The elegant Wangchuan Villa situated in the picturesque hills on the outskirts of the Tang dynasty (618–907) capital, Chang'an (modern Xi'an), is one of the most famous gardens of ancient China. The rambling estate with spectacular scenery was the retreat of the poet, musician, and landscape painter Wang Wei (699–759). Almost one thousand years later, Wang Yuanqi used a rubbing of a Wangchuan composition etched into stone in 1617 for the general outlines of his painting and referred to Wang Wei's poems to guide his inspiration. In a colophon appended to the painting, Wang Yuanqi expresses satisfaction that he has captured some of Wang Wei's idea of "painting in poetry and poetry in painting."Tutored in painting by his grandfather Wang Shimin (1592–1680), Wang Yuanqi followed the lead of Dong Qichang (1555–1636), the first artist to transform landscape structure in painting by means of abstract compositional movements known as "breath force" (qishi). Inspired by the archaic convention of ringed mountain motifs in the engraving, Wang Yuanqi created "dragon veins" (longmo), through which the cosmic "breath force" vigorously flows. Calligraphic brush formulas suddenly become torrents of writhing, churning rock forms, rising and falling like waves. DOCUMENTATION Artist's inscriptions and signatures (Inscription mounted in front of the painting; 42 columns in standard script) Mengcheng Valley My new home stands sentinel at the entrance to MengchengWhere, of an ancient wood, only time-worn willows still remain.Who would come to live in this lonely placeUnless to brood over the sorrows of the past?  孟城坳新家孟城口，古木餘衰柳。來者復為誰？空悲昔人有。| Mount Huazi Birds sail endlessly across the sky.Again the mountain range wears autumn’s hue.As I wander up and down Mount HuaziDeep shafts of sorrow pierce me! 華子崗飛鳥去不窮，連山復秋色。上下華子崗，惆悵情何極。 My Study Among Beautiful Apricot Trees Slender apricot trees pillar my hermitage,Fragrant grasses thatch it;Mountain clouds drift through it--Clouds, could you not better make rain for needy peasants? 文杏館文杏裁為梁，香茅結爲宇。不知棟裏雲，去作人間雨。 A Hill of Graceful Bamboo Sandalwoods cast shadows across empty trails.Dark blue ripples race on the river.Secretly I enter the pathway to Mount Shang;Not even the woodcutter knows I am here. 斤竹嶺檀欒映空曲，青翠漾漣漪。暗入商山路，樵人不可知。 Deer Forest Hermitage No glimpse of man in this lonely mountain,Yet faint voices drift on the air.Through the deep wood, the slanting sunlightCasts motley patterns on the jade-green mosses. 鹿柴空山不見人，但聞人語響。返景入深林，復照青苔上。 Magnolia Hermitage The autumn hills hoard scarlet from the setting sun,Flying birds chase their mates;Now and then patches of blue sky break clear,Tonight the evening mists find nowhere to gather. 木蘭柴秋山歛餘照，飛鳥逐前侶。彩翠時分明，夕嵐無處所。 Rivers of Dogwood Green dogwood berries ripen to crimsonThough blossoms still star the branches.Come friends! How can you bear not to stay in these mountainsAnd savor that rich red wine with me! 茱萸沜結實紅且綠，復如花更開。山中儻留客，置此茱萸杯。 A Path Through Imperial Locust Trees The narrow path hides beneath imperial locust trees;Thick green mosses carpet the shaded earth.While sweeping the courtyard, I keep watching the gateLest my friend, the mountain monk, should visit me. 宮槐陌仄逕蔭宮槐，幽陰多綠苔。譍門但迎掃，畏有山僧來。 In an Arbor Beside the Lake My light skiff, garnished to welcome esteemed guests,Leisurely floats along the lake.On the shaded balcony we sit with our wine cups'mid lotus blossoms blooming in four directions. 臨湖亭輕舸迎上客，悠悠湖上來。當軒對樽酒，四面芙蓉開。 South Hill A small boat sails to South Hill;North Hill is hard to reach--the river is wide.On the far shore I see families moving,Too distant to be recognized. 南垞輕舟南垞去，北垞淼難即。隔浦望人家，遙遙不相識。 Beside Lake Yi Where the lake ends, she sits now playing her flute.At dusk she bade farewell to her husband.Wistfully she stares across the water,Watching a white cloud rolling up the blue mountain side. 欹湖吹簫凌極浦，日暮送夫君。湖上一廻看，山青卷白雲。 Waves of Willow The swaying branches of the willow row mingle their silken garments in caresses.Reflected shadows ripple the clear water.Be not like those willows weeping on the imperial embankmentWhich sadden people paring on the cold spring wind... 柳浪分行接綺樹，倒影入清漪。不學御溝上，春風傷別離。 At the Rapids of the Luan Family Under the spatter of October rainThe shallow water slides over slippery stones;Leaping waves strike each otherAnd frightened, the egret dares not dive for fish. 欒家湖颯上秋雨中，淺淺石溜瀉。跳波自相濺，白鷺驚復下。 The Stream of Powdered Gold He who drinks daily from the Stream of Powdered GoldShall live at least a thousand years!Then he will be presented to the Jade Emperor,Riding beneath a plumed canopy in a carriage drawn by soaring blue phoenixes and spirited young dragons. 金屑泉日飲金屑泉，少當千餘嵗。翠鳳翔文螭，羽節朝玉帝。 White Stone Bank White Stone Bank River, shallow, clear,Meanders past a sparse handful of rushes.Families on the east and west banksWash silk in the silver moonlight. 白石灘清淺白石灘，綠蒲向堪把。家住水東西，浣沙明月下。 North Hill North Hill stands out above the lakeAgainst thick evergreens gleams startlingly a vermilion gate.Below, South River zig-zags toward the horizon,Glistening, here and there, beyond the tree-tops of the blue forest. 北垞北垞湖水北，離樹映朱欄。逶迤南川水，明滅青林端。 My Hermitage in the Bamboo Grove Deep in the bamboo grove, sitting alone,I thrum my lute as I whistle a tune.No one knows I am in this thicketSave the bright moon looking down on me. 竹里舘獨坐幽篁裏，彈琴復長嘯。深林人不知，明月來相照。 Hibiscus Hill The blossoms on high hibiscus boughsFling crimson through the mountains.Families no longer live in this deserted valley,Yet season after season the hibiscus still blooms in profusion. 辛夷塢木末芙蓉花，山中發红萼。澗户寂無人，絲絲開且落。 The Lacquer Tree Garden The keeper of the Lacquer Tree Garden was no proud official:That old sage knew nothing of worldly matters.When by chance, he received this low-ranking office,He sauntered about lazily caring for a few gnarled trees! 漆園古人非傲吏，自闕經世務。偶寄一微官，婆娑數枝樹。 The Pepper Tree Garden With a flask of cassia-flower wine, we welcome the daughters of Emperor Yao;To the Beautiful Goddess, we present fragrant grassesAnd we greet the Prince of the CloudsWith a peppery drink and delectable feast. 椒園桂尊迎帝子，杜若贈佳人。椒漿奠瑤席，欲下雲中身。 右錄右丞〈輞川詩〉二十首。太原麓臺 (Inscription mounted after the painting, 21 columns in semi-cursive script) On the right is Youcheng's [Wang Wei’s] Wangchuan villa. Having written twenty poems of five-word regulated verse to describe the scenes, [Wang Wei] also painted this composition. In the art of the Six Principles [i.e., painting], it was Youcheng who first mastered [the secret of] “breath-movement-life-motion,” capturing the true composition of the universe. Jing [Hao], Guan [Tong], Dong [Yuan], Ju[ran], the two Mis [Mi Fu and Mi Youren], Li [Cheng] and Fan [Kuan] of the Northern Song, as well as Gao [Kegong], Zhao [Mengfu] and the Four Masters [Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, Ni Zan and Wang Meng] of the Yuan, all followed [Wang Wei’s] ideas, each inheriting the “lamp-flame” and becoming a great master of the Orthodox tradition. Since the Southern Song period, there have been a great many known painters competing with each other like flowers on a piece of brocade, each of them of a different stature, school and tradition. Though a student might broaden himself by using these different traditions to fill out [his education], were he to mistake this as his sole training, he would then have attained merely the dregs of the ancient tradition, and not its inner essence. During the three hundred years of the Ming dynasty, only Dong Siweng [Dong Qichang] succeeded in sweeping away the web of confusion. My late grandfather Fengchang [Wang Shimin] personally inherited the [orthodox] mantle [from Dong]. As I used to attend [my grandfather] in my youth, I have learned a few things [about painting]. In recent years, I have become acquainted with the elderly gentleman Jiweng. When I painted for him Lu Hong’s [8th c.] "[Ten Views from a] Thatched Lodge" (Caotang tu), about three years ago, I had promised that I would someday paint also the long handscroll composition Wangchuan [by Wang Wei]. Since I had not then had access to a reliable sketch of the composition, I did not dare to tackle it from ignorance. Last autumn, I acquired a popular stone engraving [of the composition]. Using the poems found in [Wang Wei’s] collected works as a reference, I made this scroll with my own ideas, so that it is different from a copy of "physical likeness" [xingsi] by a professional painter. Nine whole months have since passed. During every leisure hour away from official duties, I have worked on it. By adding poetry to the ink engraving, I have been able to see the wonders of Youcheng’s designs of yang and yin, their ever-changing forms and steps. Though some may think that my work is clumsy and inferior, I believe that it has captured some of [Wang Wei’s] idea of “painting in poetry and poetry in painting.” Will not the Master [Jiweng] have a chuckle over this? Inscribed on the eleventh day of the sixth month of the xinmao year of the Kangxi reign era [July 26, 1711] by Wang Yuanqi of Loudong. 右丞輞川別業有五言絕句二十首紀其勝，即系以圖。六法中“氣運生動”、得天地真文章者自右丞始。北宋之荆、關、董、巨、二米、李、范，元之高、趙四家，俱祖述其意，一燈相續，為正宗大家。南宋以來，雖名家蝟立如簇錦攢花，然大小不同，門戶各判。學者多聞廣識，皆可為腹笥之助。若以爲心傳在，是恐未登古人之堂奧，徒涉古人之糟粕耳。有明三百年，董思翁一掃蠶叢，先奉常親承衣鉢，余髫齔時承歡膝下，間亦竊聞一二。近與寄翁老先生論交已久。三年前擬盧鴻《草堂圖》，即相訂為《輞川》長卷，以未見粉本，不敢妄擬。客秋偶見行世石刻，并取集中之詩參考，以我意自成，不落畫工形似。迄今已九閱月。公事之暇， 無時不加點染，墨刻中參以詩意，如見右丞陽施陰設移步換形之妙。即云拙劣，亦畧得“詩中有畫，畫中有詩”遺意。先生見之得無捧腹一咲乎？康熙辛卯六月十一日題。婁東王原祁 Artist's seals Yuanqi Maojing 原祁茂京Mojie houshen 摩詰後身Xing yu yanxia hui 興與煙霞會Shishi daoren 石師道人 Huatu liu yu ren kan 畫圖留與人看 Wang Yuanqi yin 王原祁印Lutai 麓臺 Label strip Zhu Yifan 朱益藩（1861–1937）, 2 columns in standard script, undated; 2 seals: 王司農臨《王右丞輞川圖》真蹟。黃小松題，朱益藩署。[印]：朱益藩、定園 Colophons 1. Wu Hufan 吳湖帆 (1894–1970), 3 columns in standard script (on the brocade border preceding Wang Yuanqi’s poems and painting), undated; 2 seals： Wang [Yuanqi, hao] Lutai, Sinong’s masterpiece—the Wangchuan Villa Scroll. Accompanied by twenty poems on the Wangchuan Villa in a complement of poetry and painting. [Seen] in the treasured collection of Mr. Wang in the Shuanglin shu wu [Twin Grove Studio] at Moli. Wu Hufan inscribed. 天下第一王麓臺司農畵《輞川圖》卷，並錄摩詰〈輞川別業〉詩二十首，書畫合璧，莫釐王氏雙林書屋寳藏。吳湖帆題。[印]: 吳湖帆印、 倩庵 2. Huang Yi黃易 (1744–1802), 3 columns in semi-cursive script, undated; 1 seal： Shishi daoren [Wang Yuanqi] has grasped the qi [breath] and yun [resonance] of Dong [Yuan], Ju [ran], Ni [Zan] and Huang [Gongwang]. He certainly is of the true heritage of the Southern School and hence suited to aspirations after Wangchuan. Trusting his hand he completes a painting which is intrinsically antique. Old and hoary with a skeletal energy, we can imagine seeing the man himself. As to a precise and neat arrangement of the houses, cottages and figures, he wasn’t originally adept at such a thing, so we needn’t go into that further. When Yancun (unidentified) got this scroll, he sent it to me to enjoy for three months. Now I am about to return home, and so I inscribe [the work] and return it to him. Huang Yi of Qiantang [Zhejiang] 石師道人得董、巨、倪、黃氣韻，誠南宗正脈，宜其希踪《輞川》，信手點成，自然合古，老蒼氣骨，想見其人。若屋舍人物布置精工，本非此老擅長，不足計也。研村得此寄示，欣賞三月，將歸里門，題以還之。錢唐黃易 [印]: 小松 3. Wu Hufan吳湖帆 (1894–1970), 30 columns in standard script, dated 1944; 3 seals: Lutai Sinong [Wang Yuanqi] possesses sage powers and a mind of profound intuition. In the painting world he stands unique as a brilliant flag unfurled, and before and after him for a thousand years, he has surpassed the wonders of a mass of others to bring to completion this marvelous work. He [Wang Yuanqi] himself said: “I have made this scroll with my own ideas, so that it is different from a copy of ‘physical likeness’ [xingsi].” We can imagine how keen his concentration was as he was painting: he did not follow the path of the well-trodden, but amassed his energies, tempered his spirit and had eternity in mind. Hence we know this work is not of the kind to be found often. In the great interaction of Heaven and Earth, Heaven concentrates the most excellent qualities: in the Tang, there was Mojie [Wang Wei], and in Mojie there was the Wangchuan composition. A thousand years later, and there is the interpretative brush of Lutai [Wang Yuanqi] with Mojie’s Wangchuan composition. This work has also come about as the result of the concentration of the most excellent qualities in permutations of Heaven and Earth. It is certainly not a thing which we may stumble upon accidentally. To have Mojie’s Wangchuan composition in painting is like having Youjun [Wang Xizhi’s] Lanting xu in calligraphy, or [Li] Taibai in poetry and Changli [Han Yu] in prose; it is like moonlight over [Lake] Dongting, or the clouds along Wuxia [section of the Yangzi river], or the rain over the Xiaoxiang [river]—they are all wonders of which there can never be a second, and of which there must always be a one. [When] Lutai has his gifts and the moment in hand, the rich and the pale and the whole spectrum of light and hue are at his command. Therefore [his] subtlety in applying colors is not something we can often come upon even in our dreams. In every brushstroke and in every ink tone, in every tree and in every rock, that which is known as “the breath which can swallow [Lake] Yumeng,” and “the wave which can devastate a city,”—rushing and surging like the Changjiang [Yangzi] and the Huanghe [Yellow River]—in one torrent it gushes forth a thousand li. And should there be a great barricade or wall of iron, it could not be obstructed—[such is the power] which can be seen in equal measure in Li [Bai’s] verse, Han [Yu’s] essays, Youjun’s calligraphy and Mojie’s painting! I myself have been painting for some thirty years and of the famous works which I have seen to authenticate, there have been some ten thousand paintings; of these, there have been a thousand works—large and small handscrolls, hanging scrolls and album leaves—of Lutai. When I examine his [Wang Yuanqi’s] life, his most profound respect has been accorded to Ni [Zan] and Huang [Gongwang]; [but] his knowledge of them has been acquired through Fengchang [Wang Shimin] and Siweng [Dong Qichang] and the Yuan sages. This scroll is an attempt to re-capture Mojie, and he [Wang Yuanqi] himself said: “[I] have grasped the meaning of ‘in poetry there is painting, and in painting there is poetry.’” His [Wang Yuanqi’s] spirit [in the painting] resembles his [Wang Fei’s] forms, and in not seeking a resemblance, there is resemblance. We might even look upon [it] as a work by Wang Wei himself. At the beginning of the scroll there are twenty poems on Wangchuan, and at the end of the painting there is the seal Mojie hou shen [the reincarnation of Mojie], which will serve to prove that the Sinong was pleased with himself, and that my words are not idle. Fengchang [Wang Shimin] carried on as leader of the painting world for more than forty years after Siweng [Dong Qichang]. When Fengchang died, the Sinong was forty years old. Fengchang once said: “As for grasping Dachi’s [Huang Gongwang’s] spirit [shen], there is Siweng; as for grasping his forms [xing], there am I; as for both spirit and form, they have been grasped alike by Lutai.” Fengchang had already passed away thirty years when his scroll was finished. During these thirty years Lutai made great strides. What a pity Fengchang is not longer here to see [it]. Hufan says: “If Fengchang could be raised [from his grave] to see this scroll, [I] would not know what expressions of astonishment and what words of criticism he would offer his grandson. It seems suitable then that one born later such as I should hold such reverence and dare to call [this scroll] Wang Sinong’s masterpiece [tianxiadiyi]. May Jiqian, my pupil, guard well [this scroll] and treasure it always. In late spring of the year jiashen , Wu Hufan, on several perusals, respectfully recorded. 麓臺司農具大智慧力，得大澈悟心，在畫壇獨樹奇幟，上下千秋，超軼眾妙。成此傑構自題云“以我意自成，不落畵工形似。”可想其構思落墨時，經營刻意，不隨眾向，凝神練氣，自存千秋，想其非尋常之作可知也。天地造化，精英所注，在唐而有摩詰，在摩詰而有《輞川圖》，千載而下而有麓臺筆端之意象。摩詰《輞川圖》是亦天地造化精英所注而出，良非偶然而成也。畫中之有摩詰《輞川圖》，如書中之有右軍《蘭亭敍》，詩中太白，文中昌黎，是與洞庭之月、巫峽之雲、瀟湘之雨，皆為不可有二、不可無一之奇觀。麓臺秉其天賦神會，運絢爛平澹、五光十色于指下，故設色之妙亦非尋常作家所能夢想，一筆一墨，一樹一石，所謂氣吞雲夢，波撼岳陽，洋洋灑灑，如長江、黃河一瀉千里而出，雖大堤鐵索不能稍阻，是可與李詩、韓文、右軍書、摩詰畫等量齊觀也。余課畫業者幾卅載，所鍳閱名畫幾萬本，麓臺一家計大小卷軸尺葉亦以千數。審其一生，瓣香于倪、黃為最深，由奉常上溯思翁，而元賢者居十之八九。此卷追摹摩詰，自云“得詩中有畫，畫中有詩遺意”，其神似，其形不求似而似，即以爲摩詰畫觀可也。卷前〈輞川詩〉二十首，書後鈐“摩詰後身”印，可證司農自許，而余言為不妄矣。奉常繼思翁之後主畫壇盟垂四十餘年，奉常逝時，司農年四十。奉常曾有得大癡神者思翁，得大癡形者自許，而神形俱得許麓臺。則此卷之成，在奉常逝後已卅年，麓臺卅年中功力精進，惜奉常之不及見也。湖帆曰若起奉常覩此卷，不知將如何驚奇，為乃孫評何辭矣。宜後生若余之拜倒敬服，敢曰天下第一王司農畫云。季遷我弟其善護而永寳之。甲申春季吳湖帆數讀謹識。 [印]: 吳湖帆印、 倩庵、 吳湖帆、 吳氏圖書記、大痴富春山圖一角人家 4. Zhao Shigang 趙時棡 (1874–1945), 1 column in semi-cursive script, dated 1944: In a summer month of the year jiashen  looked at respectfully by Zhao Shigang of Jin [Ningbo, Zhejiang]. 甲申夏月鄞趙時棡拜觀。 5. Wu Zheng 吳徵 (1878–1949), 1 column in semi-cursive script, dated 1944; 1 seal: In early autumn of the year jiashen , Paojuan jushi, Wu Zheng seen at Wu [sic]. 甲申新秋袌鋗居士吳徴觀於滬瀆。 [印]: 吳徴之印 6. Wu Huayuan 吳華源 (1893–1972), 7 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1944; 3 seals: In the past twenty years I have seen more than a few long handscrolls by Lutai Sinon. Of those which can partake of a seasoned refinement and a lofty brilliance, there is the Xishan he bi [Streams in a Mountain Setting] after the Four Yuan Masters [in the collection of] Shao Songlao of Qinquan, and the Yan nan chun xiao [Spring dawn over Peaks and Rapids] in the Yiguan xian [Total Enlightenment Studio], and most of all this scroll after the Wangchuan composition. Jiqian, my “younger brother,’ who happened to come upon it, brought it out to show me. After satiating myself with looking, I am honored to place my name at the end, feeling especially overjoyed and deeply fortunate. Late in the year jiashen , written by the “later student” Wu Huayuan, who also saw it in company with Mr. Wang Boyuan and my “sixth younger brother” Silan. 二十年來所見麓臺司農長卷不下數十，而蒼秀高華，當以琴川邵松老《倣元四家溪山合璧》、一貫軒《嚴灘春曉》及此擬《輞川圖》為最。季遷學弟偶然拾得，出以示余，既得飽觀，又附名於後，殊深欣幸。甲申嵗暮後學吳華源并書，同觀者王君伯元似蘭六弟。 [印]: 吳華源印、子深、延陵 7. Xu Bangda 徐邦達 (1911–2012), 2 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1945; no seal: In the year yiyou  on the dengxi [eve of candles] [I] went to the Twin Grove Studio and again saw the incomparably “divine” work of the Sinong. Respectfully recording the year and the month, Xinyuan jushi, Xu Bangda. 乙酉燈夕過雙林書屋，重觀司農無上神蹟，謹識歲月。心遠居士徐邦達 8. Tang Yun 唐雲 (1910–1993), 1 column in semi-cursive script, dated 1945: In the twelfth month of the year yiyou  seen respectfully by Tang Yun of Hang [chow]. 乙酉十二月杭人唐雲拜觀。 9. Zhang Daqian 張大千 (1899–1983), 1 column in semi-cursive script, dated 1946; 2 seals: In the jiaping [12th] month of the year bingxu  seen by Zhang Yuan of Shu [Sichuan] province. 丙戌嘉平月蜀郡張爰觀。[印]: 張爰、大千居士 10. Wang Yachen 汪亞塵 (1894–1983), 1 column in semi-cursive script, dated 1949: In early autumn of the year jichou , seen by Wang Yachen. 己丑新秋汪亞塵觀。 11. Huang Junbi 黃君璧 (1898–1991)1 column in semi-cursive script, dated 1966: In early autumn of the year bingwu  seen by Huang Junbi of Nanhai [Canton]. 丙午新秋南海黃君璧觀。 12. Gao Yihong 高逸鴻 (1908–1982), 4 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1966: In the 8th month of the year bingwu  I went with [Huang] Junbi, “my elder brother” to New York [City] and at the Twin Grove Studio was enriched by the perusal of the Sinong’s long handscroll. Unawares, I sighed looking at [something which would] end [all looks]! Respectfully recorded by the master of Lanxiang guan [Orchid-scent residence], Gao Yihong. 丙午八月與君璧兄旅遊紐約，過雙林書屋，獲讀司農長卷，不覺嘆觀止矣。蘭香館主高逸鴻謹識。 13. Ling Shuhua 凌叔華 (1900–1990), 1 column in semi-cursive script, dated 1967: In the 4th month of the spring of the year dingwei , Ling Shuhua respectfully inscribes this to record this visual richness. 丁未春四月凌叔華拜觀題此，以誌眼福。 Collectors’ sealsWang Jiqian 王季遷 (1907–2003) Wang Jiqian yin 王季遷印 Ceng cang Wang Jiqian chu 曾藏王季遷處 Wang shi Jiqian zhencang zhi yin 王氏季遷珍藏之印 Zhenze Wang shi Jiqian shoucang yin 震澤王氏季遷收藏印 Jiqian 季遷 Shuanglin Shuwu 雙林書屋 Huaiyun Lou 懷雲樓 Huaiyun Lou jianshang shuhua zhi ji 懷雲樓鍳賞書畫之記 Earl Morse 穆思 (1908–1988) Mu Si shoucang mingji 穆思收藏名迹 Mu Si zhencang 穆思珍藏 Wang Yuanqi’s inscriptions and the colophons are translated by Marilyn and Shen Fu in Whitfield, Roderick with addendum by Wen Fong, In Pursuit of Antiquity: Chinese Paintings of the Ming and Qing Dynasties from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Earl Morse. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Art Museum, 1969, pp. 199-208. Romanization of Chinese characters has been changed from the Wade-Gile to the pinyin system. “Wu” should be Hu (Shanghai).