This collection includes portraits produced by Josiah Johnson Hawes before, during, and after his partnership with Albert Sands Southworth. The subjects range from Hawes and Southworth family members to portraits of members of their community. Hawes's changing imprints on the verso of the cartes provide useful information about the history of his business from the late 1850s through the 1870s. There are a small group of portraits by other photographers including the artist's brother, A.F. Hawes, Taunton, MA, and the following firms; Miller & Freeman, Charlestown, MA; Silsbee, Case & Co, Boston, MA; J. W. Black, Boston, MA; and John Adams Whipple, Boston, MA. Included in the lot are two tintypes by unknown makers, and four pieces of ephemera: a calling card of Mrs. Charles E. Hawes; a calling card of Mr. Edward Southworth Hawes; a Hawes Brothers advertisement and price list; and a J.J. Hawes advertisement.
Additional information about verso notations:
A Note on Revenue Stamps:
Many of the Carte de Visites have a Revenue Stamp adhered to the reverse side, this was an additional tax added onto sales of goods to provide additional income for the Civil War efforts. There was an Amendment made in 1864 which required a 2 cent stamp on pictures not over 25 cents, and a 3 cent stamp on images between 25 and 50 cents; this tax was rescinded in 1866. Though some images have inscriptions to the contrary, it is possible to date all images with stamps between 1864 and 1866.
A Note on Backmarks:
There are 37 different Backmarks in this collection of Carte de Visites, 2 of which are Southworth & Hawes and 26 which are Josiah Hawes'. Josiah Hawes seems to have used many cards in the same time period, therefore it is not possible to date the images based on backmark; although there does seem to be a semblance of order to which he used them. The remaining 9 backmarks are that of other photographers, or images with no Backmark at all.
Correlations in George Eastman House Collection:
The inscriptions stating GEH New Book or GEH followed by page number and illustration number reference two sitters books of Josiah Johnson Hawes' (GEH ref. No. Box 21 & 22, Southworth & Hawes Sitters Books 200.442:1-7042); these books show ovular vignettes of the heads of Josiah Hawes' patrons with a numbering system. In his record keeping Josiah Hawes recorded who was photographed, where they lived, how many prints they ordered and how much was paid; these notations were used to identify many of the subjects of this collection.
Many Carte de Visites have been extracted from the Wm. Bond, the Sarah Burr, or the Hannah G. Southworth Album which are all at the George Eastman House in the Ken Appollo Collection; there are photocopies throughout these albums showing images in the MMA Collection. Within the Ken Appollo Collection are various items attributed to Jessie A. Baldwin and the A. Niles Southworth Farm Auction, which corresponds with the notations on some MMA Carte de Visites.