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Madame Cézanne (Hortense Fiquet, 1850–1922) in the Conservatory

Paul Cézanne (French, Aix-en-Provence 1839–1906 Aix-en-Provence)

Date:
1891
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
36 1/4 x 28 3/4 in. (92.1 x 73 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Bequest of Stephen C. Clark, 1960
Accession Number:
61.101.2
  • Gallery Label

    Hortense Fiquet, a former artist’s model, met Cézanne about 1869; they had a son in 1872, fourteen years before they married. This painting, one of more than two dozen for which Hortense posed, is set in the conservatory of the Jas de Bouffan, the Cézanne family estate near Aix. The unfinished canvas offers a revealing glimpse into Cézanne’s working method. He placed Madame Cézanne’s carefully modeled head slightly off-center, cradled between a lush tree and a spindly plant, and then proceeded to build up the rest of the pyramidal composition, touch by exacting touch.

  • Provenance

    Paul Cézanne fils, Paris (until at least October 1907); [Ambroise Vollard, Paris, by 1909–11; sold with another Cézanne (Rewald cat. rais. no. 729) for Fr 50,000 on April 28, 1911, to Morozov]; Ivan Abramovich Morozov, Moscow (1911–18); Museum of Modern Western Art, Moscow (1918–33; cat., 1928, no. 560; sold on May 9, 1933 through Knoedler to Clark); Stephen C. Clark, New York (1933–d. 1960)

  • Exhibition History

    Paris. Galerie Vollard. "Exposition Paul Cézanne," November–December 1895, no catalogue [see Vollard 1914].

    Vienna. Secession. 1907, no. 19? [see Ternovietz 1925 and Rewald 1996].

    Paris. Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées. "Salon d'automne," October 1–22, 1907, no. 25 (as "La Dame en noir," lent by M. Pellerin) [sic; presumed error in catalogue; this painting was lent by Cézanne fils; see departmental archives].

    Berlin. Paul Cassirer. "III. Ausstellung," November 17–December 12, 1909, no. 17 (as "Freilichtbildnis: Madame Cézanne").

    London. Grafton Galleries. "Manet and the Post-Impressionists," November 8, 1910–January 15, 1911, no. 11 (as "Portrait de Mme. Cézanne," lent by M. Vollard).

    Vienna. Galerie Miethke. February 1911, no catalogue.

    Moscow. Museum of Modern Western Art. "Paul Cézanne (1839–1906), Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890)," 1926, no. 15.

    Art Institute of Chicago. "A Century of Progress," June 1–November 1, 1934, no. 296 (as "Mme Cézanne in the Conservatory," lent anonymously).

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Modern Works of Art," November 20, 1934–January 20, 1935, no. 5 (lent by a private collection).

    New York. Century Club. "French Masterpieces of the Nineteenth Century," January 11–February 10, 1936, no. 17 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, Esq.).

    Cleveland Museum of Art. "Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition," June 26–October 4, 1936, no. 254 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    San Francisco Museum of Art. "Paul Cézanne: Exhibition of Paintings, Water-colors, Drawings and Prints," September 1–October 4, 1937, no. 27.

    New York. Durand-Ruel. "Exhibition of Masterpieces by Cézanne," March 29–April 16, 1938, no. 16 [see Rewald 1996].

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Art in Our Time," May 10–September 30, 1939, no. 60.

    New York. World's Fair. "Masterpieces of Art: European & American Paintings, 1500–1900," May–October 1940, no. 341 (lent by Mr. Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    New York. Paul Rosenberg & Co.. "Paintings by Cézanne (1839–1906)," November 19–December 19, 1942, no. 15 (lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. Century Association. "Paintings from the Stephen C. Clark Collection," June 6–September 28, 1946, unnum. checklist (as "Madame Cézanne").

    New York. Wildenstein & Co., Inc.. "Cézanne," March 27–April 26, 1947, no. 48 (lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. M. Knoedler Galleries. "To Honor Henry McBride: An Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings, and Water Colours," November 29–December 17, 1949, no. 2 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, Esq.).

    Art Institute of Chicago. "Cézanne: Paintings, Watercolors & Drawings," February 7–March 16, 1952, no. 68 (lent by Mr. Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Cézanne: Paintings, Watercolors & Drawings," April 4–May 18, 1952, no. 68 (lent by Mr. Stephen C. Clark, New York).

    New York. M. Knoedler & Co.. "A Collectors Taste: Selections from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark," January 12–30, 1954, no. 12.

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Paintings from Private Collections," May 31–September 5, 1955, no. 17 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition," July 1–September 1, 1958, no. 16 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition," July 7–September 7, 1959, no. 9 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    New Haven. Yale University Art Gallery. "Paintings, Drawings, and Sculpture Collected by Yale Alumni," May 19–June 26, 1960, no. 76 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition," July 6–September 4, 1960, no. 9 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 16–November 1, 1970, unnumbered cat. (p. 82).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 15, 1970–February 15, 1971, not in catalogue.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, not in catalogue.

    Naples. Museo di Capodimonte. "Capolavori Impressionisti dei Musei Americani," December 3, 1986–February 1, 1987, no. 7.

    Milan. Pinacoteca di Brera. "Capolavori Impressionisti dei Musei Americani," March 4–May 10, 1987, no. 7.

    Yokohama Museum of Art. "Treasures from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: French Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century," March 25–June 4, 1989, no. 92.

    Essen. Museum Folkwang. "Morozov and Shchukin—The Russian Collectors: Monet to Picasso," June 25–October 31, 1993, no. 34.

    Moscow. Pushkin Museum. "Morozov and Shchukin—The Russian Collectors: Monet to Picasso," November 30, 1993–January 30, 1994, no. 34.

    St. Petersburg [Leningrad]. Hermitage. "Morozov and Shchukin—The Russian Collectors: Monet to Picasso," February 16–April 16, 1994, no. 34.

    Stockholm. Nationalmuseum. "Cézanne," October 17, 1997–January 11, 1998, no. 7.

    Washington. National Gallery of Art. "Cézanne in Provence," January 29–May 7, 2006, no. 37.

    Aix-en-Provence. Musée Granet. "Cézanne in Provence," June 9–September 17, 2006, no. 37.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. "The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920," February 4–May 6, 2007, no. 78.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings," May 22–August 19, 2007, no. 55.

  • References

    Julius Meier-Graefe. Impressionisten. 2nd ed. Munich, 1907, ill. p. 201, dates it about 1885.

    Rainer Maria Rilke. Letter to Clara Rilke. October 16, 1907 [Engl. transl. published in Rainer Maria Rilke, "Letters on Cézanne," New York, 1985, pp. 57–58], mentions "those touchingly tentative portraits of Madame Cézanne" at the 1907 Salon d'Automne and describes the public's distaste for them.

    C. J. Holmes. Notes on the Post-Impressionist Painters: Grafton Galleries, 1910–11. London, 1910, p. 20.

    Julius Meier-Graefe. Paul Cézanne. 3rd ed., rev. and expanded. Munich, 1910, ill. p. 46, dates it about 1885.

    K. R. "Ausstellungen: Wien." Der Cicerone 3 (1911), p. 233, identifies this work among five Cézanne paintings being shown on the upper floor of the Galerie Miethke [Exh. Vienna 1911].

    Sergei Makovsky. "Catalogue Les Artistes Français de la Collection I. Morozoff à Moscou." Apollon 3, nos. 3–4 (1912), p. 23, ill. after p. 28, as "Portrait de Mme Cézanne".

    Jean Royère. "Paul Cézanne, Erinnerungen." Kunst und Künstler 10 (July 1912), ill. p. 479.

    Fritz Burger. Cézanne und Hodler: Einführung in die Probleme der Malerei der Gegenwart. Munich, 1913, vol. 1, pp. 86–87; vol. 2, pl. 69.

    Ambroise Vollard. Paul Cézanne. [Eng. ed., 1923]. Paris, 1914, p. 58, pl. 24, calls it "Portrait de Madame Cézanne dans la serre" and dates it 1891; lists it among the paintings in the Cézanne exhibition at the Vollard gallery in 1895.

    Julius Meier-Graefe. Entwicklungsgeschichte der modernen Kunst. 3, 2nd ed. Munich, 1915, pl. 497, locates it in the Morosoff [sic] collection, Moscow.

    Roger Fry. "'Paul Cézanne' by Ambroise Vollard." Burlington Magazine 31 (August 1917), p. 61, pl. 3, calls it "Madame Cézanne in a Greenhouse" and dates it 1891.

    Max Deri. Die Malerei im XIX. Jahrhundert. Berlin, 1920, vol. 1, pp. 201–3; vol. 2, pl. 46.

    Georges Rivière. Le Maître Paul Cézanne. Paris, 1923, p. 218, states that it was painted at the Jas de Bouffan; locates it as still in the Morozov collection, Moscow.

    [Boris Nikolaevich] Ternovietz. "Le Musée d'Art Moderne de Moscou." L'Amour de l'art 6 (December 1925), p. 470, ill. p. 473, states that this work was exhibited by Vollard in 1895, in Vienna in 1907, and the Salon d'automne of 1907; asserts that it was once owned by Pellerin and that Morozov bought it from Vollard in 1911 for Fr 35,000.

    Paul Ettinger. "Die modernen Franzosen in den Kunstsammlungen Moskaus." Der Cicerone 18, no. 4 (1926), p. 111, ill. p. 114.

    Julius Meier-Graefe. Cézanne. London, 1927, p. 63, pl. XCIII, locates it as still in the Morozov collection, Moscow.

    Christian Zervos. "Idéalisme et Naturalisme dans la peinture moderne, II.—Cézanne, Gauguin, Van Gogh." Cahiers d'art 2 (1927), ill. p. 333, locates it in the Museum of Modern Art, Moscow.

    Musée d'art moderne de Moscou: Catalogue illustré. Moscow, 1928, p. 98, no. 560, pl. 25, as from the Morozov collection.

    Louis Réau. Catalogue de l'art français dans les musées russes. Paris, 1929, p. 100, no. 742.

    Harry Adsit Bull. "Modern French Paintings in Moscow." International Studio 97 (October 1930), p. 24.

    Joachim Gasquet. Cézanne. Berlin, 1930, ill. opp. p. 148.

    John Becker. "The Museum of Modern Western Painting in Moscow—Part I." Creative Art 10 (March 1932), p. 200, ill. p. 195.

    Georges Rivière. Cézanne: le peintre solitaire. Paris, 1933, p. 145, states that it was painted in the summer of 1891.

    Art News 32 (May 12, 1934), ill. p. 3, states that it has been "recently acquired by a prominent private collector from the Museum of Modern Western Art, Moscow, through the agency of the Knoedler Galleries".

    Modern Works of Art. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1934, pp. 11, 23, no. 5, pl. 5.

    Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 28 (April–May 1934), pp. 51–52, ill., notes that it will be exhibited for the first time in America at the Century of Progress exhibition [Exh. Chicago 1934].

    A Century of Progress Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 1934, p. 46, no. 296, pl. L.

    Gerstle Mack. Paul Cézanne. New York, 1935, p. 341.

    Lionello Venturi. "Cézanne." L'Arte 6 (September 1935), pp. 393–94, pl. IX, fig. 19, dates it shortly after 1890.

    Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition. Exh. cat., Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, 1936, p. 100, no. 254, pl. LXV, erroneously lists it in the 1904 Salon d'automne.

    Alfred M. Frankfurter. "French Masterpieces, 1850–1900: An Important Loan Exhibition of Painting Currently at the Century Club." Art News 34 (February 1, 1936), p. 6, ill. on cover.

    Charles Sterling in Cézanne. Exh. cat., Musée de l'Orangerie. Paris, 1936, p. 146, under no. 160, catalogues a pencil study for this picture, dated about 1888 (National Gallery of Art, Washington; Ref. Chappuis 1973, no. 1068).

    Augustus Vincent Tack. Exhibition of French Masterpieces of the Nineteenth Century. Exh. cat., Century Club. New York, 1936, unpaginated, no. 17, ill., erroneously lists it in the Salon d'automne of 1904 and states that it was sold by Pellerin to Vollard.

    Lionello Venturi. Cézanne: son art—son oeuvre. Paris, 1936, vol. 1, pp. 60–61, 188, no. 569; vol. 2, pl. 181, no. 569, dates it about 1890; comments that it disproves the myth of Cézanne's hostility toward women; considers this picture to be unfinished, noting that the bare canvas is visible; calls it "une des expressions de grâce les plus profondes que Cézanne ait jamais atteint dans un portrait de femme".

    Alfred M. Frankfurter. "Cézanne: Intimate Exhibition. Twenty-one Paintings Shown for the Benefit of Hope Farm." Art News 36 (March 26, 1938), p. 17, ill. p. 15, dates it about 1890; discusses it in relation to "Madame Cézanne Sewing" (about 1877; Nationalmuseum, Stockholm; V291, R323).

    Alfred M. Frankfurter. "Cézanne in New York." Burlington Magazine 72 (May 1938), p. 243.

    Robert J. Goldwater. "Cézanne in America: The Master's Paintings in American Collections." Art News Annual, section I (The 1938 Annual), 36 (March 26, 1938), p. 156, ill. on cover (color).

    A Treasury of Art Masterpieces, from the Renaissance to the Present Day. New York, 1939, pp. 533–35, colorpl. 130, remarks that all of the portraits of Madame Cézanne are unfinished.

    James W. Lane. "Thirty-three Masterpieces in a Modern Collection: Mr. Stephen C. Clark's Paintings by American and European Masters." Art News Annual 37 (February 25, 1939), p. 133, ill. p. 138, remarks that the head is "a distinct entity above the diagonal conservatory wall and emphatically separate from the black dress below it".

    Art in our Time. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1939, unpaginated, no. 60, ill.

    John Rewald. Cézanne: Sa vie, son oeuvre, son amitié pour Zola. Paris, 1939, p. 346.

    Alfred M. Frankfurter. "383 Masterpieces of Art." Art News, (The 1940 Annual), 38 (May 25, 1940), p. 64, ill. p. 39 (color), calls it one of the most successful paintings of Cézanne's wife.

    R. H. Wilenski. Modern French Painters. New York, [1940], p. 346, dates it 1890.

    "Important Cézanne Survey Staged as Benefit for Fighting French." Art Digest 17 (December 1, 1942), pp. 5, 17, ill.

    [Paul Rosenberg]. Paintings by Cézanne (1839–1906). Exh. cat., Paul Rosenberg & Co. New York, 1942, pp. 17, 30–31, no. 15, ill. p. 55, dates it about 1890.

    Lionello Venturi. "Cézanne, Fighter for Freedom." Art News 41 (November 15–30, 1942), pp. 18–19, ill. (color), dates it about 1890; erroneously states that Clark acquired it in 1931.

    Evelyn Marie Stuart. "Editor's Letters." Art News 41 (January 15–31, 1943), p. 4.

    Preface by Edward Alden Jewell in French Impressionists and Their Contemporaries Represented in American Collections. New York, 1944, ill. p. 135 (color), calls it "Mme. Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it 1890.

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. New York, 1946, ill. p. 413, calls it "Mme Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it about 1890.

    Howard Devree. "Stephen C. Clarks Open Art Show at Home to Help Fresh Air Association of St. John." New York Times (April 2, 1948), p. 21.

    Bernard Dorival. Cézanne. [English ed., 1948]. Paris, 1948, pp. 59, 61, 163–64, pl. 112, dates it about 1890.

    Alonzo Lansford. "Clark Collection Shown for Charity." Art Digest 22 (March 15, 1948), p. 9, notes that this picture can be seen at 46 East 70th Street when Clark opens his home to the public from April 1–3.

    Henry McBride. To Honor Henry McBride: An Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings and Water Colours. Exh. cat., M. Knoedler Galleries. 1949, unpaginated, no. 2, ill., dates it 1891.

    C. A. "L'Art moderne français dans les collections des musées étrangers—I. Musée d'Art Moderne Occidental à Moscou." Cahiers d'art 25, no. 2 (1950), p. 338, no. 16, lists it as formerly in the Morozov collection.

    Lionello Venturi. Impressionists and Symbolists. 2, New York, 1950, pp. 134–35, fig. 134, calls it "Madame Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it about 1890.

    James M. Carpenter. "Cézanne and Tradition." Art Bulletin 33 (September 1951), p. 182.

    Marion Downer. Paul Cézanne. New York, 1951, unpaginated, ill.

    Daniel Catton Rich in Cézanne: Paintings, Watercolors & Drawings. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. [Chicago], 1952, pp. 62, 65, no. 68, ill. on cover (color), dates it about 1890.

    Theodore Rousseau Jr. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Miniatures: Paintings by Paul Cézanne. 35, New York, 1952, unpaginated, ill. (color), calls it "Hortense Cézanne, the Artist's Wife" and dates it about 1890; notes the possible influence of Ingres in the linear outline of the figure.

    Meyer Schapiro. Paul Cézanne. 1st ed. New York, 1952, pp. 82–83, ill. (color), dates it about 1890 and calls it unfinished; comments that it is a rare example of the interplay of foreground and background in Cézanne's oeuvre and compares it in this respect to the portrait of Gustave Geoffroy (Musée d'Orsay, Paris; V692, R791).

    Winthrop Sergeant. "Cézanne." Life 32 (February 25, 1952), p. 76, ill. (color).

    Theodore Rousseau Jr. Paul Cézanne (1839–1906). New York, 1953, unpaginated, colorpl. 21, dates it about 1890 and calls it the "most elegant" of all of Cézanne's portraits.

    A Collector's Taste: Selections from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark. Exh. cat., M. Knoedler & Co. New York, 1954, unpaginated, no. 12, ill., dates it about 1890.

    Maurice Raynal. Cézanne. Lausanne, 1954, ill. p. 87 (color), dates it about 1890.

    Introduction by Alfred H. Barr Jr. "Paintings from Private Collections." Museum of Modern Art Bulletin 22 (Summer 1955), pp. 11, 30, no. 17, ill. (installation photo).

    Lionello Venturi. Four Steps Toward Modern Art: Giorgione, Caravaggio, Manet, Cézanne. New York, 1956, p. 72, fig. 29.

    Alfred Neumeyer. Cézanne Drawings. New York, 1958, pp. 24, 46, under no. 36, comments that the "evolution from an accidental sketch" (National Gallery, Washington; Chappuis 1068) to this painting "is a completely logical one".

    Hilton Kramer. "Month in Review." Arts 34 (September 1960), pp. 56–57, ill.

    "Ninety-first Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year 1960–1961." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 20 (October 1961), p. 64, ill., frontispiece (color), dates it about 1891.

    Peter H. Feist. Paul Cézanne. Leipzig, 1963, pp. 17, 32, 76, pl. 47, dates it about 1890; erroneously states that Clark bought it in 1930.

    Kurt Badt. The Art of Cézanne. [German ed., 1956]. Berkeley, 1965, p. 187, mentions this painting as an example of changes in Cézanne's portraits, noting that the sitters are no longer placed before empty backgrounds "but in the midst of objects and in explicit relationship to them; and yet not 'at home' among them".

    Anne H. van Buren. "Madame Cézanne's Fashions and the Dates of Her Portraits." Art Quarterly 29 (1966), pp. 118–21, 123–24 nn. 5, 17, 18, p. 127 n. 18, fig. 12, dates it 1886–87, noting that it could not have been painted before 1883 since the dress appears similar to one advertised in the December 23, 1882 issue of "Le Moniteur de la mode"; argues that Venturi's [Ref. 1936] date of "circa 1890" is too late, contrasting the spontaneity of this portrait with the more abstract, geometric compositions of portraits from the early nineties, such as "Madame Cézanne in a Red Dress" (MMA 62.45) and "The Woman with the Coffee Pot" (Barnes Foundation, Merion, Penn.; V575, R853); compares the thin paint and curved lines of foliage in this picture to "View of Gardanne" (1886; Brooklyn Museum; V431, R571) and suggests that it was made at the time of the Cézannes's marriage; asserts that Madame Cézanne is seated in a walled garden since the conservatory panes are not visible as they are in Cézanne's self-portrait (Kunstmuseum Bern; V366, R415).

    Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX–XX Centuries." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3, New York, 1967, pp. 100–102, 109, ill., date it about 1880 based on the "attractive mood," handling, and apparent age of the sitter; consider it unfinished.

    Richard W. Murphy et al. The World of Cézanne: 1839–1906. New York, 1968, pp. 104–5, ill. (color), and ill. on slipcase, dates it about 1890.

    Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill., dates it about 1880.

    Frank Elgar. Cézanne. New York, [1969], pp. 152, 158, 279, fig. 91, dates it about 1890.

    Jack Lindsay. Cézanne: His Life and Art. Greenwich, Conn., 1969, p. 351, fig. 76, calls it "Hortense in the Greenhouse" in the text and "Madame Cézanne in the Conservatory" in the caption; dates it 1890.

    Wayne Andersen. Cézanne's Portrait Drawings. Cambridge, Mass., 1970, p. 98, under no. 70.

    Sandra Orienti in L'opera completa di Cézanne. [French ed., 1975; English ed., 1985]. Milan, 1970, p. 112, no. 569, ill., dates it 1890.

    Edith A. Standen in Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. New York, [1970], p. 82, ill. (color), dates it about 1880.

    Marcel Brion. Paul Cézanne. Milan, 1972, p. 49, ill. (color), dates it about 1890.

    Adrien Chappuis. The Drawings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné. Greenwich, Conn., 1973, vol. 1, p. 246, under no. 1068, calls the pencil study for this picture (National Gallery of Art, Washington) "fairly close to the painting... though the drawing seems to have been done outdoors".

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. 4th rev. ed. New York, 1973, ill. p. 561, calls it "Mme Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it about 1890.

    John Rewald. "The Impressionist Brush." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 32, no. 3 (1973/1974), pp. 40–41, 46, no. 26, ill. (overall and color detail), dates it about 1891.

    Meyer Schapiro. P. Cézanne. Paris, 1973, unpaginated, colorpl. 27, dates it about 1890.

    Carl R. Baldwin The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Impressionist Epoch. [New York], 1974, ill. p. 18.

    René Huyghe Lydie Huyghe in La Relève du réel: la peinture française au XIXe siècle: impressionnisme, symbolisme. Paris, 1974, p. 435.

    Bernard Dunstan. "Notes on Painting from the Model." American Artist 39 (September 1975), pp. 36–37, ill. (color).

    Sidney Geist. "The Secret Life of Paul Cézanne." Art International 19 (November 20, 1975), pp. 13–14, ill., asserts that "The Large Bathers" (Philadelphia Museum of Art; V719, R857) contains a hidden image of the head of Madame Cézanne, which resembles this portrait.

    Alice Bellony-Rewald. The Lost World of the Impressionists. London, 1976, p. 227, considers it unfinished and calls it "the only lifelike image of Hortense".

    Vivian Endicott Barnett. The Guggenheim Museum: Justin K. Thannhauser Collection. New York, 1978, p. 33, cites 1977 correspondence from Douglas Cooper relating this picture to the Guggenheim's portrait of Madame Cézanne (V525, R582) and dating both about 1883.

    Joyce E. Brodsky. "Cézanne and the Image of Confrontation." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 92 (September 1978), p. 85.

    John Rewald. Letter to Margaretta Salinger. March 3, 1978, states that a photograph of this picture in the Vollard archives is annotated "91" by Cézanne's son, who arrived at Aix with Madame Cézanne during the first half of April 1891; comments that the son, then nineteen, was old enough to remember her posing for this picture, "obviously at the conservatory of the Jas, which has since been changed".

    Lionello Venturi. Cézanne. Geneva, 1978, p. 113, ill. p. 115 (color), dates it about 1890.

    Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, pp. 429–30, fig. 789 (color), dates it about 1880 or later; discusses the tension between the decorative background and solid foreground.

    Robert C. Williams. Russian Art and American Money, 1900–1940. Cambridge, Mass., 1980, p. 34, quotes an April 21, 1933 cable from Charles R. Henschel, president of Knoedler, to his Soviet government contact, the Matthiesen Gallery in Berlin, stating that one of his clients is interested in buying this picture, along with works by Degas (MMA 61.101.7), Van Gogh, and Renoir (MMA 61.101.14); erroneously adds that the sale did not take place.

    Albert Elsen. Purposes of Art. 4th ed. [1st ed. 1962]. New York, 1981, p. 326, fig. 457, dates it about 1890.

    Beverly Whitney Kean. All the Empty Palaces: The Merchant Patrons of Modern Art in Pre-Revolutionary Russia. London, 1983, pp. 116, 124, 322 n. 24.

    John Rewald. Paul Cézanne: The Watercolors, A Catalogue Raisonné. Boston, 1983, p. 132, under no. 194, discusses this picture in relation to a watercolor study of potted plants (about 1885; Musée d'Orsay, Paris), which may also depict the conservatory of the Jas de Bouffan.

    Bruno Ely in Cézanne au Musée d'Aix. Aix-en-Provence, 1984, pp. 192, 195, 221, ill., relates it to Nicolas Van Haeften's "La Bénédicité" (1715) and a portrait of Madame Cézanne of 1885–87, both in the Musée Granet, Aix.

    Jill Anderson Kyle. "Cézanne's 'Les Joueurs de Cartes'." Master's thesis, Rice University, 1985, pp. 86–87, 108 n. 228, dates it 1890; disagrees with the assessment of this painting as unfinished, proposing taking "into account the usefulness of incorporating the neutral underpainting in the total optical effect as a deliberate calculation"; compares the hands in this painting to the relatively finished hands in the "Cardplayers" (Barnes Foundation, Merion, Penn.; V560, R706).

    Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 11, 182–83, 253, ill. (color), calls it unfinished.

    John Rewald. Cézanne: A Biography. New York, 1986, p. 277, ill. p. 191 (color), dates it 1891–92.

    Gary Tinterow et al. Capolavori impressionisti dei musei americani. Exh. cat., Museo di Capodimonte, Naples. Milan, 1987, pp. 24–25, no. 7, ill. (color).

    Gary Tinterow et al. "Modern Europe." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 8, New York, 1987, p. 53, colorpl. 32.

    Sidney Geist. Interpreting Cézanne. Cambridge, Mass., 1988, p. 164, pl. 134, dates it 1890.

    Ettore Camesasca. The São Paulo Collection: From Manet to Matisse. Exh. cat., Rijksmuseum Vincent Van Gogh, Amsterdam. Milan, 1989, p. 112, ill., calls it "Madame Cézanne on the Veranda" and dates it about 1890.

    Gary Tinterow in Treasures from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: French Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Exh. cat., Yokohama Museum of Art. [Tokyo?], 1989, pp. 146–47, no. 92, ill. (color), dates it about 1891; observes that "although clearly unfinished, it is undeniably a monumental work".

    Hajo Düchting. Paul Cézanne 1839–1906: Natur wird Kunst. [Engl. ed., 1999]. Cologne, 1990, p. 155, ill. p. 157 (color), dates it 1891–92.

    Christian Geelhaar in Mary Louise Krumrine. Paul Cézanne: The Bathers. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts. Basel, 1990, pp. 290, 302 n. 113, mentions it among Cézanne pictures copied by Juan Gris from photographs.

    Mary Louise Krumrine. Paul Cézanne: The Bathers. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts. Basel, 1990, pp. 55, 258 n. 85, compares the face of the central standing figure in Cézanne's "The Temptation of Saint Anthony" (about 1870; Foundation E. G. Bührle Collection, Zurich; V103, R167) with several portraits of Madame Cézanne, including this one.

    Walter Feilchenfeldt in Götz Adriani. Cézanne: Gemälde. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Tübingen. Cologne, 1993, p. 310 n. 35, identifies it as no. 17 in Exh. Berlin 1909.

    Albert Kostenevich in Morozov and Shchukin—The Russian Collectors: Monet to Picasso. Exh. cat., Museum Folkwang Essen. Cologne, 1993, pp. 103, 122, 129 n. 166, pp. 336, 387, no. 34, colorpl. 34, ill. pp. 103, 439 (installation photos), p. 355 (color), agrees with Rewald's [Ref. 1986] dating of this picture to 1891–92; discusses its influence on Russian painters who studied the Cézannes in Morozov's collection.

    Maria Teresa Benedetti. Cézanne. [Italian ed., 1995]. Paris, 1995, pp. 170, 186–87, ill. (color), dates it 1891–92.

    Jean-Jacques Lévêque. Paul Cézanne: Le précurseur de la modernité, 1839–1906. Paris, 1995, p. 115, ill. (color), dates it 1890.

    Linda Nochlin. "Cézanne: Studies in Contrast." Art in America 84 (June 1996), p. 66.

    Linda Nochlin. Cézanne's Portraits. Lincoln, Neb., 1996, p. 19.

    John Rewald, in collaboration with Walter Feilchenfeldt, and Jayne Warman. The Paintings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné. New York, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 441–42, 562–63, 567–72, no. 703; vol. 2, p. 241, fig. 703, dates it 1891–92.

    Joseph J. Rishel in Cézanne. Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris. Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 272, 575, fig. 2 [French ed., Paris, 1995], suggests that the conservatory may have been "a small greenhouse [that] once stood in the park of the Jas de Bouffan, near the back entrance to the house and adjacent to the ornamental pool," where Cézanne also painted the watercolors "Flowerpot" (about 1885; Musée d'Orsay, Paris; R194) and "Geraniums" (1888–90; National Gallery of Art, Washington, R213), and the oil, "Geraniums" (1888–90; Barnes Foundation, Merion, Penn.; V602, R702), among other works.

    Görel Cavalli-Björkman in Cézanne i blickpunkten. Exh. cat., Nationalmuseum. Stockholm, 1997, pp. 42–43, no. 7, ill. (color).

    Görel Cavalli-Björkman. "Cézanne i blickpunkten: Focus on Cézanne." Art Bulletin of Nationalmuseum Stockholm 4 (1997), pp. 53–54, ill. (color).

    Albert Kostenevich in Henri Matisse: Four Great Collectors. Exh. cat., Statens Museum for Kunst. Copenhagen, 1999, p. 111.

    Dr. Evelyn Benesch in Cézanne: Finished, Unfinished. Exh. cat., Kunstforum Wien. Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany, 2000, pp. 52–54, fig. 18, dates it 1891–92; mentions this picture as an example of Cézanne's focus on the faces of his sitters and "less concern for such peripheral parts of the body as the hands".

    Christina Feilchenfeldt in Cézanne: Finished, Unfinished. Exh. cat., Kunstforum Wien. Ostfildern-Ruit, 2000, p. 156.

    Mary Tompkins Lewis. Cézanne. London, 2000, pp. 240–43, 252, fig. 149 (color), dates it about 1891–92; comments that it "offers a subtle reworking of a familiar theme in portraiture in which a woman is depicted as a natural component of a flowering, protective environment"; compares it to Manet's "Madame Manet in the Conservatory" (1879; Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo).

    Philippe Cros. Paul Cézanne. Paris, 2002, p. 157, ill. p. 164 (color), calls it "Madame Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it 1891–92; cites it as a reflection of Cézanne's "neurotic concern for distance".

    Albert Kostenevich in Die russische Avantgarde und Paul Cézanne. Exh. cat., Gustav-Lübcke-Museum. Bönen, 2002, pp. 16, 25.

    Nina Maria Athanassoglou-Kallmyer. Cézanne and Provence: The Painter in His Culture. Chicago, 2003, pp. 48–50, fig. 1.37 (color), asserts that the hydrangea (hortensia) in the flowerpot is a pun on the sitter's name; contrasts Madame Cézanne's melancholy appearance with Manet's happier representation of his wife in "La lecture" (1865–73; Musée d'Orsay, Paris).

    Tobias G. Natter. Die Galerie Miethke: Eine Kunsthandlung im Zentrum der Moderne. Exh. cat., Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Wien. Vienna, 2003, pp. 123–24, 157, ill. (color), states that this picture was shown on the first floor of the Galerie Miethke in early 1911 [Exh. Vienna 1911]; erroneously lists it among the Cézanne paintings included in the Galerie Miethke's 1912 exhibition "Französische Meister".

    Denis Coutagne. "Les Paysages du Jas de Bouffan." Jas de Bouffan—Cézanne. Aix-en-Provence, 2004, p. 138, fig. 124 (color).

    Denis Coutagne in Philip Conisbee and Denis Coutagne. Cézanne in Provence. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2006, pp. 91–92, 318, no. 37, colorpl. 37, dates it 1891–92; notes that it is the only outdoor portrait of the sitter.

    Robert Jensen in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, p. 47 n. 88 [French ed., "De Cézanne à Picasso: Chefs-d'oeuvre de la galerie Vollard," Paris, 2007, p. 57 n. 88].

    Albert Kostenevich in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, pp. 253, 255–56 nn. 46, 54 [French ed., "De Cézanne à Picasso: Chefs-d'oeuvre de la galerie Vollard," Paris, 2007, pp. 267–68, 270 nn. 46, 54].

    Sarah Lees in The Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 2006, pp. 245, 248, 251, 315, 321, no. 55, ill. p. 244 (color detail) and fig. 182 (color overall).

    Rebecca A. Rabinow and Jayne S. Warman in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, p. 284.

    Gilbert T. Vincent and Sarah Lees in The Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 2006, p. 156.

    Susan Alyson Stein in Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. 128, 223–24, no. 117, ill. (color and black and white).

    Susan Alyson Stein in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, pp. 112, 189–91, no. 78, ill. (color and black and white).

    Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, p. 11.

    Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, p. xix.

    Carolyn Lanchner in Cézanne and Beyond. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2009, p. 394, fig. 14.14 (color), discusses Giacometti's drawing after this painting (Collection Fondation Alberto et Annette Giacometti, Paris).

    Mary Tompkins Lewis in Gail Stavitsky and Katherine Rothkopf. Cézanne and American Modernism. Exh. cat., Montclair Art Museum. Montclair, 2009, p. 127.

    Susan Sidlauskas. Cézanne's Other: The Portraits of Hortense. Berkeley, 2009, pp. 6, 108–9, 135–36, 147–48, 153, 158–59, 162, 170, 174–75, 178, 186–99, 215, 265 n. 114, p. 266 n. 136, pp. 267–68 nn. 139, 148, colorpl. 1, dates it 1891–92; proposes that Madame Cézanne wears stylish, semisheer fingerless gloves, called "mitaines," in this picture, noting that Lucy Belloli, MMA conservator, disagrees and considers the fingers to be simply unfinished; comments that the jacket could also be sheer, which was fashionable in the 1890s; compares the symmetry and elegance in this portrait to properties of classical sculpture, describing the sitter as a "conceptual and visual hybrid of... the dignified, maternal woman... and the feminized young man"; considers the Guggenheim portrait (V525, R582) to be a "formal and attractive partner" to ours, but suggests that the National Gallery drawing (Chappuis 1068) may not be a study.

    Aviva Burnstock, Charlotte Hale, Caroline Campbell, and Gabriella Macaro in Cézanne's Card Players. Exh. cat., Courtauld Gallery. London, 2010, pp. 40, 43, figs. 14, 15 (color, overall and detail), 18 (digital infrared reflectogram detail).



  • Notes

    A pencil study for the head of Madame Cézanne is in the National Gallery of Art, Washington (V1303; Ref. Chappuis 1973, no. 1068).

  • See also
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