Working in the cosmospolitan city of Nanjing, Liu Yu was exposed to a wide range of artistic influences. His volumetric mountain masses arrayed in sweeping patterns reflect the influence of Dong Qichang (1555–1636). The pale, dry brushwork set off by jet black foliage dots suggests familiarity with the Anhui School painters, while the fantastic landscape formations and bold juxtapositions of deep distance views with startling close-ups show his indebted-ness to earlier Nanjing painters such as Wu Bin (act. ca. 1583–1626). This fusion of styles was further developed by the great Individualist master Shitao (1642–1707), who lived in Nanjing between 1680 and 1686.