Zamiraïlo. "Gauguin." Mir Iskousstva — Le Monde Artiste 11 (1904), ill. p. 222.
Rudolf Meyer-Riefstahl. "Paul Gauguin." Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration 27 (October 1910–March 1911), ill. p. 113, as "Sitzende Frauen".
Karl Madsen. Wilhelm Hansens Samling: Malerier, Akvareller, Pasteller, Tegninger af Franske Kunstnere. Copenhagen, 1918, p. 46, no. 132, as "To Tahitierinder".
Charles Morice. Paul Gauguin. first ed. [new ed. 1920]. Paris, 1919, ill. between pp. 112–13, as "Tahitiennes".
Gustave Kahn. "Paul Gauguin." L'Art et les artistes 12 (October 1925–February 1926), p. 61 [possibly this picture], as "Deux sœurs".
A. Alexandre. Paul Gauguin, sa vie et le sens de son oeuvre. Paris, 1930, ill. p. 105, as "Créoles (La Martinique)"; erroneously lists it in the Fayet collection [see Ref. Bodelsen 1966].
Lee van Dovski. Paul Gauguin, Paintings. Basel, 1947, unpaginated, no. 20, ill., as "Youth and Old Age".
Herbert Read. "Gauguin: Return to Symbolism." Art News Annual 25 (November 1955), pp. 139–41, ill. (color).
John Richardson. "Gauguin at Chicago and New York." Burlington Magazine 101 (May 1959), p. 191, calls it "unpleasing" and notes that it was never owned by Gustave Fayet [see Refs. Alexandre 1930 and Bodelsen 1966].
Claus Virch and Samuel J. Wagstaff Jr. in Gauguin: Paintings, Drawings, Prints, Sculpture. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 1959, p. 56, no. 65, call it "Mother and Daughter" and date it about 1900; cite a photograph owned and possibly taken by Gauguin (collection A. Joly-Ségalen, Paris), which seems to have been the source for this painting; erroneously list Fayet and a German private collection in the provenance [see Ref. Bodelsen 1966].
Georges Wildenstein. Gauguin. 1, French ed. [English ed. 1965]. Paris, 1964, pp. 259–60, no. 610, ill., calls it "Mère et fille" and dates it 1902; repeats misinformation regarding provenance [see Ref. Virch and Wagstaff 1959].
Bengt Danielsson. Gauguin in the South Seas. London, 1965, p. 209, fig. 37, reproduces the photograph that served as the basis for this composition and suggests that it was either taken by a friend of Gauguin or bought by the artist in Papeete.
Patrick O'Reilly. Catalogue du Musée Gauguin, Papeari, Tahiti. Paris, 1965, p. 63, under no. 219, dates the photograph upon which it is based about 1897 and identifies the photographer as Lemasson.
Merete Bodelsen. "The Gauguin Catalogue (Wildenstein-Cogniat)." Burlington Magazine 108 (January 1966), p. 38, notes that the Fayet archives have no record of this painting having been owned by Gustave Fayet [see Ref. Alexandre 1930].
Paul Gauguin with notes by Jean Loize. Noa Noa. 1966, pp. 122–23, 192–93, ill. between pp. 24 and 25, as "Mère et fille" or "Tahitiennes".
Françoise Cachin. Gauguin. Paris, 1968, pp. 313–14, fig. 180, dates it 1902 and erroneously locates it in the collection of Oscar Homolka, New York; observes the influence of the Parthenon frieze figures as well as Puvis de Chavannes.
M. Roy Fisher. The Annenberg Collection. Exh. cat., Tate Gallery. London, 1969, unpaginated, no. 18, ill. (color), calls it "Mother and Daughter" and dates it 1900.
G. M. Sugana. L'opera completa di Gauguin. 2nd ed. [1st ed., 1969; Engl. ed, 1973]. Milan, 1972, pp. 112–13, no. 434, ill.
Daniel Wildenstein and Raymond Cogniat. Paul Gauguin. Milan, 1972, pp. 70–71, ill. (color).
Yann le Pichon. Gauguin: Life, Art, Inspiration. New York, 1987, p. 242, fig. 468 (color).
Richard Brettell in The Art of Paul Gauguin. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1988, pp. 426–27, no. 231, ill. (color), calls it "Portraits of Women" and dates it 1899–1900, noting that its lack of signature and date is unusual in Gauguin's late work; states that the younger woman has been identified by her granddaughter as Teahu A. Raatairi and the older woman as Teahu's aunt by marriage; suggests that the photograph upon which the painting was based was found in Gauguin's studio after his death and ascribes it to one of Gauguin's photographer friends, either Jules Agostini or Henri Lemasson; quotes a passage from "Noa Noa" [Ref. Gauguin 1966] describing two generations of women at a wedding banquet which may have inspired or been inspired by this painting.
Françoise Cachin. Gauguin. Paris, 1988, p. 248, pl. 269.
Frédérique de Gravelaine. Paul Gauguin: la vie, la technique, l'oeuvre peint. Lausanne, 1988, p. 72.
Pierre Daix. Paul Gauguin. [Paris], 1989, pp. 316–17.
The Old Matsukata Collection: Occidental Art. Exh. cat., Kobe City Museum. Kobe, 1990, p. 196, no. 711, ill.
Joseph J. Rishel in Masterpieces of Impressionism & Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 98–99, 193–94, ill.(color and black and white), calls it "Portrait of Women (Mother and Daughter)" and argues for a late date based on the fluidity of handling and color; discusses Gauguin's transformation of the photographic image into something "grand and heroic".
Gary Tinterow. "Miracle au Met." Connaissance des arts no. 472 (June 1991), p. 39.
Marianne Wirenfeldt Asmussen. Wilhelm Hansen's Original French Collection at Ordrupgaard. Copenhagen, 1993, pp. 50, 77 n. 30, pp. 374–75, no. 132, ill. pp. 22–23 (installation photos) and 375.
Yoko Fukumitsu et al. in Captivated by Western Art: Fifteen Japanese Collectors, 1890–1940. Exh. cat., Bridgestone Museum of Art. Tokyo, 1997, pp. 55, 63–64, ill.
Ira Berkow. "Jewels in the Desert." Art News 97 (May 1998), ill. p. 147 (color, installation photo).
Susan Alyson Stein in "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 1997–1998." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 56 (Fall 1998), pp. 5, 51, ill. (color), notes that, although the painting bears an intriguing relationship to a passage on generational relationships in Gauguin's "Noa Noa" of 1893–94, it is considered to be a late work, made shortly before its first exhibition at the Galerie Vollard in 1903.
Anne-Birgitte Fonsmark in The Age of Impressionism: European Paintings from Ordrupgaard Copenhagen. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Copenhagen, 2002, p. 20.
Colta Ives in Colta Ives and Susan Alyson Stein. The Lure of the Exotic: Gauguin in New York Collections. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2002, p. 224, no. 110, ill. p. 143 (color).
Susan Alyson Stein in Colta Ives and Susan Alyson Stein. The Lure of the Exotic: Gauguin in New York Collections. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2002, pp. 171, 173.
Paule Laudon. Tahiti—Gauguin: Mythe et vérités. Paris, 2003, p. 122, dates it 1901; gives the older woman's name as Teahu A. Raatairi and the younger woman's as Tevahinenunaatuaiteruru; states that both women were Protestants, citing Josette Manjard, the great granddaughter of the younger woman, as her source.
Jean-Yves Tréhin. Tahiti: L'Éden à l'épreuve de la photographie. [Paris], 2003, p. 132.
Jean-Yves Tréhin. Gauguin, Tahiti et la photographie. [Punaauia, Tahiti], 2003, p. 160, ill. (color), dates it 1899–1900; states that the photograph which inspired this painting was taken in 1897 by Henri Lemasson in Mataeia.
Albert Kostenevich in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, pp. 254, 256 n. 74 [French ed., "De Cézanne à Picasso: Chefs-d'oeuvre de la galerie Vollard," Paris, 2007, pp. 269, 271 n. 74], notes that Vollard sent this picture to the 1912 exhibition "One Hundred Years of French Art" in St. Petersburg, offering it unsuccessfully for sale for 16,000 Fr.
Joseph J. Rishel in Masterpieces of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection. 4th rev. ed. [1st ed., 1989]. New York, 2009, pp. 186–89, no. 36, ill. (color).