The stepped cross on these vessels may represent the large cross erected in 420 by the emperor Theodosius II at Golgotha, where Christ was crucified.These vessels were made for Jews and Christians, possibly as tokens for pilgrims visiting the holy sites in Jerusalem or for use in burial rites. They appear to have been mass-produced in a single workshop, since the vessels for the two religions closely resemble each other in shape and style and differ only in the symbols decorating them. The Jewish vessels depict the menorah (candelabrum), shofar (ram’s horn), incense shovel, and lulav (palm branch). The Christian vessels are decorated with several types of crosses. The relief designs were produced by blowing molten glass into a mold.