Camillo Laderchi. "L'antica scuola ferrarese." Descrizione della quadreria Costabili. 1, Ferrara, 1838, p. 28, no. 22, lists a "ritratto di nobile giovinetto" by Tura, possibly this picture.
Girolamo Baruffaldi. Vite de' pittori e scultori ferraresi. 1, Ferrara, 1844, p. 85 n. 3, repeats information from Ref. Laderchi 1838.
W. Burger [Théophile Thoré]. Trésors d'art exposés à Manchester en 1857. Paris, 1857, p. 32, attributes it to Piero della Francesca.
[Gustav Friedrich] Waagen. A Walk through the Art-Treasures Exhibition at Manchester. London, 1857, p. 3, no. 50.
[Gustav Friedrich] Waagen. Galleries and Cabinets of Art in Great Britain. London, 1857, p. 498, lists it as by Piero della Francesca among pictures belonging to Drury Lowe.
J. A. Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in Italy from the Second to the Fourteenth Century. 2, London, 1864, pp. 543, 598–99, reject the attribution to Piero, ascribing it to Giovanni Santi and noting a slight resemblance to the style of Melozzo.
Claude Phillips. "Exposition de maîtres anciens à la Royal Academy." Gazette des beaux-arts, 3rd ser., 9 (March 1893), p. 226, rejects the attribution to Piero, ascribing it to Francesco Cossa; notes that Richter concurs and that Richter also suggests that, rather than depicting Sigismundo Malatesta, it might be a portrait of a member of the family of Borso d'Este.
Introduction by R[obert]. H. Benson in Exhibition of Pictures, Drawings & Photographs of Works of the School of Ferrara-Bologna, 1440–1540. Exh. cat., Burlington Fine Arts Club. London, 1894, p. xvi, notes Phillips's [see Ref. 1893] attribution to Cossa.
Gustave Gruyer. L'art ferrarais à l'époque des princes d'Este. Paris, 1897, vol. 2, pp. 112, 120, lists it as by Cossa, citing Phillips [see Ref. 1893], and calls it a portrait of an Este prince.
Jean Paul Richter. Catalogue of Pictures at Locko Park. London, 1901, pp. 23–24, no. 61, ill. opp. p. 24, attributes it to Cossa and calls it a portrait of Ercole d'Este.
A. Cameron Taylor. "The Locko Park Gallery, Derbyshire." Connoisseur 7 (1903), p. 88, ill. p. 91, calls it a portrait of Ercole d'Este by Cossa.
Bernhard Berenson. North Italian Painters of the Renaissance. New York, 1907, p. 217, attributes it to an anonymous Ferrarese artist close to Cossa and calls it a portrait of a young Este.
Adolfo Venturi. "Le opere de' pittori ferraresi del '400 secondo il catalogo di Bernardo Berenson." L'arte 11 (1908), pp. 424, 431, questions the attribution to Cossa.
Edmund G. Gardner. The Painters of the School of Ferrara. London, 1911, pp. 45, 209, attributes it to Cossa and calls it a portrait of a young man.
Bernard Berenson. Letter to Duveen. September 12, 1912, attributes it to Cosimo Tura and identifies the sitter as Borso d'Este.
Bernard Berenson. Letter to Duveen. n.d. [1912–13?] [quoted in letter of 2/10/1913 from Duveen to Altman in archive file], refers to the sitter as Sigismundo Malatesta.
M. H. Bernath in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. 7, Leipzig, 1912, p. 509, lists it as by Cossa and states that it probably depicts an Este prince.
J[oseph]. A[rcher]. Crowe and G[iovanni]. B[attista]. Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy: Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Milan, Friuli, Brescia, from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1871]. London, 1912, vol. 2, p. 235 n. (continued from p. 234), Borenius calls it close to Cossa and refers to it as a profile of a boy.
Francesco Malaguzzi Valeri. "Baldassare da Reggio e il suo ritratto del duca Borso d'Este." Rassegna d'arte 12 (July 1912), p. 103, ill. p. 102, calls it a portrait of the young Ercole d'Este, and tentatively suggests that it might be by Baldassare d'Este.
Bernard Berenson. Letter to Duveen. March 2, 1913, calls the sitter Borso d'Este.
Herbert Cook. "Further Light on Baldassare d'Este." Burlington Magazine 27 (June 1915), p. 103, erroneously as still at Locko Park; accepts Malaguzzi Valeri's [see Ref. 1912] attribution to Baldassare d'Este and his identification of the sitter as Ercole d'Este.
François Monod. "La galerie Altman au Metropolitan Museum de New-York (1er article)." Gazette des beaux-arts, 5th ser., 8 (September–October 1923), pp. 186–88, ill., identifies the sitter as an Este prince, but definitely not Borso and probably not Ercole or Sigismundo; tentatively attributes it to Cossa, while also mentioning Tura as a possible author; dates it about 1470.
Handbook of the Benjamin Altman Collection. 2nd ed. New York, 1928, pp. 50–52, no. 23, ill. opp. p. 52, attributes it to Tura and tentatively identifies the sitter as Borso d'Este.
"Current Art Notes." Connoisseur 82 (September 1928), p. 57, ill. p. 31, noting "considerable uncertainty" in both the attribution and the identification of the sitter, tentatively assigns it to Tura and calls it a portrait of Borso d'Este.
Lionello Venturi. "Contributi a Masolino, a Lorenzo Salimbeni e a Jacopo Bellini." L'arte 33 (March 1930), pp. 180, 185–86, fig. 8, attributes it to Jacopo Bellini and calls it a portrait of Borso; dates it before 1443.
Lionello Venturi. Pitture italiane in America. Milan, 1931, unpaginated, pl. CCLIV.
Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 581.
Giuseppe Fiocco. "Porträts aus der Emilia." Pantheon 10 (July–December 1932), pp. 338, 340, ill. opp. p. 337, attributes it to Tura and identifies the sitter as Borso.
Pittura ferrarese del rinascimento. Exh. cat., location unknown. Ferrara, 1933, p. 59, under no. 62, calls it a portrait of Borso by Tura.
Lionello Venturi. "Fifteenth Century Renaissance." Italian Paintings in America. 2, New York, 1933, unpaginated, pl. 335.
Roberto Longhi. Officina ferrarese. Rome, 1934, pp. 74, 171 n. 90, attributes it to Tura, dating it no earlier than 1460–65; rejects the identification of the sitter as Borso or Ercole; tentatively suggests identifying it with a painting formerly in the Costabili collection, Ferrara [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].
Raimond van Marle. "The Renaissance Painters of Venice." The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. 17, The Hague, 1935, p. 126 n. 4, calls it Ferrarese, from the second half of the fifteenth century, suggesting that the sitter is a son of Borso.
Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 500.
[Georg] Gombosi in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. 33, Leipzig, 1939, p. 482, lists it as a portrait of Borso by Tura, citing Berenson.
Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, pp. 129–30, ill., states that "the subject of this portrait and the painter are both uncertain"; attributes it to Tura and calls it a portrait of a member of the Este family; dates it about 1470.
Duveen Pictures in Public Collections of America. New York, 1941, unpaginated, no. 60, ill., calls it a member of the Este family by Tura; dates it about 1450.
Sergio Ortolani. Cosmè Tura, Francesco del Cossa, Ercole de' Roberti. Milan, 1941, pp. 35–36, 65, pl. 6, attributes it to Tura and calls it a portrait of a young nobleman; dates it to the painter's early period; relates it to profile portraits by Pisanello.
E[lizabeth]. E. G[ardner]. "Notes on the Cover." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 3 (November 1944), inside front cover, ill. on cover (color, cropped), calls it possibly the portrait of a young Este prince born about 1455, and believes Tura to be the most satisfactory attribution; mentions that it may be the work listed by Laderchi [see Ref. 1838] in the Costabili collection.
Benedict Nicolson. The Painters of Ferrara. London, 1950, p. 18, lists it as by Tura.
Alberto Neppi. Cosme' Tura. Milan, 1952, pp. 94–95, rejects the attribution to Tura, but calls it Ferrarese.
Roberto Longhi. "Officina ferrarese: 1934." Opere complete di Roberto Longhi. 5, repr. 1968. Florence, 1956, pp. 46, 104 n. 90, reprints text of Ref. 1934.
Mario Salmi. Cosmè Tura. [Milan], , pp. 13–14, pl. IV, dates it before the Pietà in the Museo Correr, Venice; notes the influence of Rogier van der Weyden, especially the portrait of Francesco d'Este, whom he misidentifies (MMA, 32.100.43).
Michael Ayrton. "Review of Ruhmer 1958." Studio 156 (August 1958), p. 64.
C. R. I. "Review of Ruhmer 1958." Connoisseur 142 (December 1958), p. 186, apparently rejects Ruhmer's early dating of the picture.
Eberhard Ruhmer. Tura: Paintings and Drawings. New York, 1958, pp. 13–15, 21, 29, 169, colorpl. 1, attributes it to Tura and dates it probably 1451, the beginning of his career; identifies the sitter as a member of the Este family at about fifteen years of age; accepts the MMA picture as the one formerly in the Costabili collection [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].
Ulrich Weisstein. "Review of Ruhmer 1958." Arts 32 (September 1958), p. 16, accepts Ruhmer's early dating of the picture.
André Chastel. "Tura and the Secrets of Ferrara." Art News 57 (February 1959), p. 62, approves Ruhmer's early dating of the picture, but erroneously believes him to date it about 1460 rather than 1451.
Creighton Gilbert. "Review of Ruhmer 1958." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 17 (June 1959), p. 527, notes that the attribution to Tura has been questioned and expresses skepticism for Ruhmer's early dating.
Piero Bianconi. Tutta la pittura di Cosmè Tura. Milan, 1963, pp. 15, 36, pl. 5, attributes it to Tura and dates it about 1450–52; relates it to the work of Pisanello; states that it can possibly be identified with the Costabili painting mentioned by Laderchi [see Ref. 1838].
John Pope-Hennessy. The Portrait in the Renaissance. Princeton, 1966, p. 164, calls it a portrait of an unknown Este prince by Tura.
Eberhard Ruhmer in Encyclopedia of World Art. 14, New York, 1967, cols. 340–42.
Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Central Italian and North Italian Schools. London, 1968, vol. 1, p. 433, calls it a profile of a youth.
Alastair Smart. "The Locko Park Collection." Apollo 87 (March 1968), p. 204, attributes it to Tura and calls it a portrait of Duke Ercole of Ferrara.
Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 205, 512, 524, 606.
Philip Hendy. European and American Paintings in the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Boston, 1974, p. 262, calls it an early work by Tura.
Rosemarie Molajoli. L'opera completa di Cosmè Tura e i grandi pittori ferraresi del suo tempo: Francesco Cossa e Ercole de' Roberti. Milan, 1974, p. 84, no. 1, ill. p. 84 and colorpl. 1, attributes it to Tura and dates it 1450–52; states that it can possibly be identified with the Costabili picture [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].
Laura Benini. "Descrizione della quadreria Costabili." Musei ferraresi 7 (1977), p. 95, no. 107, identifies it as the picture formerly in the Costabili collection [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].
Amalia Mezzetti and Emanuele Mattaliano. Indice ragionato delle "Vite de' pittori e scultori ferraresi" di Gerolamo Baruffaldi. 2, Ferrara, 1981, p. 149, identify it as the Costabili picture, citing Molajoli [see Ref. 1974].
C[reighton]. E. Gilbert in Dizionario biografico degli italiani. 30, Rome, 1984, p. 27, rejects the attribution to Tura, ascribing it to Baldassare d'Este, citing the opinion of H. Faberman; dates it not earlier than 1470.
Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, North Italian School. New York, 1986, pp. 62–63, pl. 19, state that the panel has been cropped and then enlarged, suggesting that it is not an independent portrait but part of a larger composition, perhaps a donor portrait cut from an altarpiece; tentatively date it about 1460 and doubt that the sitter can be identified as either Borso or Ercole d'Este.
Daniele Benati in La pittura in Italia: il Quattrocento. revised and expanded ed. [Milan], 1987, vol. 1, p. 261.
Joseph Manca in "Artists." International Dictionary of Art and Artists. 1, Chicago, 1990, p. 844.
Andrea Ugolini. "Rivedendo la collezione Costabili di Ferrara." Paragone 41 (November 1990), p. 55, no. L.22, identifies it with the Costabili picture [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].
Joseph Manca. "A Note on Cosmè Tura as Portraitist." Antichità viva 30, no. 3 (1991), pp. 17, 19, fig. 1 (cropped) and ill. on cover, agrees with Zeri and Gardner [see Ref. 1986] that it may be cut from an altarpiece or other larger work.
Mauro Natale et al. in Le muse e il principe: arte di corte nel Rinascimento padano. Exh. cat., Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan. Modena, 1991, pp. 31, 57, 215, fig. 20 (color), consider it one of Tura's earliest works, apparently inspired by profile portraits found in contemporary genealogies and medals of the Ferrarese court.
Kristen Lippincott in The Dictionary of Art. 31, New York, 1996, p. 429, tentatively dates it to the 1460s, before the organ shutters documented to 1469 (Museo del Duomo, Ferrara) but after earlier works such as the Enthroned Goddess (National Gallery, London), Charity (Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan), and the Madonna and Child with Saints Apollonia and Jerome (Musée Fesch, Ajaccio).
Stephen J. Campbell. Cosmè Tura of Ferrara: Style, Politics and the Renaissance City, 1450–1495. New Haven, 1997, p. 24, colorpl. 14.
Emanuele Mattaliano. La collezione Costabili. Venice, 1998, p. 40, no. 22, ill. p. 193 (color), catalogues it as the picture from the Costabili collection [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].
Monica Molteni. Cosmè Tura. Milan, 1999, pp. 23, 25–26, 191, 213, 232, ill. p. 24 (color), dates it to the 1460s; refers to it as the picture mentioned by Laderchi [see Ref. 1838].
Luke Syson. "Medals and Other Portraits Attributed to Cosmè Tura." Burlington Magazine 141 (April 1999), pp. 226–29, fig. 38, dates it 1474–80; tentatively suggests the sitter may be Gieronimo di Niccolo di Leonello d'Este; compares it to portrait medals here attributed to Tura of Alfonso d'Este (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) and Ercole I d'Este (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris).
Joseph Manca. Cosmè Tura: The Life and Art of a Painter in Estense Ferrara. Oxford, 2000, pp. 21, 82–83, 144–46, no. 28, fig. 28, colorpl. XI, states that although it is possible that the panel was cut from a larger work, there is little reason to doubt that it is in fact an independent portrait that has been cut down; believes that Tura probably changed the unknown sitter's dark hair to blond in order to flatter him, which was common in fifteenth-century north Italian courtly portraiture, and which may support the identification of the sitter as an Este prince; thinks it may be the work mentioned by Laderchi [see Ref. 1838] in the Costabili collection; believes that it is probably a mature work, possibly dating from after 1470.
Stephen J. Campbell. Cosmè Tura: Painting and Design in Renaissance Ferrara. Exh. cat., Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Boston, 2002, pp. 241, 247, 249, fig. 98.
Tobias E. Capwell. "A Depiction of an Italian Arming Doublet." Waffen- und Kostümkunde 44, no. 2 (2002), fig. 15 (color), illustrates it within a discussion of arming points (laces for attaching armor to the arm), explaining that by 1450 in Italy they had become popular as decorative rather than functional costume details.
Luke Syson in Stephen J. Campbell. Cosmè Tura: Painting and Design in Renaissance Ferrara. Exh. cat., Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Boston, 2002, pp. 32, 66 n. 8, fig. 11, states that it was "almost certainly executed in the mid-1470s".
Joseph Manca in Italian Paintings of the Fifteenth Century. Washington, 2003, p. 655, mentions it as the only portrait widely ascribed to Tura.
Elizabeth A. Pergam. "From Manchester to Manhattan: The Transatlantic Art Trade After 1857." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 87, no. 2 (2005), pp. 70, 85, 89, mentions that it was the only picture in the 1857 Manchester exhibition attributed to Piero della Francesca.
Marcello Toffanello in Cosmè Tura e Francesco del Cossa: l'arte a Ferrara nell'età di Borso d'Este. Exh. cat., Palazzo dei Diamanti and Palazzo Schifanoia. Ferrara, 2007, pp. 289, 346, 348, fig. 193 (color), dates it about 1470; relates it to medals of the Este family, especially the portrait of Ercole I in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.
Beverly Louise Brown in The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Exh. cat., Bode-Museum, Berlin. New York, 2011, pp. 38, 381 n. 78 [German ed., "Gesichter der Renaissance: Meisterwerke italienischer Portrait-Kunst," Berlin, 2011].
Keith Christiansen in The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Exh. cat., Bode-Museum, Berlin. New York, 2011, pp. 210, 218–21, 227, no. 79, ill. (color) [German ed., "Gesichter der Renaissance: Meisterwerke italienischer Portrait-Kunst," Berlin, 2011, pp. 210, 218–20, 225, no. 79, ill. (color)].
Eleonora Luciano in The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Exh. cat., Bode-Museum, Berlin. New York, 2011, p. 224 [German ed., "Gesichter der Renaissance: Meisterwerke italienischer Portrait-Kunst," Berlin, 2011].