The use of tobacco was among the first Western practices adopted widely inthe Marquesas and other areas of Polynesia. By the early nineteenth century,the Marquesans had begun to create their own pipes (epaepa or pioro). Theuse of pipes and tobacco, like many other aspects of Marquesan culture,was governed by sacred restrictions or tapu. Men and women, for example,were not permitted to smoke together. Although in widespread use, pipesremained highly valued objects and were often passed down as heirloomsor occasionally were buried with their owners. This example is adornedwith three small tiki (human images), whose poses and features closelyresemble those on Marquesan ivory ear ornaments dating to the sameperiod. Like most Marquesan tiki, the figures likely portray deified ancestors.