Luxurious outer robes like this one were worn by high-ranking samurai women in the late Edo period. The distinguishing characteristics of this type of overrobe are color and pattern. Usually arrayed on a red or white background, various floral patterns alternate in a blocklike layout with a non-floral pattern, such as stylized waves, fret patterns, or—as here—fans. The flowers on this robe are chrysanthemums, peonies, and cascading wisteria.Although the background colors differ, the pattern of the Japanese robe exhibited here and the pattern of the dress shown in the photo on the right are extremely similar: note the fans, the peonies, and the cascading wisteria. By the 1870s, some Japanese women's overrobes had found their way into the wardrobes of Western women or had been remade into European styles of the time. The dress pictured at the right (now in the collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute) was made in London in 1872.