Dong Qichang initiated a revolution in painting through the study of ancient masters. Before Dong, studying paintings by past masters was considered an activity suitable only for students. Dong insisted that the study of old masters was a lifelong journey, one that enhanced an artist’s personal voice, rather than stifling it. His own highly original artistic output demonstrated that one could use the past to forge a path forward.DOCUMENTATIONArtist’s inscriptions and signatures Leaf BB (3 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1630): These two landscapes embody the essence of Ni Yuanzhen’s [Ni Zan, 1306–1374] painting. Painted in the sixth lunar month of the gengwu year  while staying in Gusu [Suzhou]. 此二幅乃倪元鎮畫髓也。庚午六月姑蘇寓筆。 Leaf D (3 columns in standard script): Solitary Temple amid Streams and Mountains in imitation of Juran’s [active 10th c.] brushwork. Xuanzai 江山蕭寺。倣巨然筆。玄宰 Leaf E (2 columns in standard script): Lofty Scholar in a Mountain Retreat. Xuanzai 巖居高士圖。玄宰 Leaf G (5 columns in standard script): Smoke from chimneys merges into lingering mist,Revealing a glimpse of a pavilion by the pines.In the pavilion is a man who has attained tranquility, Reading the Vimalakirti sutra by himself. Xuanzai 炊煙連宿靄，隱隱見松亭。亭中有靜者，單讀淨名經。玄宰 Leaf H (2 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1630): On the ninth day of the ninth lunar month of the gengwu year  I painted these eight scenes. The seventy-six-year-old man. 庚午九月九日寫此八景。七十六翁 Leaf HH (6 columns in semi-cursive script): Since the fourth month of the dingchou year , when I started learning to paint, until the gengwu year , fifty-two years have passed. Although the quality of my painting has not been evaluated with certainty, the time I have spent is long, longer than any other painter. In ancient times, the Buddha preached the dharma for forty-nine years, yet still it was said that the Wheel of the Law had not been fully turned. How could I be any different? So there must people who think [definitive] Dong painting has yet to appear. Xuanzai 余自丁丑四月始學畫，至庚午五十二年矣。畫品即未定，畫臘已久，在諸畫史之上。昔世尊四十九年說法，猶謂未轉法輪，吾得無似之耶。果爾嘗有作“無董論”者。玄宰Label Strip 1. Fei Nianci費念慈 (1855–1905), 2 columns in standard script; dated 1892, 1 seal (on wood cover): 董文敏墨山水冊。己丑冬得于吳下。壬辰長夏屺褱記。[印]：乙卯生 2. Wang Wenzhi 王文治 (1730–1802), 2 columns in standard script, undated; 1 seal: 董文敏山水冊。香光極得意筆。松下清齋收。 [印]：王氏禹卿 Colophons 1. Wang Wenzhi王文治 (1730–1802), 4 columns in semi-cursive script, undated; 1 seal [Leaf I]: 此香光晚年極得意筆，其蒼厚渾古之氣直逼北宋諸賢，何止倪、黃而已，然非真知畫理如綠扶者不能賞之。文治記。 [印]：王文治 2. Lu Gong 陸恭 (1741–1818), 13 columns in standard script, dated 1796; 2 seals [Leaf J-K]: 丙辰除夕前三日吾友張兄秋塘擕香光畫冊見過，一展閱知己丑嵗侍先君子見於城北李氏者也。李氏先以儒術起家，富收藏。先君子挈恭訪之，時值秋杪，庭前古榴一本，橫斜夭矯，猶着餘花。主人供茗，花下論古款洽，最後出二冊相賞，一即是冊，一為祝書小楷《黃庭》，紙墨甚精，後有董文敏、歸文休二跋，而董冊聞尤為汪文固堂所賞。汪名應鶴，號雲矯，精鋻別。屈指今昔忽忽廿又七年矣。香光畫冊忽來吾所，囘憶疇曩，光景歴歴，見畫如見先君子披圖靜諦時也。秋塘曰：“審是冊，合歸君。”遂購得而謹為之跋。嘉慶元年嘉平月廿八日謹庭陸恭剪燭書。 [印]：陸恭私印、陸氏孟莊Collectors’ seals Dong Zuyuan 董祖原 (active early 17th c.)Nan Zuyuan zhencang 男祖原珍藏 [Leaf A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H] Pan Yijun 潘奕隽 (1740–1830)Gu Wu Pan shi Sansong Tang shoucang jingji jinshi shuhua ji 古吳潘氏三松堂收藏經籍金石書畫記 Pan Zunqi 潘遵祁 (1808–1892)Zunqi zhencang 遵祁珍藏 Pao Chong 袌沖 ( active late 19th –early 20th c.) Pao Chong zhenshang 袌沖真賞 Unidentified Huang (Half seal) 黃 [Leaf A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H] Translations from Department records unless noted otherwise.  Translation from James Cahill, ed., The Restless Landscape: Chinese Painting of the Late Ming Period. University Art Museum, Berkeley, 1971, p. 165, cat. no. 36. Modified.