Barbara Duncan. Gloria in Excelsis: The Virgin and Angels in Viceregal Painting of Peru and Bolivia. Exh. cat., Center for Inter-American Relations. New York, 1985, p. 38, ill., illustrates the picture to demonstrate the influence of Spanish court dress on "dressed-statue" paintings of the Virgin in Spain and the Americas.
Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez. Letter to Dulce Roman. December 29, 1996, believes the portrait to be Italian, possibly Lombard, from about 1610–15; observes that the "arquitectura en fugas" [presumably the view of receding doorways in the background] is uncommon in Spain and that the open lace collar is not specifically Spanish.
Maria Kusche. Letter to Dulce Roman. March 29, 1997, tentatively suggests that it is related to [Rodrigo de] Villandrando [Madrid, active about 1608–20, d. 1622, pupil and collaborator of Juan Pantoja de la Cruz].