconstruction).
Andrea De Marchi in Da Jacopo della Quercia a Donatello: le arti a Siena nel primo rinascimento. Ed. Max Seidel. Exh. cat., Santa Maria della Scala et al., Siena. Milan, 2010, p. 172, under no. B.10.
Dillian Gordon. The Italian Paintings Before 1400. London, 2011, pp. 388–89, 392 n. 12.
Joseph Polzer. "Some Altarpieces Executed by Simone Martini's Workshop, and Lippo Vanni's Artistic Origin." Arte cristiana 100 (May–October 2012), pp. 179–86, 191 nn. 39, 46, fig. 16, accepts the association with the Cappella dei Signori altarpiece but ascribes a leading role to the young Lippo Vanni in Simone Martini’s workshop.