Exhibitions/ Art Object
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Portrait of a Young Man

Artist:
Cosmè Tura (Cosimo di Domenico di Bonaventura) (Italian, Ferrara ca. 1433–1495 Ferrara)
Date:
1470s
Medium:
Tempera on wood
Dimensions:
Overall 11 1/8 x 7 3/4 in. (28.3 x 19.7 cm); painted surface 10 3/4 x 5 1/2 in. (27.3 x 14 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Bequest of Benjamin Altman, 1913
Accession Number:
14.40.649
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 627
This is the only surviving independent portrait by Cosmè Tura, the brilliant court artist at Ferrara. It shows an unidentified member of the ruling Este family. The small, narrow format would have enabled the picture to be slipped into a leather or parchment case and carried about. The profile view prevailed in Italy well into the fifteenth century. For the fascinating conservation history of the picture, see metmuseum.org/collections.
This exquisite portrait of a youth is usually considered the sole survivor of Cosmè Tura's activity as a portrait painter at the Este court of Ferrara. The only other certain portrait by him is the kneeling figure of Cardinal Bartolomeo Roverella on a lateral panel of an altarpiece in the Colonna Collection, Rome. Additionally, Tura has been attributed with the design of three medals of Duke Ercole d'Este, the duchess Eleonora of Aragon, and their son Alfonso, as well as a portrait miniature of the duchess. Tura was employed at the Este court from 1451, but it is only in 1472 that we have a record of him painting portraits. The first was of Duke Ercole I and his illegitimate daughter Lucrezia d'Este; these were painted on canvas to facilitate their shipment to Naples as a gift for Ercole's future wife, Eleonora of Aragon. A pattern was established: in 1477, three portraits of the infant Alfonso d'Este, whose future claim to the duchy had been secured the previous year by the execution of his half-cousin, Niccolò, the son of Leonello d'Este; 1479, a portrait of Lucrezia d'Este to send to her promised husband, Annibale Bentivoglio; 1480, a portrait of the six-year-old Isabella d'Este on the occasion of her betrothal to Francesco Gonzaga; 1485, one of the ten-year-old Beatrice d'Este to her promised spouse Ludovico il Moro (Manca 2000, docs. 74, 96, 101–2, 107, 115). As is evident from this list, the commission of portraits was associated with dynastic ambition, alliances, and the commemoration of important events. Prices varied from three florins for each of the portraits of the infant Alfonso to four for the others (the price for the portraits on canvas is not indicated). Although the portraits are invariably described as taken from life, they are likely to have been bust-length, profile portraits much like the one in the Metropolitan: the sitter accommodated to an accepted formula. Examination of the Metropolitan's portrait with infrared reflectography reveals no underdrawing, and it seems likely that a detailed drawing—"retratto dal naturale"—was employed.

The dates assigned to Tura's portrait range from the mid-1450s to, most recently and convincingly, the mid-1470s (see Syson 1999, and, for a review of the various opinions, Manca 2000). A date in the mid- to late 1470s would be in keeping with Tura's documented activity as court portraitist—a position practiced under Ercole's predecessor, Borso, by Baldassare d'Este. Certainly, the richly described hair, the cascading waves of which offer a perfect foil for the imperturbable expression and minimal modeling of the face, compares favorably with what is found in a Saint Christopher (Gemäldegalerie, Berlin) from an altarpiece that is usually dated no earlier than ca. 1470. As others have noted, the emphasis on a sharply defined profile and the shallow, delicately inflected modeling of the head compare well with the medal of Ercole designed by Tura ca. 1477–78. Although the identity of the sitter remains a matter of conjecture, his profile has features similar to those of Borso d'Este and he is likely a member of the Este family, though none of the identities thus far proposed is completely convincing. The youth wears a green doublet with lacing, or rather arming points, on the sleeves, a fringed tunic (giornea), and a red cap. Arming points were used to secure armor—the vambrace—to the arm, but by around 1450 they had become a fashion accessory independent of their original function (Capwell 2002, pp. 183–84). The sitter is blond and blue-eyed, and his coiffed hair is arranged so as to frame his face with a sharp diagonal, while stray locks on his forehead give visual emphasis to his proudly arched brow and heavy-lidded eye. Tura has made a virtue of the youth's physiognomic weaknesses or defects, such as the overbite, thereby transforming an unexceptional countenance into a perfect expression of nobility.

The Metropolitan's painting has sometimes been thought a fragment from a larger composition. However, in 2010 it was carefully examined and x-rayed. It emerged that the vertical extensions right and left were made over the original panel and that remnants of the original painted edges of the portrait were distinguishable. The background had been overpainted in Prussian blue—a pigment not used in the fifteenth century. Removal of this pigment revealed the original azurite background as well as the panel to which an engaged frame had been attached. The intended format was therefore a very narrow picture field—much like that of Pisanello's portraits. Tura, working within this remarkably constricted format, was nonetheless able to create an indelible image of aristocratic aloofness.

The picture reminds us why it was that the profile portrait remained the preferred form at Italian courts for so long and was only gradually replaced by the three-quarter view.

[Keith Christiansen 2011]
?marchese Giovanni Battista Costabili Containi, Ferrara (by 1838–d. 1841; cat., 1838, no. 22, as "ritratto di nobile giovinetto," by Cosimo Tura); ?his nephew, marchese Giovanni Battista Costabili Containi, Ferrara (from 1841); William Drury Lowe, Locko Park, Derbyshire (by 1857–d. 1877); his son, William Drury Nathaniel Drury-Lowe, Locko Park (1877–d. 1906; cat., 1901, no. 61, as "Portrait of Duke Ercole I of Ferrara," by Francesco Cossa); his son, Lt. Col. William Drury Drury-Lowe, Locko Park (1906–12); [Sulley and Co., London, 1912; sold to Duveen]; [Duveen, London and New York, 1912–13; sold to Altman]; Benjamin Altman, New York (d. 1913)
Manchester. Art Treasures Palace. "Art Treasures of the United Kingdom," May 5–October 17, 1857, no. 50 (as "Portrait of a Youth in Profile," by Pietro [sic] della Francesca, lent by William Drury Lowe).

Leeds City Museum. "National Exhibition of Works of Art," 1868, no. 5 (as "Portrait in Profile of a Youth," by Pietro [sic] della Francesca, lent by Wm. Drury Lowe).

London. Royal Academy of Arts. "Winter Exhibition," January–March 1884, no. 230 (as "Portrait of Sigismundo Malatesta," by Piero della Francesca, lent by William Drury-Lowe).

London. Royal Academy of Arts. "Winter Exhibition," January–March 1893, no. 146 (as "Portrait of Sigismundo Malatesta," by Piero della Francesca, lent by William Drury-Lowe).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini," December 21, 2011–March 18, 2012, no. 79.

Camillo Laderchi. Descrizione della quadreria Costabili. Vol. 1, L'antica scuola ferrarese. Ferrara, 1838, p. 28, no. 22, lists a "ritratto di nobile giovinetto" by Tura, possibly this picture.

Girolamo Baruffaldi. Vite de' pittori e scultori ferraresi. Ed. Giuseppe Boschini. Vol. 1, Ferrara, 1844, p. 85 n. 3, repeats information from Ref. Laderchi 1838.

W. Burger [Théophile Thoré]. Trésors d'art exposés à Manchester en 1857. Paris, 1857, p. 32, attributes it to Piero della Francesca.

[Gustav Friedrich] Waagen. Galleries and Cabinets of Art in Great Britain. London, 1857, p. 498, lists it as by Piero della Francesca among pictures belonging to Drury Lowe.

[Gustav Friedrich] Waagen. A Walk through the Art-Treasures Exhibition at Manchester. Exh. brochure, Art Treasures Palace, Manchester. London, 1857, p. 3, no. 50.

J. A. Crowe and G. B. Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in Italy from the Second to the Fourteenth Century. Vol. 2, London, 1864, pp. 543, 598–99, reject the attribution to Piero, ascribing it to Giovanni Santi and noting a slight resemblance to the style of Melozzo.

Claude Phillips. "Exposition de maîtres anciens à la Royal Academy." Gazette des beaux-arts, 3rd ser., 9 (March 1893), p. 226, rejects the attribution to Piero, ascribing it to Francesco Cossa; notes that Richter concurs and that Richter also suggests that, rather than depicting Sigismundo Malatesta, it might be a portrait of a member of the family of Borso d'Este.

Introduction by R[obert]. H. Benson in Exhibition of Pictures, Drawings & Photographs of Works of the School of Ferrara-Bologna, 1440–1540. Exh. cat., Burlington Fine Arts Club. London, 1894, p. xvi, notes Phillips's [see Ref. 1893] attribution to Cossa.

Gustave Gruyer. L'art ferrarais à l'époque des princes d'Este. Paris, 1897, vol. 2, pp. 112, 120, lists it as by Cossa, citing Phillips [see Ref. 1893], and calls it a portrait of an Este prince.

Jean Paul Richter. Catalogue of Pictures at Locko Park. London, 1901, pp. 23–24, no. 61, ill. opp. p. 24, attributes it to Cossa and calls it a portrait of Ercole d'Este.

A. Cameron Taylor. "The Locko Park Gallery, Derbyshire." Connoisseur 7 (1903), p. 88, ill. p. 91, calls it a portrait of Ercole d'Este by Cossa.

Bernhard Berenson. North Italian Painters of the Renaissance. New York, 1907, p. 217, attributes it to an anonymous Ferrarese artist close to Cossa and calls it a portrait of a young Este.

Adolfo Venturi. "Le opere de' pittori ferraresi del '400 secondo il catalogo di Bernardo Berenson." L'arte 11 (1908), pp. 424, 431, questions the attribution to Cossa.

Edmund G. Gardner. The Painters of the School of Ferrara. London, 1911, pp. 45, 209, attributes it to Cossa and calls it a portrait of a young man.

J[oseph]. A[rcher]. Crowe and G[iovanni]. B[attista]. Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy: Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Milan, Friuli, Brescia, from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century. Ed. Tancred Borenius. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1871]. London, 1912, vol. 2, p. 235 n. (continued from p. 234), Borenius calls it close to Cossa and refers to it as a profile of a boy.

Bernard Berenson. Letter to Duveen. September 12, 1912, attributes it to Cosimo Tura and identifies the sitter as Borso d'Este.

Francesco Malaguzzi Valeri. "Baldassare da Reggio e il suo ritratto del duca Borso d'Este." Rassegna d'arte 12 (July 1912), p. 103, ill. p. 102, calls it a portrait of the young Ercole d'Este, and tentatively suggests that it might be by Baldassare d'Este.

M. H. Bernath in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. Ed. Ulrich Thieme. Vol. 7, Leipzig, 1912, p. 509, lists it as by Cossa and states that it probably depicts an Este prince.

Bernard Berenson. Letter to Duveen. n.d. [1912–13?] [quoted in letter of 2/10/1913 from Duveen to Altman in archive file], refers to the sitter as Sigismundo Malatesta.

Bernard Berenson. Letter to Duveen. March 2, 1913, calls the sitter Borso d'Este.

Herbert Cook. "Further Light on Baldassare d'Este." Burlington Magazine 27 (June 1915), p. 103, erroneously as still at Locko Park; accepts Malaguzzi Valeri's [see Ref. 1912] attribution to Baldassare d'Este and his identification of the sitter as Ercole d'Este.

François Monod. "La galerie Altman au Metropolitan Museum de New-York (1er article)." Gazette des beaux-arts, 5th ser., 8 (September–October 1923), pp. 186–88, ill., identifies the sitter as an Este prince, but definitely not Borso and probably not Ercole or Sigismundo; tentatively attributes it to Cossa, while also mentioning Tura as a possible author; dates it about 1470.

Handbook of the Benjamin Altman Collection. 2nd ed. New York, 1928, pp. 50–52, no. 23, ill. opp. p. 52, attributes it to Tura and tentatively identifies the sitter as Borso d'Este.

"Current Art Notes." Connoisseur 82 (September 1928), p. 57, ill. p. 31, noting "considerable uncertainty" in both the attribution and the identification of the sitter, tentatively assigns it to Tura and calls it a portrait of Borso d'Este.

Lionello Venturi. "Contributi a Masolino, a Lorenzo Salimbeni e a Jacopo Bellini." L'arte 33 (March 1930), pp. 180, 185–86, fig. 8, attributes it to Jacopo Bellini and calls it a portrait of Borso; dates it before 1443.

Lionello Venturi. Pitture italiane in America. Milan, 1931, unpaginated, pl. CCLIV.

Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 581.

Giuseppe Fiocco. "Porträts aus der Emilia." Pantheon 10 (July–December 1932), pp. 338, 340, ill. opp. p. 337, attributes it to Tura and identifies the sitter as Borso.

Lionello Venturi. Italian Paintings in America. Vol. 2, Fifteenth Century Renaissance. New York, 1933, unpaginated, pl. 335.

Pittura ferrarese del rinascimento. Exh. cat., location unknown. Ferrara, 1933, p. 59, under no. 62, calls it a portrait of Borso by Tura.

Roberto Longhi. Officina ferrarese. Rome, 1934, pp. 74, 171 n. 90, attributes it to Tura, dating it no earlier than 1460–65; rejects the identification of the sitter as Borso or Ercole; tentatively suggests identifying it with a painting formerly in the Costabili collection, Ferrara [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].

Raimond van Marle. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. Vol. 17, The Renaissance Painters of Venice. The Hague, 1935, p. 126 n. 4, calls it Ferrarese, from the second half of the fifteenth century, suggesting that the sitter is a son of Borso.

Bernhard Berenson. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 500.

[Georg] Gombosi in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. Ed. Hans Vollmer. Vol. 33, Leipzig, 1939, p. 482, lists it as a portrait of Borso by Tura, citing Berenson.

Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, pp. 129–30, ill., states that "the subject of this portrait and the painter are both uncertain"; attributes it to Tura and calls it a portrait of a member of the Este family; dates it about 1470.

Duveen Pictures in Public Collections of America. New York, 1941, unpaginated, no. 60, ill., calls it a member of the Este family by Tura; dates it about 1450.

Sergio Ortolani. Cosmè Tura, Francesco del Cossa, Ercole de' Roberti. Milan, 1941, pp. 35–36, 65, pl. 6, attributes it to Tura and calls it a portrait of a young nobleman; dates it to the painter's early period; relates it to profile portraits by Pisanello.

E[lizabeth]. E. G[ardner]. "Notes on the Cover." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 3 (November 1944), inside front cover, ill. on cover (color, cropped), calls it possibly the portrait of a young Este prince born about 1455, and believes Tura to be the most satisfactory attribution; mentions that it may be the work listed by Laderchi [see Ref. 1838] in the Costabili collection.

Benedict Nicolson. The Painters of Ferrara. London, 1950, p. 18, lists it as by Tura.

Alberto Neppi. Cosme' Tura. Milan, 1952, pp. 94–95, rejects the attribution to Tura, but calls it Ferrarese.

Roberto Longhi. Opere complete di Roberto Longhi. Vol. 5, Officina ferrarese: 1934. repr. 1968. Florence, 1956, pp. 46, 104 n. 90, reprints text of Ref. 1934.

Mario Salmi. Cosmè Tura. [Milan], [1957], pp. 13–14, pl. IV, dates it before the Pietà in the Museo Correr, Venice; notes the influence of Rogier van der Weyden, especially the portrait of Francesco d'Este, whom he misidentifies (MMA, 32.100.43).

Eberhard Ruhmer. Tura: Paintings and Drawings. New York, 1958, pp. 13–15, 21, 29, 169, colorpl. 1, attributes it to Tura and dates it probably 1451, the beginning of his career; identifies the sitter as a member of the Este family at about fifteen years of age; accepts the MMA picture as the one formerly in the Costabili collection [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].

Michael Ayrton. "Review of Ruhmer 1958." Studio 156 (August 1958), p. 64.

Ulrich Weisstein. "Review of Ruhmer 1958." Arts 32 (September 1958), p. 16, accepts Ruhmer's early dating of the picture.

C. R. I. "Review of Ruhmer 1958." Connoisseur 142 (December 1958), p. 186, apparently rejects Ruhmer's early dating of the picture.

André Chastel. "Tura and the Secrets of Ferrara." Art News 57 (February 1959), p. 62, approves Ruhmer's early dating of the picture, but erroneously believes him to date it about 1460 rather than 1451.

Creighton Gilbert. "Review of Ruhmer 1958." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 17 (June 1959), p. 527, notes that the attribution to Tura has been questioned and expresses skepticism for Ruhmer's early dating.

Piero Bianconi. Tutta la pittura di Cosmè Tura. Milan, 1963, pp. 15, 36, pl. 5, attributes it to Tura and dates it about 1450–52; relates it to the work of Pisanello; states that it can possibly be identified with the Costabili painting mentioned by Laderchi [see Ref. 1838].

John Pope-Hennessy. The Portrait in the Renaissance. Princeton, 1966, p. 164, calls it a portrait of an unknown Este prince by Tura.

Eberhard Ruhmer in Encyclopedia of World Art. Vol. 14, New York, 1967, cols. 340–42.

Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Central Italian and North Italian Schools. London, 1968, vol. 1, p. 433, calls it a profile of a youth.

Alastair Smart. "The Locko Park Collection." Apollo 87 (March 1968), p. 204, attributes it to Tura and calls it a portrait of Duke Ercole of Ferrara.

Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 205, 512, 524, 606.

Philip Hendy. European and American Paintings in the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Boston, 1974, p. 262, calls it an early work by Tura.

Rosemarie Molajoli. L'opera completa di Cosmè Tura e i grandi pittori ferraresi del suo tempo: Francesco Cossa e Ercole de' Roberti. Milan, 1974, p. 84, no. 1, ill. p. 84 and colorpl. 1, attributes it to Tura and dates it 1450–52; states that it can possibly be identified with the Costabili picture [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].

Laura Benini. "Descrizione della quadreria Costabili." Musei ferraresi 7 (1977), p. 95, no. 107, identifies it as the picture formerly in the Costabili collection [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].

Amalia Mezzetti and Emanuele Mattaliano. Indice ragionato delle "Vite de' pittori e scultori ferraresi" di Gerolamo Baruffaldi. Vol. 2, Ferrara, 1981, p. 149, identify it as the Costabili picture, citing Molajoli [see Ref. 1974].

C[reighton]. E. Gilbert in Dizionario biografico degli italiani. Vol. 30, Rome, 1984, p. 27, rejects the attribution to Tura, ascribing it to Baldassare d'Este, citing the opinion of H. Faberman; dates it not earlier than 1470.

Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, North Italian School. New York, 1986, pp. 62–63, pl. 19, state that the panel has been cropped and then enlarged, suggesting that it is not an independent portrait but part of a larger composition, perhaps a donor portrait cut from an altarpiece; tentatively date it about 1460 and doubt that the sitter can be identified as either Borso or Ercole d'Este.

Daniele Benati in La pittura in Italia: il Quattrocento. Ed. Federico Zeri. revised and expanded ed. [Milan], 1987, vol. 1, p. 261.

Andrea Ugolini. "Rivedendo la collezione Costabili di Ferrara." Paragone 41 (November 1990), p. 55, no. L.22, identifies it with the Costabili picture [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].

Joseph Manca in International Dictionary of Art and Artists. Ed. James Vinson. Vol. 1, Artists. Chicago, 1990, p. 844.

Joseph Manca. "A Note on Cosmè Tura as Portraitist." Antichità viva 30, no. 3 (1991), pp. 17, 19, fig. 1 (cropped) and ill. on cover, agrees with Zeri and Gardner [see Ref. 1986] that it may be cut from an altarpiece or other larger work.

Mauro Natale et al. in Le muse e il principe: arte di corte nel Rinascimento padano. Ed. Alessandra Mottola Molfino and Mauro Natale. Exh. cat., Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan. Modena, 1991, pp. 31, 57, 215, fig. 20 (color), consider it one of Tura's earliest works, apparently inspired by profile portraits found in contemporary genealogies and medals of the Ferrarese court.

Kristen Lippincott in The Dictionary of Art. Ed. Jane Turner. Vol. 31, New York, 1996, p. 429, tentatively dates it to the 1460s, before the organ shutters documented to 1469 (Museo del Duomo, Ferrara) but after earlier works such as the Enthroned Goddess (National Gallery, London), Charity (Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan), and the Madonna and Child with Saints Apollonia and Jerome (Musée Fesch, Ajaccio).

Stephen J. Campbell. Cosmè Tura of Ferrara: Style, Politics and the Renaissance City, 1450–1495. New Haven, 1997, p. 24, colorpl. 14.

Emanuele Mattaliano. La collezione Costabili. Venice, 1998, p. 40, no. 22, ill. p. 193 (color), catalogues it as the picture from the Costabili collection [see Ref. Laderchi 1838].

Luke Syson. "Medals and Other Portraits Attributed to Cosmè Tura." Burlington Magazine 141 (April 1999), pp. 226–29, fig. 38, dates it 1474–80; tentatively suggests the sitter may be Gieronimo di Niccolo di Leonello d'Este; compares it to portrait medals here attributed to Tura of Alfonso d'Este (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) and Ercole I d'Este (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris).

Monica Molteni. Cosmè Tura. Milan, 1999, pp. 23, 25–26, 191, 213, 232, ill. p. 24 (color), dates it to the 1460s; refers to it as the picture mentioned by Laderchi [see Ref. 1838].

Joseph Manca. Cosmè Tura: The Life and Art of a Painter in Estense Ferrara. Oxford, 2000, pp. 21, 82–83, 144–46, no. 28, fig. 28, colorpl. XI, states that although it is possible that the panel was cut from a larger work, there is little reason to doubt that it is in fact an independent portrait that has been cut down; believes that Tura probably changed the unknown sitter's dark hair to blond in order to flatter him, which was common in fifteenth-century north Italian courtly portraiture, and which may support the identification of the sitter as an Este prince; thinks it may be the work mentioned by Laderchi [see Ref. 1838] in the Costabili collection; believes that it is probably a mature work, possibly dating from after 1470.

Stephen J. Campbell. Cosmè Tura: Painting and Design in Renaissance Ferrara. Ed. Alan Chong. Exh. cat., Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Boston, 2002, pp. 241, 247, 249, fig. 98.

Luke Syson in Stephen J. Campbell. Cosmè Tura: Painting and Design in Renaissance Ferrara. Ed. Alan Chong. Exh. cat., Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Boston, 2002, pp. 32, 66 n. 8, fig. 11, states that it was "almost certainly executed in the mid-1470s".

Tobias E. Capwell. "A Depiction of an Italian Arming Doublet." Waffen- und Kostümkunde 44, no. 2 (2002), fig. 15 (color), illustrates it within a discussion of arming points (laces for attaching armor to the arm), explaining that by 1450 in Italy they had become popular as decorative rather than functional costume details.

Joseph Manca in Italian Paintings of the Fifteenth Century. Washington, 2003, p. 655, mentions it as the only portrait widely ascribed to Tura.

Elizabeth A. Pergam. "From Manchester to Manhattan: The Transatlantic Art Trade After 1857." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 87, no. 2 (2005), pp. 70, 85, 89, mentions that it was the only picture in the 1857 Manchester exhibition attributed to Piero della Francesca.

Marcello Toffanello in Cosmè Tura e Francesco del Cossa: l'arte a Ferrara nell'età di Borso d'Este. Ed. Mauro Natale. Exh. cat., Palazzo dei Diamanti and Palazzo Schifanoia. Ferrara, 2007, pp. 289, 346, 348, fig. 193 (color), dates it about 1470; relates it to medals of the Este family, especially the portrait of Ercole I in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

Keith Christiansen in The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Ed. Keith Christiansen and Stefan Weppelmann. Exh. cat., Bode-Museum, Berlin. New York, 2011, pp. 210, 218–21, 227, no. 79, ill. (color) [German ed., "Gesichter der Renaissance: Meisterwerke italienischer Portrait-Kunst," Berlin, 2011, pp. 210, 218–20, 225, no. 79, ill. (color)].

Beverly Louise Brown in The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Ed. Keith Christiansen and Stefan Weppelmann. Exh. cat., Bode-Museum, Berlin. New York, 2011, pp. 38, 381 n. 78 [German ed., "Gesichter der Renaissance: Meisterwerke italienischer Portrait-Kunst," Berlin, 2011].

Eleonora Luciano in The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini. Ed. Keith Christiansen and Stefan Weppelmann. Exh. cat., Bode-Museum, Berlin. New York, 2011, p. 224 [German ed., "Gesichter der Renaissance: Meisterwerke italienischer Portrait-Kunst," Berlin, 2011].

John Marciari. Italian, Spanish, and French Paintings Before 1850 in the San Diego Museum of Art. San Diego, 2015, p. 99, fig. 16.2 (color).



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