Exhibitions/ Art Object
{{img.publicCaption}}

Chess Piece in the Form of a Knight

Date:
ca. 1250
Geography:
Made in probably London, England
Culture:
British
Medium:
Walrus ivory
Dimensions:
Overall: 3 1/16 x 2 9/16 x 1 3/8 in. (7.8 x 6.5 x 3.5 cm)
Classification:
Ivories-Walrus
Credit Line:
Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917
Accession Number:
17.190.231
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 304
Board games, especially chess, were integral to medieval courtly culture, as they were regarded as essential to honing tactical skills for the battlefield. Chess pieces fashioned for aristocratic households reflect the chivalric ideals embedded in the game. This piece, probably made in London, of locally available walrus ivory, is one of three that may come from the same high-quality set. This chessman shows a knight on horseback battling a dragon. He wears a shirt and leggings of mail underneath his surcoat and his head is protected by a helmet with narrow slits for the eyes. The knight has just pierced the dragon's head with a sword now unfortunately lost. The virtuosic, three-dimensional carving and the level of spatial invention of the piece are extraordinary, and distinguish it as a masterpiece.
Georges Hoentschel (French, Paris 1855–1915 Paris)(until 1911; sold to Morgan); J. Pierpont Morgan, London and New York (1911–1913); Estate of J. Pierpont Morgan(1913–1917)
Pératé, André. Collections Georges Hoentschel: Ivoires, orfèvrerie religieuse, pierres. Vol. 2. Paris: Librairie Centrale des Beaux-Arts, 1911. no. 18, fig. XV.

Breck, Joseph, ed. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Pierpont Morgan Wing: A Brief Guide to the Art of the Renaissance, Medieval and Earlier Periods. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1918. p. 12.

Koechlin, Raymond. Les Ivoires Gothiques Français: Volume I, Text. Paris: Editions Auguste Picard, 1924. no. 1257, p. 470.

Koechlin, Raymond. Les Ivoires Gothiques Français: Volume II, Catalogue. Paris: Editions Auguste Picard, 1924. no. 1257, p. 439.

Goldschmidt, Adolph. Die Elfenbeinskulpturen aus der romanischen Zeit, XI.-XIII. Jahrhundert. Vol. 4. Berlin: Bruno Cassirer, 1926. no. 267, pp. 8, 52, pl. LXXII.

Longhurst, M. H. English Ivories. London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1926. pp. 38–40, pl. 41, XLVIII.

Kohlhaussen, Heinrich. "Gotisches Kunstgewerbe." In Geschichte des Kunstgewerbes aller Zeiten und Völker, edited by Helmuth Theodor Bossert. Vol. 5. Berlin: E. Wasmuth, 1932. p. 478.

McNab Dennis, Jessie, and Charles K. Wilkinson. Chess: East and West, Past and Present. A Selection from the Gustavus A. Pfeiffer Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1968. no. 7.

Nickel, Helmut. "Sir Gawayne and the Three White Knights." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 28, no. 4 (December 1969). pp. 174-75, fig. 1.

Verdier, Philippe, Peter Brieger, and Marie Farquhar Montpetit, ed. Art and the Courts: France and England from 1259-1328. Vol. 1. Ottowa: National Gallery of Canada, 1972. no. 68b, pp. 151–52.

Verdier, Philippe, Peter Brieger, and Marie Farquhar Montpetit, ed. Art and the Courts: France and England from 1259-1328. Vol. 2. Ottowa: National Gallery of Canada, 1972. no. 68b, pp. 118–19, pl. 92.

Binski, Paul, and Jonathan J. G. Alexander, ed. Age of Chivalry: Art in Plantagenet England, 1200-1400. London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1987. no. 147, p. 148.

Barnet, Peter, ed. Images In Ivory: Precious Objects of the Gothic Age. Detroit: Detroit Institute of Arts, 1997. no. 51, pp. 218–19.

Sears, Elizabeth. "Ivory and Ivory Workers in Medieval Paris." In Images In Ivory: Precious Objects of the Gothic Age, edited by Peter Barnet. Detroit: Detroit Institute of Arts, 1997. no. 51, p. 24.

Bardiès-Fronty, Isabelle, and Anne-Elizabeth Dunn-Vaturi, ed. Art du Jeu, Jeu dans l'Art: De Babylone à l’Occident Médiéval. Paris: Musée National du Moyen Âge - Thermes et Hôtel de Cluny, 2012. no. 120, p.121.

Krohn, Deborah L., Ulrich Leben, and Daniëlle O. Kisluk-Grosheide, ed. Salvaging the Past: Georges Hoentschel and French Decorative Arts from The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York and New Haven: Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts, Design, and Culture, 2013. no. 130, p. 166.



Related Objects

Game Piece with a Scene from the Life of Apollonius of Tyre

Date: ca. 1170 Medium: Walrus ivory Accession: 1996.224 On view in:Gallery 304

Chess Piece in the Form of a Bishop with Two Attendants

Date: 1150–1200 Medium: Walrus ivory Accession: 17.190.229 On view in:Gallery 304

Chess Piece in the Form of a Warder (Rook) or Pawn

Date: 12th century Medium: Whale ivory Accession: 2013.621 On view in:Gallery 14

Chess Piece in the Form of a Queen

Date: 13th century Medium: Whale ivory Accession: 2012.346 On view in:Gallery 14

Chess Piece in the Form of a King

Date: 1350–1400 Medium: Walrus ivory Accession: 2000.153 On view in:Gallery 307