Quantcast

The Birth of the Virgin

Fra Carnevale (Bartolomeo di Giovanni Corradini) (Italian, born by 1416–died 1484 Urbino)

Date:
1467
Medium:
Tempera and oil on wood
Dimensions:
57 x 37 7/8 in. (144.8 x 96.2 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Rogers and Gwynne Andrews Funds, 1935
Accession Number:
35.121
  • Gallery Label

    Breaking with convention, the artist shows the Madonna’s birth in contemporary terms. In the background the newborn baby is bathed by midwives, while in the foreground women greet each other. The imposing palace, patterned on the ducal palace of Urbino, is decorated with reliefs derived from Roman sculpture. The picture is from an altarpiece commissioned in 1467 for the church of Santa Maria della Bella in Urbino. A companion panel is in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

    Fra Carnevale worked in Florence with Filippo Lippi. In Urbino he saw paintings by Piero della Francesca and probably met the great architect-theorist Leon Battista Alberti.

    For a detailed discussion of this fascinating work, see metmuseum.org/collections.

  • Catalogue Entry

    This exceptionally rich painting has a companion in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the subject of which is usually identified as the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple. The subjects, function, and authorship of the two panels have been much debated though recent scholarship makes it all but certain that they are the lateral panels of an altarpiece painted in 1467 for a lay confraternity of flagellants in the hospital church of Santa Maria della Bella in Urbino. The artist of that altarpiece was Fra Carnevale. Vasari (1568) attests that the altarpiece was studied by the young Bramante, who was later to become the architect of Saint Peter's in Rome, and later sources assure us that in the seventeenth century it was confiscated by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, who in 1631 was papal legate to the city. In an inventory of Cardinal Antonio Barberini's possessions in Palazzo Barberini, Rome, drawn up in 1644 (Lavin 1975) we find the following descriptions of the panels in New York and Boston under numbers 13 and 14: "a painting on wood that shows a perspective with some women who greet each other . . . by Fra Carnevale," and "a similar painting that shows a perspective with some women on their way to church . . . by Fra Carnevale" ("Un quadro in tavola che rappresenta una prospettiva con alcune donne che s'incontrano, con cornice tinta di noce con un filetto d'oro, di mano di fra Carnovale per sopra finestra," and "Un quadro simile che rappresenta una prospettiva con alcune donne che vanno in chiesa, con cornice tinta di noce con un filetto d'oro, di mano di fra Carnovale"). From documents published by Carloni (2005) we know that in 1632 the bishop of Urbino wrote to Cardinal Barberini to announce that the "prospettivi" had been sent to Rome in two crates. These must refer to the two panels from Santa Maria della Bella, for three months later payment was made to Claudio Ridolfi for a painting than can only have been the replacement of Fra Carnevale's altarpiece. That work shows the Birth of the Virgin (288 x 185 cm; now in the parish church of Groppello d'Adda), which presumably reflected the dedication of the altar.

    What do we know about the church of Santa Maria della Bella? In 1565 the hospital buildings—including the small church of Santa Maria della Bella—were assigned to the nuns of the Convertite del Gesù, and it is possible that works of art were shifted about within the new convent (see Franco Mazzini, "Urbino, i mattoni e le pietre," Pesaro, 1999, pp. 421–22), confusing their original function. However, apart from Claudio Ridolfi's replacement altarpiece, the only other work certainly from the church (which had three altars) is a fresco of the Crucifixion painted by the late-Gothic Ferrarese artist Antonio Alberti in 1442 (Gallerie Nazionale, Urbino). What deserves consideration is the probability that the secular slant in the paintings is related to their setting in a confraternity oratory.

    Crucial to the identification of the subject of the Metropolitan painting is the woman reclining in a bed and the child standing in a washbasin, both of whom have haloes. (The haloes, done in shell gold, were examined by conservators in 1994 and again in 2004 and there seems no reason to question their authenticity since: 1) where, in the case of the woman in bed, the halo has been partially cleaned off, it has left an impression due to its age; 2) in both cases the haloes are executed in small, hatched strokes, completely in keeping with the painting technique of the artist; and 3) had they been added at a later date, in an effort to clarify the subject, we would expect them to be larger and more conspicuous.) They are notably discreet, but so, for that matter, is the one in Piero della Francesca's "Flagellation", which also has a provenance from Urbino. The second point is that the infant in the New York picture is evidently a girl. Admittedly, the matter is not absolutely certain: in the infant's groin there is a small damage with an adjacent brush stroke that at first glance might suggest a penis. However, in the reliefs that decorate the palace the artist is quite explicit about genitalia, and the child's is closer to that of the nereid on the back of a sea centaur. It may seem remarkably indecorous to show the naked baby Virgin standing in a basin frontally, but Bicci di Lorenzo does precisely this in a predella scene of the birth of the Virgin in an altarpiece in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

    No less notable is that the mother of the child—remarkably young for Saint Anne—is shown lying in bed nude. Virtually every fifteenth-century scene of the birth of the Virgin shows Anne reclining in bed, decorously dressed to receive visitors. Fra Carnevale's departure from this convention would be inexplicable were it not that the three maids attending her—unlike the woman sitting by her—are clothed "all'antica". In other words, the birth has been imagined as a past event refracted through the ceremonies of contemporary life. This was not an uncommon practice: it is also true of Ghiberti's "Gates of Paradise", in which, in the story of Jacob and Esau, only the two youths are shown wearing contemporary clothes. The New York panel nonetheless remains unique for associating the haloed mother with a classical past rather than a fifteenth-century present. In sum, it would seem that the Metropolitan painting does, indeed, show a religious scene involving the birth of a girl, with well-wishers ceremoniously greeting each other in the foreground and men in the portico and background chatting, riding, or bringing home game. It is perhaps an indication of the religious theme that two of the women in the foreground hold prayer beads.

    If Fra Carnevale's approach to the subject of the New York panel may be described as oblique, in the Boston picture it is almost inscrutable. Despite the absence of any haloes, the picture is most often described as showing the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, which, according the "Golden Legend", took place when Mary was three years old. A good deal of license can be found in representations of the scene in the fifteenth century, but they all include Joachim, the Virgin's father, who is nowhere in sight in Fra Carnevale's painting. Moreover, instead of the traditional Jewish priest shown officiating at this event, Fra Carnevale shows three figures gathered at the high altar—apparently a Franciscan, possibly a Dominican or a friar wearing priestly robes, and a hooded figure—while two pilgrims are shown against the right-hand entrance pier. (Is one of these supposed to be Joachim or Joseph?) The remaining figures in the church are exclusively young males who chat, rest, or walk about. Two wear festive wreaths in their hair (one composed of roses, the other of leaves), while the coif of the young girl in blue is adorned with roses and a stem of rose leaves or myrtle. Kanter (1994) reasonably suggested that the scene may show the marriage of the fourteen-year-old Virgin, imagined as an actual, fifteenth-century ceremony, with the prospective bride on her way to church, accompanied by her female relatives and two male guardians (once again, one of the women holds prayer beads). It is far easier to point out the anomalies in the depiction of this scene than it is to suggest an alternative subject. For this reason it is important to point out that the decorative reliefs on the church façade clearly depict events in the Virgin's life—the Annunciation and the Visitation—and that the three marble steps the young girl is about to climb are shown with fissures, as though to denote the passage from one age to another. Typically, this would be the transition from the era under the Law to that of Grace, but there is also the suggestion of the passage from a pagan past, symbolized by the dancing maenad and piping satyr on the bases of the columns and the classical urn with a branch protruding from its opening, to the Christian era, announced by the reliefs above the arches. There would thus seem to be no way around the religious content of both pictures, and the most probable identifications remain the Birth of the Virgin and the Presentation in the Temple or the Marriage of the Virgin.

    There is no basis for conjecturing that the pictures formed part of a larger series or cycle. Not only are the two panels the same size (neither has been cut down), but the scenes are constructed on a precisely mirror-image perspective grid, with the vanishing point located along the left edge of the New York panel and the right edge of the Boston panel, 62 centimeters from the bottom. In both, three stairs divide a foreground space from an interior one, viewed through a large, classical arch. The perspective must have been worked out on a separate piece of paper so that the results could be transferred to both panels by simply flipping the cartoon. The perspective grid was elaborated in greater detail in the New York panel—the incisions are clearly visible in the left background, where a mathematically determined diminution of the figures was wanted—but in both, pinpricks along the vertical edges indicating the transversals were carefully transposed (see Images). This sort of mirror-image type of construction would have made no sense if extended to further narrative panels, and it really only leaves open the possibility of a missing center element with a centralized perspective scheme.

    At the top of both panels are incisions marking off three arcs; in the Metropolitan panel these arcs are cusped. The frame thus had a Gothic profile, with small arches supported on consoles. This type of frame is found in numerous Marchigian altarpieces. The difference here is that they are aligned horizontally, as in an altarpiece by Paolo da Viso (Pinacoteca Civica, Ascoli Piceno). The type of frame indicated could have extended over a center panel or a niche containing a sculpture.

    As has long been acknowledged, architecture is the real protagonist of the compositions. In the New York panel the setting is a grand, secular palace bearing affinities with the Ducal Palace of Urbino. The character of the two ex-Barberini panels can, indeed, only be explained by the culture of the court of Urbino: of Federigo da Montefeltro, whose keen interest in architecture as well as in perspective is well known, and of his counselor-relative Ottaviano Ubaldini, who Giovanni Santi (Raphael's father) says painters and sculptors looked upon as a father. (Documents actually place Fra Carnevale in close touch with Ottaviano.) It is in this regard that the similarities of certain details in the panels with decorative elements in the palace become significant. The Montefeltro eagle that decorates the right hand spandrel of the palace in the New York panel is as though copied from the coat of arms above the fireplace of the Sala della Jole. The pseudo-antique reliefs bear a close, stylistic affinity with the bacchic frieze on that same fireplace, while the dolphin capitals of the column within the palace in the New York panel bear a striking similarity to those framing the main door into the Sala della Jole.

    Fra Carnevale's name occurs in a sixteenth-century list of engineers who had been employed on the Ducal Palace, along with Luciano Laurana and Francesco di Giorgio, and it has been forcefully argued that prior to 1468 and the appointment of Laurana as chief architect, the Dominican painter had a hand in the planning of the Sala della Jole (see Strauss 1979, pp. 136–41; and Borsi 1997, pp. 60–62). That he did architectural designs has received confirmation from a document of 1455 in which he is mentioned as the author of designs for capitals for the cathedral of Urbino. The ex-Barberini paintings only make sense if we think of them as addressed not only to the confraternity members but to Federico and Ottaviano.

    [2010]

  • Provenance

    church of Santa Maria della Bella, Urbino (until 1632; confiscated by Cardinal Antonio Barberini); Cardinal Antonio Barberini, Palazzo Barberini, Rome (1632–d. 1671; inv., 1644, no. 13, as by "fra Carnovale"; inv., 1671, no. 405; estate inv., 1672, no. 336); his nephew, Maffeo Barberini, principe di Palestrina, Palazzo Barberini, Rome (1672–d. 1685; inv., after 1672, no. 161); the Barberini family, Palazzo Barberini, Rome (1685–1934; cat., 1817, no. 29, as by Botticelli); by descent to Eleonora Corsini, marchesa Antinori, and Giuliana Corsini, baronessa Ricasoli, Florence (1934–35); [Knoedler, New York, 1935; sold to MMA]

  • Exhibition History

    London. Royal Academy of Arts. "Italian Art, 1200–1900," January 1–March 8, 1930, no. 114 (as Attributed to Fra Carnevale) [commemorative ed., 1931, no. 124].

    New York. M. Knoedler & Co.. "24 Masterpieces," November 4–23, 1946, no. 7 (as by Fra Carnevale).

    Hartford. Wadsworth Atheneum. "Fifty Painters of Architecture," October 30–December 7, 1947, no. 10 (as Attributed to Fra Carnevale).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Art Treasures of the Metropolitan," November 7, 1952–September 7, 1953, no. 80 (as by Fra Carnevale(?)).

    New York. Wildenstein. "The Italian Heritage," May 17–August 29, 1967, no. 5a (as by the Master of the Barberini Panels).

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 16–November 1, 1970, unnumbered cat. (p. 17, as by the Master of the Barberini Panels).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 15, 1970–February 15, 1971, no. 186 (as by the Master of the Barberini Panels).

    Washington. National Gallery of Art. "Italian Renaissance Architecture: Brunelleschi, Sangallo, Michelangelo—The Cathedrals of Florence and Pavia, and St. Peter's, Rome," December 18, 1994–March 19, 1995, no. 3.

    Milan. Pinacoteca di Brera. "Fra Carnevale: un artista rinascimentale da Filippo Lippi a Piero della Francesca," October 13, 2004–January 9, 2005, no. 45a.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master," February 1–May 1, 2005, no. 45A.

    Urbino. Galleria Nazionale delle Marche. "La città ideale: l'utopia del rinascimento a Urbino tra Piero della Francesca e Raffaello," April 6–July 8, 2012, no. 3.4.

  • References

    Giorgio Vasari. Le vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori. 1906 ed. Florence, 1568, vol. 4, pp. 147–48, mentions a "tavola" by Fra Carnevale in the church of Santa Maria della Bella in Urbino.

    Inventory of Cardinal Antonio Barberini. 1644, p. 2, no. 13 [published in Ref. Lavin 1975, p. 158], as by fra Carnovale [sic].

    Inventory of Cardinal Antonio Barberini. 1671, p. 506, no. 405 [published in Ref. Lavin 1975, p. 312], as by Fra Carnevale.

    Inventory of Bequests of Cardinal Antonio Barberini. 1672, p. 15, no. 336 [published in Ref. Lavin 1975, p. 349], as by Fra Carnevale.

    Inventory of Maffeo Barberini, principe di Palestrina. after 1672, Sec. E, p. 1, no. 161 (with Boston picture) [published in Ref. Lavin 1975, p. 369], without attribution.

    Pope Clement XI. Diary entry. 1703 [published in Ref. Ottino della Chiesa 1969, p. 87], writes that the high altar of the church of Santa Maria della Bella in Urbino formerly had a painting by Fra Carnevale which was taken to Rome by Cardinal Antonio Barberini and replaced with one by Claudio Veronese [Ridolfi].

    Andrea Lazzari. Delle chiese di Urbino e delle pitture in esse esistenti. Urbino, 1801, pp. 73–74, describes Fra Carnevale's commission for the altarpiece of the church of Santa Maria della Bella, Urbino, in 1467; states that the work was removed by Antonio Barberini and replaced with a copy by Ridolfi (now in the church at Gropello d'Adda).

    V. Camuccini. Oggetti di pittura dell'eccellentissima casa Barberini. 1817, no. 29 [published in Filippo Mariotti, "La legislazione delle belle arti," 1892, p. 128; see Ref. Zeri and Gardner 1980], as by Sandro Botticelli.

    James Dennistoun. Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino. London, 1851, vol. 2, pp. 198–200, notes that after the devolution of the duchy of Urbino to the Holy See both this picture and the one in Boston passed to Pope Urban VIII and then to his successor Prince Barberini, and that they are now located in the prince's home in Rome; adds that the subjects are unknown and that the two pictures are misattributed to Mantegna; gives them to Piero della Francesca.

    J[oseph]. A[rcher]. Crowe and G[iovanni]. B[attista]. Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy: Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Milan, Friuli, Brescia, from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century. London, 1871, vol. 1, p. 350 n. 4 (from p. 349), observe that although the two panels are labelled Botticelli in the Barberini collection, they are more like the work of Zoppo.

    August Schmarsow. Melozzo da Forli. Berlin, 1886, p. 107, attributes the MMA and Boston panels to Luciano Laurana.

    Adolfo Venturi. "Nelle pinacoteche minori d'Italia." Archivio storico dell'arte 6, no. 6 (1893), pp. 416–17, pl. VII, identifies the subject of the MMA picture as the Birth of the Virgin and that of the Boston picture as the Presentation of the Virgin, and attributes both works to Fra Carnevale, associating them with Lazzari's [see Ref. 1801] description of the altarpiece executed by Fra Carnevale in 1467 for Santa Maria della Bella.

    "Le gallerie fidecommissarie romane." Gallerie nazionali italiane 1 (1894), p. 85, attributes the two panels to Fra Carnevale.

    G[ustavo]. F[rizzoni]. "Miscellanea: Notizie concernenti oggetti d'arte." Archivio storico dell'arte, 2nd ser., 1, no. 5 (1895), pp. 396, 400, rejects Venturi's [see Ref. 1893] identification of the MMA and Boston panels with Fra Carnevale's altarpiece for Santa Maria della Bella, noting that the presumed copy at Gropello d'Adda is much larger and different in composition from the MMA work.

    G[iovanni]. B[attista]. Cavalcaselle and J[oseph]. A[rcher]. Crowe. Storia della pittura in Italia. 8, Florence, 1898, pp. 268–70, attribute it to a follower of Piero della Francesca influenced by Boccati and Matteo da Gualdo.

    Cornelio Budinich. Il Palazzo ducale d'Urbino. Trieste, 1904, p. 107, notes the attribution to Fra Carnevale but considers the architectural details too rude for an artist who took an important part, as did Carnevale, in the constructions at Urbino.

    Jacob Burckhardt. Der Cicerone: Eine Anleitung zum Genuss der Kunstwerke Italiens. part 3, 2, 9th ed. Leipzig, 1904, p. 678, believes that there is insufficient evidence for the attribution to Fra Carnevale; ascribes it to an artist of the school of Padua, influenced by Piero della Francesca.

    C[ornelio]. v[on]. F[abriczy]. "Ein Bild von Luciano da Laurana." Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft 27 (1904), p. 190, rejects the attribution to Laurana.

    G[ustavo]. Frizzoni. "Review of Ref. Lafenestre and Richtenberger 1905." L'arte 8, no. 50 (1905), p. 393, believes there is insufficient evidence for the attribution to Fra Carnevale.

    Georges Lafenestre and Eugène Richtenberger. Rome: les musées, les collections particulières, les palais. Paris, 1905, p. 155, attribute it to Fra Carnevale.

    James Dennistoun. Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino. new ed. [first ed., 1851]. London, 1909, vol. 2, p. 210 n. 1, rejects Dennistoun's attribution to Piero [see Ref. 1851].

    Art. Jahn Rusconi. "Nuovi quadri nella Galleria Barberini." Vita d'arte 4 (September 1909), pp. 402–3, ill., attributes it to Fra Carnevale, calling it the Birth of the Virgin in the text and the Visitation in the caption to the illustration.

    Walter Bombe. "Die Kunst am Hofe Federigos von Urbino." Monatshefte für Kunstwissenschaft 5, no. 11 (1912), p. 471.

    Walter Bombe in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. 6, Leipzig, 1912, p. 20, rejects the identification with the altarpiece of Santa Maria della Bella, and calls it Ferrarese, suggesting that it may have been part of the wall decoration of the ducal palace in Urbino.

    J[oseph]. A[rcher]. Crowe and G[iovanni]. B[attista]. Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy: Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Milan, Friuli, Brescia, from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1871]. London, 1912, vol. 2, p. 53 n. 5 (from p. 52), Borenius identifies the subjects of the MMA and Boston pictures and states that they are now labelled Fra Carnevale.

    August Schmarsow. Joos van Gent und Melozzo da Forli in Rom und Urbino. Leipzig, 1912, pp. 207–10, agrees with Venturi [see Ref. 1893] in identifying it with the altarpiece for Santa Maria della Bella, and notes the influence of Boccati.

    Conrad de Mandach. "L'importance de Jacopo Bellini dans le développement de la peinture italienne." Archives de l'art français, n.s., 7 (1913), pp. 52–70, ill., attributes it to a painter of Urbino, dates it about 1475, and suggests that the subject may be the birth of Saint Nicholas of Bari; relates it to drawings by Jacopo Bellini.

    A[dolfo]. Venturi. "La pittura del quattrocento." Storia dell'arte italiana. 7, part 2, Milan, 1913, pp. 108–12, fig. 87, withdraws his former opinion [see Ref. 1893] and ascribes the panel to a painter from Urbino influenced by Piero della Francesca, perhaps through the mediation of Fra Carnevale.

    Paul Zucker. Raumdarstellung und Bildarchitekturen im Florentiner Quattrocento. Leipzig, 1913, p. 146.

    J[oseph]. A[rcher]. Crowe and G[iovanni]. B[attista]. Cavalcaselle. "Umbrian and Sienese Masters of the Fifteenth Century." A History of Painting in Italy: Umbria, Florence and Siena from the Second to the Sixteenth Century. 5, London, 1914, p. 29 n. 1, Borenius observes that the composition of this picture is quite different from the presumed copy of Carnevale's painting at Gropello d'Adda, and considers a provenance from the ducal palace probable.

    F[elix]. Witting. "Luciano da Lauranna als Maler." Jahrbuch der königlich preuszischen Kunstsammlungen 36 (1915), pp. 209, 212–14, pl. 3, rejects the attribution to Carnevale and associates the MMA and Boston pictures with Bernardino Baldi's description of paintings executed by Luciano Laurana [in "Memorie concernenti la città di Urbino," Rome, 1724, pp. 44–45].

    Fiske Kimball. "Luciano Laurana and the 'High Renaissance'." Art Bulletin 10 (December 1927), p. 131 n. 22, rejects the attribution to Laurana and implies that he rejects the attribution to Fra Carnevale.

    Raimond van Marle. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. 11, The Hague, 1929, pp. 106–10, fig. 70, attributes it to the school of Piero, identifies the subject as the Visitation, and dates it about 1470 or shortly after.

    Charles Holmes. "The Italian Exhibition." Burlington Magazine 56 (February 1930), p. 56, pl. IIIB, calls it the Visitation, and connects it with Carlo Crivelli.

    Exhibition of Italian Art, 1200–1900. Exh. cat., Royal Academy of Arts. London, 1930, pp. 84–85, no. 114 [commemorative ed., 1931, vol. 1, p. 43, no. 124; vol. 2, pl. XLVIII], as Attributed to Fra Carnevale.

    Fernanda Wittgens. "The Contributions of Italian Private Collections to the Exhibition at Burlington House." Apollo 11 (February 1930), p. 78, fig. V, attributes it to an anonymous painter of Urbino only somewhat influenced by Piero.

    Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 342, lists it as by the Master of the Carrand Triptych (Giovanni di Francesco), dates it about 1465, and calls it the Visitation.

    Arduino Colasanti. Die Malerei des XV. Jahrhunderts in den italienischen Marken. Florence, 1932, pp. 79–82, 125 n. 37, pl. 69, attributes it to a fifteenth-century painter working in Urbino and identifies the subject as scenes from the life of the Virgin.

    Gazzetta ufficiale del Regno d'Italia 75 (May 5, 1934), p. ?, no. 28 under Allegato B, in the announcement of the breaking of the entailment of the Barberini collection, lists this picture as the Birth of the Virgin by Fra Carnevale and values it at 150,000 lire.

    Luigi Serra. "Il periodo del rinascimento." L'arte nelle Marche. 2, Rome, 1934, p. 331, remarks on the influence of Piero della Francesca.

    Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 279, doubtfully lists it as a work of the Master of the Carrand Triptych.

    Harry B. Wehle. "A Painting Attributed to Fra Carnevale." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 31 (March 1936), pp. 59–66, figs. 2, 3 (detail), attributes it to an artist who probably studied in Florence and was active in Urbino in the 1460s, who was influenced by Piero della Francesca, and who may also have been an architect—perhaps Carnevale.

    C. C. Cunningham. "A Great Renaissance Panel." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 35 (August 1937), pp. 46–50, fig. 2, finds it impossible to say with certainty whether the MMA and Boston pictures were painted by Fra Carnevale or by another painter; mentions the name of Lorenzo da Viterbo in connection with them.

    Charles C. Cunningham. "An Italian Masterpiece for Boston." Art News 35 (June 5, 1937), pp. 9, 20, 23, believes that "the painter of the two panels was probably an Umbrian who was familiar with the artistic production of Florence, Perugia, Rimini, and possibly of Ferrara and Padua" and that it cannot be determined if this artist was Fra Carnevale.

    F. Mason Perkins. Letter. March 24, 1938, rejects the attribution to Fra Carnevale, and calls it possibly if not probably the work of a Ferrarese painter strongly influenced by Piero della Francesca.

    Richard Offner. "The Barberini Panels and their Painter." Medieval Studies in Memory of A. Kingsley Porter. 1, Cambridge, Mass., 1939, pp. 205–53, ill. (overall and details), considers the MMA and Boston panels to have been parts of a larger series, which was probably set into the walls of a room; attributes them to the same hand as the Annunciation in the National Gallery of Art, Washington (about 1450; no. K 407) and a Crucifixion belonging to an art dealer in Rome (now Cini collection, Venice), calling the author the Master of the Barberini Panels.

    George Martin Richter. "Rehabilitation of Fra Carnevale." Art Quarterly 3 (Fall 1940), pp. 311–24, fig. 1, attributes the two panels to Fra Carnevale, to whom he also attributes the Washington Annunciation, a Madonna and Child (Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass.), and a Crucifixion (ex-Gualino collection and Italian Embassy, London; now Galleria Sabauda, Turin); dates the MMA picture about 1470–74 and the Boston picture about 1474–78.

    Georg Swarzenski. "The Master of the Barberini Panels: Bramante." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 38 (December 1940), pp. 90–97, fig. 16a (detail), attributes the two panels to Bramante, comparing them to an engraving after a design by that artist (British Museum, London; and private collection, Milan).

    Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, pp. 105–7, ill., attributes it to "Fra Carnevale (?)"; believes that the identification of the painting at Gropello d'Adda as Ridolfi's copy of the Santa Maria della Bella altarpiece is probably erroneous.

    George Martin Richter. "Architectural Phantasies by Bramante." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 23 (January 1943), pp. 5–6, confirms the attribution to Fra Carnevale.

    H[arry]. B. W[ehle]. "Notes on the Cover." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 3 (May 1945), inside cover, ill., and ill. on cover (detail, color).

    Roberto Longhi. Piero della Francesca. 2nd ed. Milan, [1946], pp. 137–38, 158, suggests attributing the two panels to Bartolomeo Caporali.

    Roberto Papini. Francesco di Giorgio Architetto. Florence, 1946, vol. 1, p. 150, mentions the two panels, noting their relationship to the views of ideal cities in Berlin, Urbino, and Baltimore, and to the stories of San Bernardino in Perugia.

    Millia Davenport. The Book of Costume. New York, 1948, vol. 1, p. 272, no. 743, ill. (cropped) and frontispiece (color detail).

    Federico Zeri. "A proposito di Ludovico Urbani." Proporzioni 2 (1948), p. 170 n. 4, doubts Offner's [see Ref. 1939] grouping of the Master of the Barberini Panels.

    Pasquale Rotondi. "Contributi urbinati al Bramante pittore." Emporium 113 (March 1951), pp. 120, 122, 129 nn. 14, 17, hesitantly attributes it to Bramante and dates it about 1468.

    Roberto Longhi. "Il 'Maestro di Pratovecchio'." Paragone 3 (November 1952), p. 19, attributes the two panels to Bartolomeo Caporali.

    Art Treasures of the Metropolitan: A Selection from the European and Asiatic Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1952, p. 224, no. 80, colorpl. 80.

    William Suida. Bramante pittore e il Bramantino. Milan, 1953, p. 24, rejects the attribution to Bramante, calling Fra Carnevale a possible though unproven author.

    Federico Zeri. "Il Maestro dell'Annunciazione Gardner." Bollettino d'arte 38 (April–June 1953), pp. 130–31, accepts Offner's [see Ref. 1939] grouping, adding to it an Annunciation in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich, a Saint John the Baptist in the Palazzo Apostolico, Loreto, and other works.

    Theodore Rousseau Jr. "A Guide to the Picture Galleries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 12, part 2 (January 1954), ill. p. 14.

    Stefano Bottari. "Il rinascimento (Parte I): l'arte del Quattrocento." Storia dell'arte italiana. 2, Milan, 1956, p. 339, fig. 460, as by the Master of the Barberini Panels.

    Millard Meiss. "Contributions to Two Elusive Masters." Burlington Magazine 103 (February 1961), pp. 61–62, accepts the attributions of Offner and Zeri, adding to the group a portrait of Emperor Frederick III in the Uffizi, Florence.

    Federico Zeri. Due dipinti, la filologia e un nome: il Maestro delle Tavole Barberini. Turin, 1961, pp. 11ff., ill. (overall and details) and frontispiece (color detail), discusses the Master of the Barberini Panels, suggesting that he should be identified with the painter Giovanni Angelo di Antonio da Camerino.

    Alessandro Parronchi. "Leon Battista Alberti as a Painter." Burlington Magazine 104 (July 1962), pp. 280–87, figs. 2, 4, 13 (details), A (drawing with perspective layout), identifies the author of the Barberini panels as Alberti, suggesting that these are the paintings mentioned by Vasari as the small stories with some perspectives in a predella in the chapel of Santa Maria delle Grazie al Ponte alla Carraia in Florence; dates the panels 1438–43; rejects the heraldic eagles as connected with the Montefeltro family, and interprets the eye of a dolphin in the clouds as the personal emblem of Alberti.

    Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Florentine School. London, 1963, vol. 1, p. 141; vol. 2, pls. 698, 699 (detail), lists this work, the panel in Boston, and the Washington Annunciation as by the Master of the Barberini Panels; dates it about 1465–70.

    Roberto Longhi. Piero della Francesca, 1927: con aggiunte fino al 1962. [3rd ed.]. Florence, 1963, pp. 131, 199, 204, rejects both Zeri's [see Ref. 1961] and Parronchi's [see Ref. 1962] identifications of the artist and attributes the panels to Bartolomeo Caporali.

    Alessandro Parronchi. Studi su la dolce prospettiva. Milan, 1964, pp. 437–67, pls. 150 (overall), 152a, 158, 159b, 163b (details), 156a (drawing with perspective layout).

    Fred Licht. "For Florence, from Florence." Art News 66 (May 1967), pp. 44, 47, ill. (overall and color detail), suggests a relationship between this picture and the lost fresco of San Egidio by Veneziano, Piero della Francesca, and Castagno; dates it about 1475; suggests that it and the Boston panel formed part of a larger series of the life of the Virgin.

    Eugenio Battisti. Letter. April 25, 1968, attributes it to Fra Carnevale.

    Arnaldo Bruschi. Bramante architetto. Bari, 1969, pp. 72–73 n. 43, lays out the history of attribution of the Barberini panels; doubts an attribution to Bramante but believes a definite conclusion to be impossible.

    Angela Ottino della Chiesa. Dipinti della Pinacoteca di Brera in deposito nelle chiese della Lombardia. 1, [Milan], 1969, p. 89, calls the altarpiece by Claudio Ridolfi currently on deposit at the church of Groppello d'Adda a free interpretation of this work.

    Pietro Zampetti. La pittura marchigiana da Gentile a Raffaello. [Milan], [1970?], pp. 87–88, 90, figs. 74, 75 (detail), accepts the attributions advanced by Zeri and his identification of the artist with Giovanni Angelo di Antonio da Camerino [see Ref. 1961].

    Eugenio Battisti. Piero della Francesca. Milan, 1971, vol. 1, pp. 314–15, 501–2 n. 360; vol. 2, pp. 53–54, 56, 100, fig. 166, reprints the document of 1467 in which Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra Carnevale) is mentioned as the author of the high altarpiece of Santa Maria della Bella; associates the MMA and Boston panels with that altarpiece—as a diptych—and calls them documented works of Fra Carnevale; postulates their influence on the work of Piero della Francesca.

    Pietro Zampetti. Giovanni Boccati. [Venice], 1971, pp. 12, 19, 194, under no. 12, fig. 141.

    Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 125, 300, 607, as by the Master of the Barberini Panels.

    Leon Battista Alberti, On Painting and On Sculpture: The Latin Texts of 'De Pictura' and 'De Statua'. London, 1972, pp. 153–54, pl. IV, questions Parronchi's attribution to Alberti [see Ref. 1962] and the association with the altarpiece in the chapel on the Ponte alla Carraia, considering the attribution to Giovanni Angelo di Antonio [see Ref. Zeri 1961] more probable.

    Marilyn Aronberg Lavin. Seventeenth-Century Barberini Documents and Inventories of Art. New York, 1975, pp. 158, 312, 349, 369, 474, 716, publishes inventories of the Barberini family.

    Alessandro Conti in "Un Libro Antico della Sagrestia di Sant'Ambrogio." Annali della Scuole Normale Superiore di Pisa 6 (1976), pp. 105–9, publishes payments received by Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra Carnevale) in 1445 as a pupil of Filippo Lippi; attributes the head of an angel in Lippi's Coronation of the Virgin (Uffizi, Florence) to Carnevale, and on the basis of this identifies him as the Master of the Barberini Panels but rejects the notion that the two panels formed an altarpiece.

    Dante Bernini in Palazzo ducale di Urbino: storia di un museo. Exh. cat., Palazzo Ducale. Urbino, 1977, p. 89, doubts Zeri's hypothesis [see Ref. 1961] that the panels formed part of the interior decoration of the alcove in the ducal palace at Urbino, but considers the question unresolved.

    Keith Christiansen. "For Fra Carnevale." Apollo 109 (March 1979), pp. 198–201, identifies the MMA and Boston pictures as the lateral wings of Fra Carnevale's Santa Maria della Bella altarpiece, whose central element may have been either a painting or a sculpture; attributes to the same master an angel in Filippo Lippi's altarpiece of the Coronation of the Virgin (Pinacoteca Vaticana).

    Monica Strauss. "The Master of the Barberini Panels: Fra Carnevale." PhD diss., Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, 1979, pp. 1ff., figs. 9–17 (overall and details).

    Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, pp. 229, 233, fig. 407.

    Troy M. Thomas. "Classical Reliefs and Statues in Later Quattrocento Religious Paintings." PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1980, pp. 69–73, 91 n. 39, p. 302, no. 193, figs. 36, 37, 39 (details), attributes the two panels to the Master of the Barberini Panels and dates them about 1460; identifies the subject of the MMA picture as the Visitation and the Birth of the Virgin; discusses the three reliefs at the top of the work.

    Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Sienese and Central Italian Schools. New York, 1980, pp. 36–40, pls. 74, 75 (overall and detail), catalogue the painting as by the Master of the Barberini Panels and suggest that it and the Boston companion piece are not likely to date much after 1480.

    Franco Mazzini. I mattoni e le pietre di Urbino. Urbino, 1982, p. 521.

    Keith Christiansen. "Early Renaissance Narrative Painting in Italy." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 41 (Fall 1983), pp. 21, 24, 26, 29–30, fig. 19 (color), ill. pp. 24–25, 27, 28, back cover (color details) and p. 29 (detail).

    Maria Grazia Ciardi Duprè Dal Poggetto in Urbino e le Marche prima e dopo Raffaello. Exh. cat., Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. Florence, 1983, pp. 43–49, no. 5b, ill., follows Zeri in identifying the artist with Giovanni Angelo da Camerino; believes that the two panels came from the Appartamento della Jole, and based on the architectural detail dates them about 1455–65; interprets the settings as ideal representations of the palace and cathedral of Urbino.

    Paolo Dal Poggetto in Urbino e le Marche prima e dopo Raffaello. Exh. cat., Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. Florence, 1983, pp. 50, 53.

    Rodolfo Battistini in La pittura in Italia: il Quattrocento. revised and expanded ed. [Milan], 1987, vol. 2, pp. 681–82.

    Dieter Jansen. "Fra Filippo Lippis Doppelbildnis im New Yorker Metropolitan Museum." Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch 48/49 (1987–88), p. 106, fig. 11, erroneously as in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

    Pietro Zampetti. "Dalle origini al primo Rinascimento." Pittura nelle Marche. 1, Florence, 1988, pp. 394–96, 399, colorpl. 187 and frontispiece (color detail), attributes the two panels to Giovanni Angelo di Antonio.

    Paul Joannides. "A Portrait by Fra Carnevale." Source: Notes in the History of Art 8 (Spring 1989), pp. 7, 10 nn. 4, 5, attributes the MMA and Boston panels to Fra Carnevale and states that both compositions derive from Donatello.

    Fert Sangiorgi. "Fra Carnevale e la tavola di Santa Maria della Bella di Urbino." Notizie da Palazzo Albani no. 2 (1989), pp. 15–21, figs. 2, 4, accepts the identification of the MMA and Boston panels with Fra Carnevale's altarpiece for Santa Maria della Bella, noting that the church was part of a hospital, which may partly explain the secular slant given the religious subjects treated.

    Andrea De Marchi in Pittura di luce: Giovanni di Francesco e l'arte fiorentina di metà Quattrocento. Exh. cat., Casa Buonarroti, Florence. Milan, 1990, p. 205, attributes the two panels to Fra Carnevale and tentatively identifies them with the Santa Maria della Bella altarpiece.

    Paolo Dal Poggetto in Piero e Urbino, Piero e le Corti rinascimentali. Exh. cat., Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. Venice, 1992, pp. 301–5, 307–10, 315, ill. (color), rejects the association of the panels with the Santa Maria della Bella altarpiece together with the identity of the artist with Fra Carnevale; believes the pictures were painted for the ducal palace and that their author is likely to have been Giovanni Angelo da Camerino.

    Keith Christiansen. "A Drawing for Fra Carnevale." Master Drawings 31, no. 4 (1993), pp. 365, 367 n. 10, fig. 3 (detail).

    Creighton Gilbert. "The Function of the Barberini Panels." Studi per Pietro Zampetti. Ancona, 1993, pp. 146–52, accepts the attribution to Fra Carnevale, but disassociates the panels from the Santa Maria della Bella altarpiece and denies that they show the Birth of the Virgin and the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, suggesting instead that they were made as illustrations of the charitable progam of the hospital to which Santa Maria della Bella was attached.

    Robert Echols in The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo: The Representation of Architecture (Supplement). Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1994, unpaginated, no. 423, ill.

    Laurence B. Kanter. "13th–15th Century." Italian Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 1, Boston, 1994, p. 213, fig. 45, under no. 66.

    Benedetta Montevecchi in Claudio Ridolfi: Un pittore veneto nelle Marche del '600. Exh. cat., Complesso Conventuale, Corinaldo. Ancona, 1994, p. 152, rejects the idea that the altarpiece replaced by Claudio Ridolfi's painting can be identified with the Barberini panels.

    Claudio Strinati in Rinascimento da Brunelleschi a Michelangelo: la rappresentazione dell'architettura. Exh. cat., Palazzo Grassi, Venice. Milan, 1994, p. 503, under no. 121 [English ed., "The Renaissance from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo: The Representation of Architecture," Milan, 1994], relates it to an engraving of a temple interior by Bernardo Prevedari after a drawing by Bramante.

    Maurizio Calvesi. "La 'Città ideale' di Baltimora: le piazze del paradiso." Art e dossier no. 104 (September 1995), p. 29.

    Stefano Valeri. "Le 'Tavole Barberini' e Fra Carnevale: un maestro in prospettiva." Art e dossier no. 104 (September 1995), pp. 30–33, ill. (color, overall and detail), relates the woman at foreground left to the Virgin in Lippi's "Coronation of the Virgin" in the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.

    Daniele Benati. "Il 'Maestro delle tavole Barberini': un ritratto." Nuovi studi 1 (1996), pp. 25–28 n. 8, fig. 45 (detail), accepts the attribution to Fra Carnevale and Christiansen's reconstruction of the altarpiece [see Ref. 1979].

    Arnaldo Bruschi. "Urbino: architettura, pittura e il problema di Piero 'architetto'." Città e corte nell'Italia di Piero della Francesca. Venice, 1996, pp. 275–80 nn. 23–24, pp. 283–85, 287, 299–300, fig. 9, reproduces (fig. 15) an interpretation of the floor plan of the architectural space of the picture; discusses the two Barberini panels in the context of contemporary architectural currents in Urbino.

    Keith Christiansen in The Dictionary of Art. 20, New York, 1996, p. 623, in the entry for the Master of the Barberini Panels, expresses support for identifying the MMA and Boston panels with Carnevale's Santa Maria della Bella altarpiece, rejecting the identification of the Master as Giovanni Angelo di Antonio da Camerino.

    Keith Christiansen in The Dictionary of Art. 5, New York, 1996, p. 782, in the entry for Fra Carnevale, states that the MMA and Boston panels have been identified with the Santa Maria della Bella altarpiece.

    Bonita Cleri. "Fra' Carnevale e la cultura prospettica urbinate." Città e corte nell'Italia di Piero della Francesco. Venice, 1996, pp. 354–59, figs. 4, 6 (overall and details).

    Stefano Borsi. "Il maestro di Bramante: fra Carnevale." Bramante e Urbino: il problema della formazione. Rome, 1997, pp. 11–72, ill. (overall, details, diagrams of perspectival scheme), attributes the MMA and Boston panels to Fra Carnevale.

    Maria Cristina Bandera. Benvenuto di Giovanni. Milan, 1999, pp. 92–93, mentions the Barberini panels in connection with a triptych by Benvenuto di Giovanni dated 1475 (Vescovado di Murlo, San Fortunato).

    Giacomo Berra. "Immagini casuali, figure nascoste, e natura antropomorfa nell'immaginario artistico rinascimentale." Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz 43, no. 2–3 (1999), p. 375, fig. 11 (detail), attributes it to Fra Carnevale and dates it about 1475.

    Claudia Cieri Via. "Ornamento e varietà: riflessi delle teorie albertiane nella produzione artistico-figurativa fra '400 e '500." Leon Battista Alberti: architettura e cultura. Florence, 1999, pp. 236–37, fig. 2, attributes the MMA and Boston pictures to the Master of the Barberini Panels.

    Alessandro Parronchi. "Ancora sull'Alberti pittore." Leon Battista Alberti: architettura e cultura. Florence, 1999, pp. 251–64.

    Stefano Valeri. "Le Tavole Barberini." Ars 4 (March 2000), pp. 136, 138–42, ill. (color, overall and details), discusses the theme of Charity.

    Miklós Boskovits in Italian Paintings of the Fifteenth Century. Washington, 2003, pp. 181, 184–85 n. 17.

    Paolo Dal Poggetto. "Il punto sul 'Maestro delle Tavole Barberini'." I da Varano e le arti. Camerino, 2003, vol. 2, pp. 747–57, fig. 1.

    Anna Maria Ambrosini Massari. "L'ambiguo destino del falso Piero: panoramica delle fonti per Bartolomeo Corradini." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 363–64 n. 4, pp. 366–71, 374–76 n. 39, pp. 377–78.

    Marisa Baldelli. "La 'Natività della Vergine' di Claudio Ridolfi per Santa Maria della Bella." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 253–63.

    Roberta Bartoli. "Le fonti della scultura 'ficta' nelle Tavole Barberini." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 215–16, 219, 221–28, figs. 18, 21–22, 26 (details).

    Rodolfo Battistini. "Pittura del Quattrocento nelle Marche tra Tardo Gotico e Rinascimento." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, p. 96, relates the Barberini Panels to a fresco cycle by Giovanni Angelo d'Antonio in the ducal palace, Camerino.

    Giordana Benazzi. "Le 'Storie della Vergine' di fra' Filippo nel Duomo di Spoleto e un possibile lippismo tra Umbria e Marche." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 179–80, 184–85, 188–89, figs. 6, 9 (details), relates the windows at top to those in the Palazzo del Capitano del Popolo, Perugia, the woman at foreground left to the Virgin in Lippi's "Coronation of the Virgin" in the Uffizi [see Ref. Valeri 2000], and the woman at foreground right to Lippi's "Portrait of a Woman" (Staatliche Museen, Berlin).

    Arnaldo Bruschi. "Le architetture nelle Tavole Barberini e la formazione di Bramante." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 237, 239–46, 248–50, 252.

    Maurizio Calvesi. "Le tavole Barberini di Fra' Carnevale." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 206–12, fig. 4 (detail).

    Maria Grazia Ciardi Dupré Dal Poggetto. "Spunti e riflessioni su fra' Bartolomeo Corradini soprannominato fra' Carnevale." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 101–16, 118–20, figs. 1, 9 (overall and detail), calls it Birth of the Virgin and other stories; believes that the Barberini Panels were made for an entrance hall or reception room, not as an altarpiece.

    Claudia Cieri Via. "Disegno architettonico, decorazione e narrazione nella pittura urbinate del Quattrocento." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 127–31, 134, fig. 1.

    Bonita Cleri. "Per Bartolomeo Corradini." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 7–14.

    Franco Negroni. "Documenti negli archivi urbinati riguardanti Bartolomeo Corradini." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 17, 21, corrects the date of a document published in Ref. Sangiorgi 1989 from December 31, 1467, to December 31, 1466, indicating that the altarpiece destined for the high altar of the church of Santa Maria della Bella was almost completed by that date.

    Giovanna Perini. "Presentazione." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 4–5.

    Jeffrey Ruda. "Un 'maestro' ed alcuni suoi 'discepoli': la pratica ed il significato di imitazione artistica nella metà del Quattrocento." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 149–50, 155–56, 160–61.

    Anna Tambini. "Due polittici a confronto: un contributo per Fra Carnevale." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 297–98, 301–3, 310, 312–16, fig. 18 (proposed reconstruction), in an appendix to her essay, proposes a reconstruction of the Santa Maria della Bella altarpiece with the MMA picture on top and the Boston picture at bottom left next to a third work possibily depicting the Dormition of the Virgin.

    Laura Teza. "Influssi adriatici nel ciclo perugino dei 'Miracoli di S. Bernardino'." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 327–28, 334–36, 350 n. 46, p. 351, fig. 3, relates it to "The Healing of a Sterile Woman" (Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria, Perugia), attributed by her to Sante di Apollonio.

    Stefano Valeri. "Il tema della Concordia nelle 'Tavole Barberini'." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, pp. 271–79, 281–82, 284–86, figs. 1, 8 (overall and detail).

    Roberta Bartoli in Il Rinascimento a Urbino: Fra' Carnevale e gli artisti del Palazzo di Federico. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino. Milan, 2005, pp. 215, 217–20, 224, 226–29 nn. 16, 30, 35, figs. 10a, 10b, 20, 23, 25, 29 (details).

    Roberto Bellucci and Cecilia Frosinini in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 315–16, 322–29 n. 27, p. 330 nn. 72, 86, figs. 1, 25 (details, raking light), 17 (detail), colorpls. 3, 4 (with Boston picture, perspective diagrams), 5–8 (details, raking light), pl. 14 (x-radiograph) [Ital. ed., "Fra Carnevale . . . ," Milan, 2004].

    Livia Carloni in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 306–8, ill. (detail) [Italian ed., "Fra Carnevale: un artista rinascimentale da Filippo Lippi a Piero della Francesca," Milan, 2004], discusses the confiscation of the Barberini Panels by Cardinal Antonio Barberini in 1632, publishing a letter of July 30, 1532 from Emilio Santorio, Archbishop of Urbino, to the Cardinal, detailing the shipment of the "prospettive" packed in two chests; tentatively suggests that, rather than forming the altarpiece of the church of Santa Maria della Bella, the two panels were part of a reliquary cupboard located to the left of the high altar mentioned in two reports of pastoral visits of 1608 and 1622.

    Ciro Castelli and George Bisacca in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 354–61 nn. 1, 13, 17, 20, figs. 1 (raking light), 15 (reverse), 16, 18, 19 (details, raking light), 17 (detail, reverse), 20, 22 (details, x-rays), 21 (with Boston picture, graphic view) [Italian ed., "Fra Carnevale . . . ," Milan, 2004].

    Matteo Ceriana in Il Rinascimento a Urbino: Fra' Carnevale e gli artisti del Palazzo di Federico. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino. Milan, 2005, pp. 171, 173, 175, under no. 45.

    Matteo Ceriana in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 99, 101, 104, 111, 119–20, 122–25, 127, 135 nn. 155, 189, figs. 6, 53, 63–66 (overall and details), p. 250, fig. 3 (detail) [Italian ed., "Fra Carnevale: un artista rinascimentale da Filippo Lippi a Piero della Francesca," Milan, 2004], refers to "the dolphin-shaped clouds" in this picture [see Ref. Parronchi 1962]; suggests that the woman standing in profile at lower right is "an idealized representation" of Battista Sforza, relating the figure to a portrait relief in the Museo Civico, Pesaro.

    Keith Christiansen in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 39, 45, 50, 61–62, 164, 176, 240, 248, 258, 263–64, 266, 280, 282, no. 45A, ill. p. 260 (color), ill. on cover, pp. 10, 262 (color details), figs. 1 (detail, raking light), 2 (x-radiograph), 3 (detail) [Ital. ed., "Fra Carnevale . . . ," Milan, 2004].

    Keith Christiansen in Il Rinascimento a Urbino: Fra' Carnevale e gli artisti del Palazzo di Federico. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino. Milan, 2005, pp. 136, 139, under no. 29.

    Emanuela Daffra in Il Rinascimento a Urbino: Fra' Carnevale e gli artisti del Palazzo di Federico. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino. Milan, 2005, pp. 167–68, 170, under no. 44, pp. 211–13.

    Emanuela Daffra in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 23–36 nn. 20, 22, 28, 30, 39, p. 37 nn. 58, 67–68, 70, pp. 246, 268, figs. 6, 14 (overall and detail) [Italian ed., "Fra Carnevale: un artista rinascimentale da Filippo Lippi a Piero della Francesca," Milan, 2004].

    Andrea De Marchi in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 67–68, 72–74, 81–82, 86–87, 89–90, 182, 211, figs. 7, 17, 24, 39 (details) [Italian ed., "Fra Carnevale: un artista rinascimentale da Filippo Lippi a Piero della Francesca," Milan, 2004].

    Philippe de Montebello and Maria Teresa Fiorio in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 11–13 [Italian ed., "Fra Carnevale: un artista rinascimentale da Filippo Lippi a Piero della Francesca," Milan, 2004].

    Andrea Di Lorenzo in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, p. 223 [Italian ed., "Fra Carnevale: un artista rinascimentale da Filippo Lippi a Piero della Francesca," Milan, 2004].

    Alessandro Marchi in Il Rinascimento a Urbino: Fra' Carnevale e gli artisti del Palazzo di Federico. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino. Milan, 2005, p. 31.

    Alessandro Marchi and Maria Rosaria Valazzi in Il Rinascimento a Urbino: Fra' Carnevale e gli artisti del Palazzo di Federico. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino. Milan, 2005, pp. 15–16, ill. p. 14 (detail).

    Matteo Mazzalupi in From Filippo Lippi to Piero della Francesca: Fra Carnevale and the Making of a Renaissance Master. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2005, pp. 301–2, under doc. 20 [Italian ed., "Fra Carnevale: un artista rinascimentale da Filippo Lippi a Piero della Francesca," Milan, 2004].

    Mauro Minardi. "Intorno a Fra Carnevale: novità e interrogativi di una mostra milanese." Arte Cristiana 93 (September–October 2005), pp. 325–26, 328, 331–36, 338 nn. 27, 29, p. 339 n. 40, p. 340 nn. 48, 58, figs. 3, 11, 12, 14 (details).

    Luke Syson. "Fra Carnevale." Burlington Magazine 147 (February 2005), pp. 136–38, agrees with Carloni [see Ref. 2005] that the Barberini Panels were probably executed by Fra Carnevale for a reliquary cupboard in Santa Maria della Bella at about the same time that he painted the altarpiece, which is now lost.

    Maria Rosaria Valazzi in Il Rinascimento a Urbino: Fra' Carnevale e gli artisti del Palazzo di Federico. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino. Milan, 2005, pp. 38–39, fig. 2 (detail).

    Pierre Rosenberg. Only in America: One Hundred Paintings in American Museums Unmatched in European Collections. Milan, 2006, p. 38, ill.

    Emanuele Lugli. "Connoisseurship as a System: Reflections on Federico Zeri's 'Due dipinti, la filologia e un nome'." Word & Image 24 (April–June 2008), pp. 162–75, fig. 1.

    Christian K. Kleinbub. "Bramante's 'Ruined Temple' and the Dialectics of the Image." Renaissance Quarterly 63 (Summer 2010), pp. 430, 432, 434, fig. 5.

    Silvia Blasio in La città ideale: l'utopia del rinascimento a Urbino tra Piero della Francesca e Raffaello. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino. Milan, 2012, p. 148.

    Keith Christiansen in La città ideale: l'utopia del rinascimento a Urbino tra Piero della Francesca e Raffaello. Exh. cat., Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino. Milan, 2012, pp. 162–65, no. 3.4, ill. (color, overall and detail).



  • See also
    Who
    What
    Where
    When
    In the Museum
    Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
    MetPublications
435848

Close