Gilman Collection, Purchase, Sam Salz Foundation Gift, 2005
Not on view
This portrait of Sky Chief (Tirawahut Resaru), a Pawnee, has long been attributed to the frontier photographer William Henry Jackson (1843-1942). Between 1867 and 1869, Jackson acquired two photography studios in Omaha, Nebraska. With one of the businesses, that of Edric Eaton, came a large stock of negatives of Pawnees including the one from which this print was made. Eaton shows the Pawnee chief dressed in a typical late-1860s mix of U.S. military and traditional Native American clothing. Sky Chief, a close ally of the Federal government in its persistent struggle against the Dakota, an enemy of the Pawnee, wears an officer's frock coat with V-shaped cuffs over brightly striped leggings. Around his neck hangs a large, glinting U.S. peace medal, while in his left hand he holds a tomahawk-pipe, a ritual symbol of war and peace. Sky Chief would live only five years after this studio visit. In August 1871 the Dakota murdered his wife, leaving him in charge of his only son. Two years later, after a devasting crop loss, Sky Chief led a small band of hunters into Dakota territory in desperate search of buffalo. The party was attacked by nearly one thousand Dakota warriors and Sky Chief was shot. Before dying, he reportedly slew his three-year-old son so that the child would not be scalped alive, as he himself was, moments later.
Inscription: Inscribed in negative, BL: "560"; printed on mount, recto BC below print: "W.H. Jackson Photo. // Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories. // Prof. F.V. Hayden in Charge."; inscribed in ink, verso TR [sideways]: "P.485 // 560. Sky Chief. (Pawnee)"
[Mack Lee]; Gilman Paper Company Collection, New York, September 3, 1985
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection," May 25, 1993–July 4, 1993.
Edinburgh International Festival, Edinburgh, Scotland. "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection," August 7, 1993–October 2, 1993.
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection," June 19, 1994–September 11, 1994.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Old Faces and Places: American Photographs, 1845-1870," February 3, 2004–April 25, 2004.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Johnson Gallery, Selections from the Collection 42," January 10, 2006–April 23, 2006.
Museum of Modern Art, New York. "Into the Sunset: Photography's Image of the American West," March 29, 2009–June 8, 2009.
Hambourg, Maria Morris, Pierre Apraxine, Malcolm Daniel, Virginia Heckert, and Jeff L. Rosenheim. The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993. no. 120.
Respini, Eva. Into the Sunset: Photography's Image of the American West. New York: Museum of Modern Art, New York, 2009. p. 92, pl. 74.