John Smith. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters. 7, London, 1836, pp. 32–33, no. 78, as "The Saviour," in the collection of Sir Bethel Codrington.
C. Vosmaer. Rembrandt, sa vie et ses ouevres. 2nd ed. The Hague, 1877, p. 562, as sold from the Mecklenbourg [Mecklembourg] collection in 1854 for Fr 13,000.
Wilhelm [von] Bode. Studien zur Geschichte der holländischen Malerei. Braunschweig, 1883, p. 522.
Eugène Dutuit. Tableaux et dessins de Rembrandt. Paris, 1885, pp. 58, 60, 70, no. 80, states that the present owner is unknown.
C[ornelis]. Hofstede de Groot. De Rembrandt Tentoonstelling te Amsterdam. Amsterdam, , unpaginated, no. 114.
Malcolm Bell. Rembrandt van Rijn and His Work. London, 1899, p. 85, as in the collection of Count Raczynski in Posen [Poznan].
Wilhelm [von] Bode with the assistance of C. Hofstede de Groot. The Complete Work of Rembrandt. 6, Paris, 1901, p. 9, no. 417, pl. 417, as in the Raczynski collection at Rogalin in Poznan; questions whether this painting depicts Christ, suggesting instead that the facial type, costume, and staff "seem rather to indicate a study of the Savior's brother James"; notes that it was etched by Smith [sic for Schmidt?] and Barnet.
Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. Stuttgart, 1904, p. 262, ill. p. 224.
Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. 3rd ed. Stuttgart, 1909, p. 578, ill. p. 454.
C[ornelis]. Hofstede de Groot. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. 6, London, 1916, pp. 118–19, no. 164, as etched by Schmidt and Barnet; gives provenance information.
Isabella Errera. Répertoire des peintures datées. 1, Brussels, 1920, p. 302, tentatively calls it Christ as a pilgrim.
Wilhelm R. Valentiner. "Die Vier Evangelisten Rembrandts." Kunstchronik und Kunstmarkt, n.s., 32 (December 17, 1920), p. 221, suggests that Rembrandt painted a series of the four Evangelists, with a Virgin and Christ in the center; states that the picture of Christ could have been this work, the one in the Orloff-Davidoff collection in St. Petersburg, or a picture in Munich.
D. S. Meldrum. Rembrandt's Paintings. London, 1923, p. 202, pl. CCCCXIII.
Werner Weisbach. Rembrandt. Berlin, 1926, pp. 498–99, calls it a personification of the spirit of Christ as man.
Max Eisler. Der alte Rembrandt. Vienna, 1927, p. 50, pl. 18, in text, refers to the sitter as a pilgrim; in the plate caption, gives the title as "Christus".
William Gibson. "The Dutch Exhibition at Burlington House." Apollo 8 (December 1928), ill. p. 320.
Édouard Brandus. "La collection des tableaux anciens de M. Jules S. Bache, à New-York." La Renaissance 11 (May 1928), pp. 192–94, ill. p. 189, as "Christ with a Pilgrim's Staff".
Arsène Alexandre. "L'art hollandais à la Royal Academy." La Renaissance 12 (March 1929), p. 122, ill. p. 121.
Walter Heil. "The Jules Bache Collection." Art News 27 (April 27, 1929), p. 4, ill. p. 21 (color).
A Catalogue of Paintings in the Collection of Jules S. Bache. New York, 1929, unpaginated, ill.
Illustrated London News (January 12, 1929), cover, ill. (drawing), depicts it in C. E. Turner's drawing of the Queen viewing the Dutch exhibition at Burlington House.
"The Dutch Art Exhibition." Supplement to the Illustrated London News (Janaury 5, 1929), ill. p. IX.
Royal Cortissoz. "The Jules S. Bache Collection." American Magazine of Art 21 (May 1930), p. 259, ill. p. 256.
W. R. Valentiner. "Important Rembrandts in American Collections." Art News 28 (April 26, 1930), p. 3, ill. following p. 4.
W. R. Valentiner. "Bust of Christ by Rembrandt." Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts of the City of Detroit 12 (October 1930), p. 3, calls this a "resurrected Christ" figure.
Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Rembrandt Paintings in America. New York, 1931, unpaginated, no. 151, pl. 151, repeats his identification of the figure [see Ref. 1930] as a "resurrected Christ".
A[braham]. Bredius. Rembrandt Gemälde. Vienna, 1935, p. 27, no. 629, pl. 629.
A Catalogue of Paintings in the Bache Collection. under revision. New York, 1937, unpaginated, no. 38, ill.
Duveen Pictures in Public Collections of America. New York, 1941, unpaginated, no. 202, ill.
A Catalogue of Paintings in the Bache Collection. rev. ed. New York, 1943, unpaginated, no. 37, ill.
Josephine L. Allen. "The Museum's Rembrandts." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 4 (November 1945), p. 75, ill. p. 77.
Theodore Rousseau Jr. "Rembrandt." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 11 (November 1952), p. 84.
Otto Benesch. "Worldly and Religious Portraits in Rembrandt's Late Art." Art Quarterly 19 (Winter 1956), p. 351, fig. 14, refers to the figure as "Christ the teacher in the Synagogue," and states that the garment is that of an Eastern pilgrim; in figure caption, calls it "Christ or an Apostle".
W. R. Valentiner. "The Rembrandt Exhibition in Holland." Art Quarterly 19 (Winter 1956), p. 400, revises his earlier proposal [see Ref. 1920], suggesting that the central figure of the proposed apostle series is not the MMA work, but a half-length in the Hyde Collection in Glens Falls; believes that the MMA work probably depicts an apostle and did belong to the series.
H.-M. Rotermund. "Wandlungen des Christus-Typus bei Rembrandt." Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch 18 (1956), p. 230, fig. 182, identifies the sitter as a Jewish pilgrim and suggests that the pillar in the background is that of a temple.
Kurt Bauch. Rembrandt Gemälde. Berlin, 1966, p. 13, pl. 241, as possibly belonging to a series of Apostles.
Horst Gerson. Rembrandt Paintings. Amsterdam, 1968, pp. 502–3, no. 369, ill. p. 429, agrees that it must have been part of a series.
Paolo Lecaldano in L'opera pittorica completa di Rembrandt. Milan, 1969, p. 120, no. 397, ill. p. 121.
A[braham]. Bredius. Rembrandt: The Complete Edition of the Paintings. 3rd ed. London, 1969, p. 615, no. 629, ill. p. 530.
Herbert von Einem. "Bemerkungen zum Christusbild Rembrandts." Das Münster 25, no. 5/6 (1972), p. 358, fig. 10, considers it am image of the resurrected Christ on the road to Emmaus.
J. Bolten and H. Bolten-Rempt. The Hidden Rembrandt. Milan, 1977, p. 201, no. 529, ill.
Walter L. Strauss and Marjon van der Meulen. The Rembrandt Documents. New York, 1979, p. 480, list it among works dated 1661.
Maryan W. Ainsworth et al. Art and Autoradiography: Insights into the Genesis of Paintings by Rembrandt, Van Dyck, and Vermeer. New York, 1982, pp. 92, 98 n. 29, p. 99 nn. 62–63, p. 101, pls. 63, 64 (x-radiograph), 65 (autoradiograph), based on autoradiographs, doubts the attribution to Rembrandt.
Colin Simpson. Artful Partners: Bernard Berenson and Joseph Duveen. New York, 1986, pp. 209, 297 [excerpt published in Connoisseur 216 (October 1986), p. 127; British ed., "The Partnership: The Secret Association of Bernard Berenson and Joseph Duveen," London, 1987].
Christian Tümpel. Rembrandt: Mythos und Methode. Königstein, 1986, p. 400, no. 86, ill. p. 342, as "Jakobus der Jüngere" [James the Less], noting that this apostle carried a walking stick.
Christopher Brown in Rembrandt and the Bible. Exh. cat., Sogo Museum of Art, Yokohama. [Tokyo], 1986, pp. 136, 154, no. 12, ill. pp. 68–69 (color, overall and detail) and on cover (color), considers it to be fully autograph and consistent with Rembrandt's work of the 1660s.
Paul Jeromack. "Être Rembrandt ou ne plus l'être." Connaissance des Arts no. 441 (November 1988), p. 103, ill. (color), states that it has been suggested that this is an early work by Aert de Gelder.
Walter Liedtke. "Dutch Paintings in America: The Collectors and Their Ideals." Great Dutch Paintings from America. Exh. cat., Mauritshuis, The Hague. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1990, p. 52.
Pierre Cabanne. Rembrandt. [Paris], 1991, p. 152, no. 19, ill.
Walter Liedtke in "Paintings, Drawings, and Prints: Art-Historical Perspectives." Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2, New York, , pp. 32, 128–30, no. 37, ill. (color), agrees with Sonnenburg [see Ref. 1995] that it is not by Rembrandt, but by a follower; states that it remains possible that it was part of an intended series of apostles; dates it to the 1660s.
Hubert von Sonnenburg. "Paintings: Problems and Issues." Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1, New York, 1995, pp. 6, 30, 53, 74, 118, 120, 126–28, 130, no. 37, ill. (color) and figs. 62 (color detail), 63 (x-radiograph detail), 160 (color detail), ascribes it to an artist in the circle of Rembrandt, perhaps Aert de Gelder; dates it to the 1660s.
Walter Liedtke. "Albert Blankert et al., 'Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact'." Simiolus 26, no. 4 (1998), p. 313.
Christopher Wright. Rembrandt. Paris, 2000, pp. 172, 176, fig. 156 (color), says the image is certainly that of Jesus.
Peter C. Sutton in Rembrandt's Late Religious Portraits. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2005, pp. 111–13, 122, 136–37, no. 12, ill. (color), calls it "The Apostle James the Minor(?)" from the school of Rembrandt.
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. in Rembrandt's Late Religious Portraits. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2005, pp. 29, 110, under no. 11, as "The Apostle James the Minor(?)".
Peter C. Sutton in Rembrandt's Apostles. Exh. cat., Timken Museum of Art. San Diego, 2005, pp. 40–45, ill. (color) [reprint of Ref. Sutton 2005, exh. cat. Washington].
Esmée Quodbach. "The Age of Rembrandt: Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 65 (Summer 2007), p. 42.
Walter Liedtke. Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, vol. 1, p. xi; vol. 2, pp. 708, 766–71, 782, no. 174, colorpl. 174, concludes that it was most likely painted by a close follower of Rembrandt, and that its subject is probably Christ.
Teresa Posada Kubissa in Rembrandt, pintor de historias. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2008, p. 182, identifies the subject as Saint James the Minor.
Lloyd Dewitt et al. in Rembrandt et la figure du Christ. Exh. cat., Musée du Louvre. Paris, 2011, p. 107 n. 48, pp. 113, 120, 198, 251, no. 69, ill. p. 251 (color) and colorpl. 4.8, as by Rembrandt's workshop; date it 1661.
Christopher Brown. "Rembrandt and the Face of Jesus." Burlington Magazine 154 (May 2012), p. 375.