Lili Parthey. Journal entry. December 29, 1824 [published in Lili Parthey, "Tagebücher aus der Berliner Biedermeierzeit; herausgegeben von Bernhard Lepsius," Leipzig, 1928, p. 366], recounts a visit by Koch one evening after December 7, in Rome, speculating that Gustav Parthey, her brother, wanted to buy the present work, described as a Greek landscape ("griechische Landschaft"), from the artist for Christmas, calling it beautiful ("schön"), but stating that she and another relative (referred to as Minchen) preferred two other paintings, depicting Swiss and Italian views.
Kunstblatt [supplement to "Morgenblatt für gebildete Stande," no. 56] no. 19 (March 7, 1825), p. 74 [supplement also known as "Schorns Kunstblatt"], mentions this work as being in the ongoing ("permanenten") exhibition of works by German artists residing in Rome, or "Ausstellung der Arbeiten deutscher Künstler" [Exh. Rome 1825].
Lili Parthey. Journal entry. [January] 5, 1825 [published in Lili Parthey, "Tagebücher aus der Berliner Biedermeierzeit; herausgegeben von Bernhard Lepsius," Leipzig, 1928, p. 370], recounts the preparations for Gabentisch (the custom of filling a tabletop with gifts on December 24) and describing her surprise upon entering a room and seeing this work flanked by two others—an Italian view for her (Lutterotti 1985, no. 67) and a Swiss view of the Schreckhorn (Lutterotti 1985, no. 60) for another relative, called Minchen.
Kunstblatt [supplement to "Morgenblatt für gebildete Stande," no. 112] no. 38 (May 10, 1827), p. 151 [supplement also known as "Schorns Kunstblatt"], mentions this painting as being in the "Kunstausstellung," Berlin [Exh. Berlin 1826].
Andreas Andresen. Die Deutschen Maler-Radirer des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts nach ihren Leben u. Werken. Vol. 1, Leipzig, 1866, p. 20, as "Gegend von Assus in Kleinasien".
Ernst Jaffé. Joseph Anton Koch: Sein Leben und sein Schaffen. PhD diss.Innsbruck, 1905, p. 115, no. 35, as "Gegend von Assos in Kleinasien"; dates it 1825.
Wilhelm Stein. Die Erneuerung der heroischen Landschaft nach 1800. Studien zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte, 201. PhD diss.Strasbourg, 1917, pp. 89–90, 113 n. 122, as "Landschaft mit Regenbogen III".
Paul Ortwin Rave. Joseph Anton Koch, 1768–1839: Gemälde und Zeichnungen. Exh. cat., National-Galerie. Berlin, 1939, pp. 30, 36, no. 49, states that the plants in the foreground were painted by Ludwig Richter.
Otto R[itter]. von Lutterotti. Joseph Anton Koch, 1768–1839; mit Werkverzeichnis und Briefen des Künstlers. Berlin, 1940, pp. 42–45, 105, 201, 209, 217–19, 244, no. G59, pl. 15, as "Heroische Landschaft mit dem Regenbogen III"; erroneously states that Ref. Kunstblatt 1827 refers to an 1827 exhibition in Berlin.
Dagobert Frey. "Die Bildkomposition bei Joseph Anton Koch und ihre Beziehung zur Dichtung: Eine Untersuchung über Kochs geistesgeschichtliche Stellung." Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 14 (18) (1950), p. 200.
Johann Eckart von Borries. Joseph Anton Koch: Heroische Landschaft mit Regenbogen. Bildhefte der Staatlichen Kunsthalle Karlsruhe Nr. 3. Karlsruhe, 1967, pp. 22, 31 n. 24, fig. 14, provides ownership details since 1939.
Barbara Eschenburg in Münchner Landschaftsmalerei 1800–1850. Exh. cat., Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus. Munich, 1979, p. 221 under no. 54.
Otto R[itter]. von Lutterotti. Joseph Anton Koch, 1768–1839: Leben und Werk, mit einem vollständigen Werkverzeichnis. 2nd ed. (1st ed., 1940). Vienna, 1985, pp. 52, 104, 284, 290, 298, 341, no. G59, fig. 14, calls it the fourth version of this composition; states that the first version (no. G 10; Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe, inv. 789) was painted in 1805 for the owner of the Café Greco, a gathering place for German artists in the Via Condotti, Rome; that Koch began a second version (no. G 30; Neue Pinakothek, Munich, inv. WAF 447) in the same year, which was completed in 1815; that in 1806, he executed a large chalk drawing (no. Z 575; Germanisches Museum, Nuremberg, inv. Hz 3210) and a small canvas (no. G10a; private collection, Hamburg) that reveal the artist's original concept for the Munich version; and that for the MMA version, the artist returned to the 1805 composition, making a precise preparatory drawing in black ink (no. Z 144; Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe, inv. 1958-2) to aid in the process.
Ludwig Richter with a contribution by Heinrich Richter. Lebenserinnerungen eines deutschen Malers. Ed. Karl Wagner. (1st ed., 1885). Würzburg, 1985, p. 109, calls it "griechischen Landschaft mit dem Regenbogen"; recalls that he saw Koch working on the canvas in Rome between October 1824 and New Year's, noting that he had seen the first version in Munich.
Gisold Lammel. Deutsche Malerei des Klassizismus. Leipzig, 1986, pp. 199–200, fig. 142 (color), calls it the third version.
Christian von Holst. Joseph Anton Koch, 1768–1839: Ansichten der Natur. Exh. cat., Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. Stuttgart, 1989, pp. 87, 110 n. 238, pp. 285, 286 n. 1, fig. 57 (color).
Peter Wegmann. Caspar David Friedrich to Ferdinand Hodler: A Romantic Tradition; Nineteenth-Century Paintings and Drawings from the Oskar Reinhart Foundation, Winterthur. Exh. cat., Alte Nationalgalerie, Berlin. Frankfurt am Main, 1993, pp. 97, 99, calls it "Heroic Landscape with a Rainbow," in a private collection; in conjunction with "The Wetterhorn with the Reichenbachtal," 1824 (Oskar Reinhart Foundation, Winterthur, Switzerland; Ref. Lutterotti 1985, no. G60), recounts its early history, including the sale of both works to Parthey; states that "the ideal of freedom may be inherent in the landscapes painted for Parthey," with the MMA canvas perhaps alluding "to the democracy of ancient Greece" and the Reinhart painting possibly representing "a place of freedom in the mountains".
Old Master & 19th Century Paintings, Drawings & Watercolours: Evening Sale. Christie's, London. December 7, 2010, p. 134 under no. 47, in the lot description for the 1806 version being sold from the Pinnau collection (Ref. Lutterotti 1985, no. G10A), calls it "the last version," stating that it is in a private collection.
Sabine Rewald in "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 2008–2010." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 68 (Fall 2010), pp. 50–51, ill. (color).
Cornelia Reiter. "Nature as Ideal: Drawings by Joseph Anton Koch and Johann Christian Reinhart." Metropolitan Museum Journal 49 (2014), pp. 213–14, 219, 221 nn. 38, 47, figs. 11 (color), 12 (infrared, overall), 13, 15 (infrared, details), states that it ultimately looks back to two drawings, both entitled "Vietri on the Gulf of Salerno" (one, 1795, Kupferstichkabinett, Akademie der Bildenden Künste Wien, Vienna; the other, 1800, Metropolitan Museum); analyzes the underdrawing and observes that details accord with sketchbook drawings by the artist.