Harold Rosenberg. "Painting Is a Way of Living." The Art Galleries (February 16, 1963), p. 131, states that this painting "combines classical modelling with Cubist anatomical dislocation".
Thomas B. Hess. Willem de Kooning. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York. New York, 1968, pp. 20–21, ill. p. 34, states that this painting "is the result of hundreds of studies on how to paint a shoulder".
Andrew Forge. "De Kooning's 'Women'." Studio International 176 (December 1968), pp. 246, 248, suggests that this painting is a self–portrait.
Harold Rosenberg. "Interview with Willem de Kooning." Artnews 71 (September 1972), p. 57.
Sally Yard. "Willem de Kooning's Men." Arts Magazine 56 (December 1981), pp. 137, 139, 143, ill. p. 136, calls it "Glazier," dates it c. 1940, and locates it in a private collection; notes the artist's poor rendering of the figure's shoulder, and relates how this prompted the artist's friend, the poet Edwin Denby, to write the poem "The Shoulder".
Harry F. Gaugh. Willem de Kooning. New York, 1983, p. 14, fig. 11 (color), dates it c. 1940; claims that this painting is the result of "hundreds of studies of a shoulder" and that the artist's "attitude towards these men is structually analytical yet psychologically elusive".
Jörn Merkert in Willem de Kooning: Drawing, Painting, Sculpture. Exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 1983, p. 117, fig. 1 (detail), no. 143, ill. p. 142 (color).
Eugene Victor Thaw. "The Abstract Expressionists." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 44 (Winter 1986–87), p. 21, fig. 16 (color).
Sally Yard. Willem de Kooning: The First Twenty–Six Years in New York. New York, 1986, pp. 67, 69–72, 92–93, 135, 159, 172, fig. 77, discusses the artist's struggle to depict the figure's foreshortened thighs and notes how he used creases and wrinkles in the trousers to render three–dimensionality; states that this painting is "clearly connected with the "Seated Man" painting of about a year earlier" (Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garderns, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.); quotes the artist in an interview with Harold Rosenberg in which he states he was influenced by the Pompeian murals at the MMA.
Stephen Polcari. Abstract Expressionism and the Modern Experience. Cambridge, 1991, pp. 269–70, fig. 208, calls it "Glazier" and dates it ca. 1940; compares the figure's garment to that of Ingres' figure in his portrait "Mademoiselle Françoise Le Blanc (MMA 19.77.2, now titled "Madame Jacques-Louis Leblanc").
Marla Prather in Willem de Kooning: Paintings. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. Washington, 1994, p. 79, dates it c. 1940.
Judith Wolfe. "The Young Willem de Kooning: Early Life, Training and Work, 1904–1926." PhD diss., City University of New York, 1996, p. 125, fig. 42, dates it c. 1940; relates the artist describing this subject as "inspired by someone he had seen when he had looked into a shop on Third Avenue in New York; he especially liked the fact that the man could be construed as either employee or owner of the business"; suggests that this "comment shows the importance to him of America's promise of freedom from class and economic limitations".
Mark Stevens and Annalyn Swan. De Kooning: An American Master. New York, 2004, pp. 166, 174–75, ill., suggest that this painting's content and colors were influenced by the Pompeiian murals at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York).
Jennifer Field in John Elderfield. de Kooning: A Retrospecitve. Ed. David Frankel. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art, New York. New York, 2011, pp. 91, 94, 103, 109, 118 n. 15, fig. 3 (color), relates that infared analysis done on this work reveals that the ewer is "a relic of a previous stage of the painting".
Judith Zilczer. A Way of Living: The Art of Willem de Kooning. London, 2014, pp. 36, 127, fig. 50 (color), suggests that this work was influenced by the Boscoreal murals at the MMA and describes the figure's clothing as a "toga–like garment".