Posthumous inventory of Cardinal Fesch. 1839, fol. 450r, no. 15330 [Archivio di Stato, Rome, Not. Capitol., Ufficio 11, not. Augusto Appolloni, anno 1839, vol. 611, fol. 37r–503v; see Ref. Thiébaut 1987], with Saint Nicholas (no. 15331; Cleveland Museum of Art), as "Due quadri in tavola alti piedi tre e un sesto, larghi piede uno rappresentante due Santi della maniera di Carlo Crivelli. Scudi sessanta l'uno e cosi in tutto. Scudi cento venti".
Catalogue des tableaux composant la galerie de feu son éminence le cardinal Fesch. Rome, 1841, p. 92, no. 2235, with Saint Nicholas, as "'Deux Saints,' parfaitement bien traités dans le gout de l'école de Carlo Crivelli," 3 pieds 2 pouces high by 1 pied wide.
[Gustav Friedrich] Waagen. Treasures of Art in Great Britain. London, 1854, vol. 3, p. 377, as in the Davenport Bromley collection; attributes this painting and its companion, Saint Dominic (MMA), as well as Saints James (Brooklyn Museum of Art) and Nicholas (Cleveland Museum of Art) from the same altarpiece [see Notes], to Jacobello del Fiore.
J[oseph]. A[rcher]. Crowe and G[iovanni]. B[attista]. Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy: Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Milan, Friuli, Brescia, from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century. London, 1871, vol. 1, p. 10 n. 1 (from p. 9), report Waagen's attribution [see Ref. 1854].
George Redford. Art Sales. London, 1888, vol. 2, p. 227, lists it as having been sold for £109.4 to Farrer at the Davenport Bromley sale of 1863.
Bernhard Berenson. The Venetian Painters of the Renaissance. 3rd ed. New York, 1894, p. 106 [1895 ed., p. 99], as in the collection of Lady Ashburton, London; attributes it to Carlo Crivelli.
G[eorg]. Gronau. "Correspondance d'Angleterre: l'art vénitien à Londres, à propos de l'exposition de la New Gallery." Gazette des beaux-arts, 3rd ser., 13 (February 1895), p. 166, assigns it to Crivelli's middle period.
Bernhard Berenson. Venetian Painting, Chiefly Before Titian, at the Exhibition of Venetian Art. London, , p. 12 [reprinted in "The Study and Criticism of Italian Art," London, 1901, p. 103], calls it later than the Benson Madonna (MMA), dated 1472.
G. M'Neil Rushforth. Carlo Crivelli. reprint, 1908. London, 1900, p. 93.
"Two Panels by Crivelli." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 1 (January 1906), pp. 28–30, ill.
Lionello Venturi. Le origini della pittura veneziana, 1300–1500. Venice, 1907, p. 211.
Elisabeth Luther Cary. "The Galleries: Carlo Crivelli." Scrip 3 (October 1907), pp. 23, 28–30, ill. opp. p. 8.
Morton H. Bernath. New York und Boston. Leipzig, 1912, p. 76.
J[oseph]. A[rcher]. Crowe and G[iovanni]. B[attista]. Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy: Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Milan, Friuli, Brescia, from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1871]. London, 1912, vol. 1, p. 95 n., Borenius mentions it.
B. Geiger in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. 8, Leipzig, 1913, p. 132, lists it among unsigned works and school pieces.
A[dolfo]. Venturi. "La pittura del Quattrocento." Storia dell'arte italiana. 7, part 3, Milan, 1914, p. 394 n. 1.
Laudedeo Testi. "Il divenire." La storia della pittura veneziana. 2, Bergamo, 1915, p. 688.
Bernhard Berenson. "Venetian Paintings in the United States: Part Two." Art in America 3 (April 1915), p. 117 [reprinted in Bernard Berenson, "Venetian Painting in America: The Fifteenth Century," New York, 1916, pp. 21–22], dates it about 1488.
Franz Drey. Carlo Crivelli und seine Schule. Munich, 1927, p. 73 n. 1, p. 141, pl. LXI.
Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 162.
Lionello Venturi. "Fifteenth Century Renaissance." Italian Paintings in America. 2, New York, 1933, unpaginated, pl. 365, states that this picture, Saint Dominic (MMA), and Saint James (Brooklyn Museum of Art) all formed part of the same altarpiece as the Madonna dated 1472 (MMA).
Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 139.
Raimond van Marle. "The Renaissance Painters of Venice." The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. 18, The Hague, 1936, p. 60.
Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, pp. 178–79, ill., adds the panel depicting Saint Nicholas (Cleveland Museum of Art) to the 1472 polyptych.
Henry S. Francis. "'St. Nicholas' by Carlo Crivelli." Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 39 (September 1952), pp. 187–89, publishes the panel depicting Saint Nicholas of Bari and tentatively accepts the connection with the 1472 polyptych.
Pietro Zampetti. Carlo Crivelli nelle Marche. Urbino, 1952, p. 68, no. 77.
Federico Zeri. "Il Maestro della Annunciazione Gardner." Bollettino d'arte 38 (July–September 1953), p. 241, accepts the reconstruction of the 1472 polyptych.
Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Venetian School. London, 1957, vol. 1, p. 70, pl. 137 (reconstruction), accepts the reconstruction of the 1472 polyptych.
Rodolfo Pallucchini. La pittura veneta del Quattrocento. 2, Padua, 1957–58, p. 17 [see Refs. Zeri and Gardner 1973 and Zampetti 1986].
Federico Zeri. "Cinque schede per Carlo Crivelli." Arte antica e moderna no. 13/16 (1961), p. 162.
Rodolfo Pallucchini. "Carlo Crivelli in Palazzo Ducale." Pantheon 19 (November–December 1961), p. 274.
Pietro Zampetti. Carlo Crivelli. Milan, 1961, pp. 75–77, figs. 24 (reconstruction), 28, tentatively adds five predella panels and a Deposition (or Pietà; Johnson collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art) to the 1472 altarpiece [see Notes].
Anna Bovero. Tutta la pittura del Crivelli. Milan, 1961, pp. 59–60, pls. 28A, 30 (detail), sees connections with Liberale da Verona's illuminations in the cathedral of Siena and with the Saint Michael in Giambono's polyptych of Saint James in the Accademia in Venice.
Barbara Sweeny. John G. Johnson Collection: Catalogue of Italian Paintings. Philadelphia, 1966, p. 25, under no. 158, accepts the expanded reconstruction of the 1472 polyptych, including the Philadelphia Pietà and the five predella panels; mistakenly cites Zeri [see Ref. 1961] as associating the Philadelphia Pietà with this polyptych.
Fern Rusk Shapley. "Italian Schools: XV–XVI Century." Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. 2, London, 1968, p. 35, accepts the expanded reconstruction of the polyptych.
Pietro Zampetti. La pittura marchigiana da Gentile a Raffaello. [Milan], [1970?], p. 182.
Letters of Roger Fry. New York, 1972, vol. 1, pp. 25–26, 255 n. 1 to letter no. 177 (March 2, 1906), lists it among works included in the 1906 exhibition.
Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 60, 400, 605.
Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Venetian School. New York, 1973, pp. 21–22, pl. 20.
Elizabeth Ourusoff De Fernandez-Gimenez in "European Paintings Before 1500." The Cleveland Museum of Art: Catalogue of Paintings. part 1, Cleveland, 1974, pp. 68–69, under no. 26, fig. 26a (reconstruction).
Anna Bovero. L'opera completa del Crivelli. Milan, 1975, pp. 83, 88–89, no. 50, ill., states that the altarpiece must have been made for a Dominican church, and suggests the convent of San Domenico, Fermo, noting that a Madonna with two saints is recorded as having been sold from there shortly before 1834.
David Robertson. Sir Charles Eastlake and the Victorian Art World. Princeton, 1978, p. 223.
Audrey Flack. "On Carlo Crivelli." Arts Magazine 55 (June 1981), ill. p. 94.
Everett Fahy. "Babbott's Choices." Apollo, n.s., 115 (April 1982), p. 240.
Keith Christiansen in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Notable Acquisitions, 1983–1984. New York, 1984, p. 46.
Keith Christiansen in The Jack and Belle Linsky Collection in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1984, pp. 30–31, under no. 5, believes that neither the Philadelphia Pietà nor the five predella panels [see Notes] belong to the 1472 altarpiece; rejects the identification of the 1472 altarpiece with the one sold from San Domenico, Fermo [see Notes]; thinks the correct order of the four flanking panels is, left to right, Saints Nicholas, James, George, and Dominic.
John Pope-Hennessy. "Roger Fry and The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Oxford, China, and Italy: Writings in Honour of Sir Harold Acton on his Eightieth Birthday. London, 1984, p. 234.
Pietro Zampetti. Carlo Crivelli. Florence, 1986, p. 260, pl. 14 (reconstruction), colorpl. 19, ill. pp. 85 (color detail), 258 (reconstruction), 260, agrees with Bovero [see Ref. 1975] that the provenance could be San Domenico, Fermo.
Dominique Thiébaut. Ajaccio, musée Fesch: les primitifs italiens. Paris, 1987, p. 181, ill., quotes from the Fesch inventory of 1839 [see Ref.]; gives the purchase price at the Fesch sale of 1845 as 61 scudi.
Important Old Master Pictures. Christie's, London. May 24, 1991, p. 61, fig. a, illustrates a watercolor by James Johnson of about 1850 showing this work hanging on the wall of Walter Davenport Bromley's drawing room at Wootton Hall.
Stefano Papetti in Vittore Crivelli e la pittura del suo tempo nel Fermano. Milan, 1997, pp. 56, 68 n. 11, identifies the 1472 polyptych with an altarpiece by Carlo Crivelli bought by Ignazio Cantalamessa from the Dominicans in Fermo on May 26, 1831 for 50 scudi.
Cecilia Prete in Pittura veneta nelle Marche. Cinisello Balsamo (Milan), 2000, pp. 343–44, 349 n. 152, fig. 28 (color), tentatively agrees with Papetti [see Ref. 1997] in identifying the 1472 altarpiece with the work bought by Cantalamessa from the Dominican convent in Fermo.
Valter Curzi in Pittura veneta nelle Marche. Cinisello Balsamo (Milan), 2000, pp. 307, 320 n. 4.
Ronald Lightbown. Carlo Crivelli. New Haven, 2004, pp. 127–28, 131, 135–36, pl. 36, states that the altarpiece to which the five panels belong was painted for San Domenico, Fermo, probably for a secondary altar; rejects the association with the Philadelphia Pietà.
Lisa Monnas. Merchants, Princes and Painters: Silk Fabrics in Italian and Northern Paintings, 1300–1550. New Haven, 2008, pp. 171, 359 n. 132.
Vilmos Tátrai in Botticelli to Titian: Two Centuries of Italian Masterpieces. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest. Budapest, 2009, p. 202.
Matteo Mazzalupi in Botticelli to Titian: Two Centuries of Italian Masterpieces. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest. Budapest, 2009, pp. 212–13, no. 43, ill. (color).