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Cloud Study (Early Evening)

Simon Denis (Flemish, Antwerp 1755–1813 Naples)

Date:
ca. 1786–1806
Medium:
Oil on paper
Dimensions:
8 7/8 x 10 1/8 in. (22.5 x 25.7 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
The Whitney Collection, Promised Gift of Wheelock Whitney III, and Purchase, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. McVeigh, by exchange, 2003
Accession Number:
2003.42.18
  • Gallery Label

    Denis here employed a minimal strip of ground to emphasize the awesome height and scope of a cloud formation. While higher and more distant portions of these clouds are depicted in full sunlight, breaks within them are edged in the pink of early evening. To record these fleeting effects, Denis painted quickly and without making a preliminary drawing. The study was painted in or near Rome.

  • Catalogue Entry

    At an unknown date late in his career, Simon Denis grouped his oil studies by theme, such as water, flora, rocks and caves, and panoramas. He then numbered them sequentially, to at least 160 (see Lacambre 2011). The present work is one of at least thirty-seven studies, numbered 38 through 74, whose primary feature is the sky. Denis’s approach to the limitless variety of atmospheric conditions also entailed close attention to the formal role of the terrain: on at least one occasion, he painted a clear sky while devoting considerable attention to topography (MMA 2003.42.20; Lacambre 2011, no. 66), but on another he painted a sunset that includes no ground at all (sale, Christie’s, Paris, March 17, 2005, no. 425, ill.; Lacambre 2011, no. 53). Denis here employed a minimal strip of ground in order to emphasize the awesome height and scope of the cloud formation. While higher and more distant portions of these clouds are depicted in full sunlight, breaks within them are edged in pink, a sign of early evening. To record these fleeting effects, Denis painted quickly and without the benefit of a preliminary drawing.

    The verso of the sheet on which this study is painted is inscribed "a Rome" but it is just as likely to have been painted in the Campagna, the largely featureless area surrounding the city—where Denis lived from about 1786 until 1806. It is comparable in technique and scale and thus in date to Cloud Study (Distant Storm) (MMA 2003.42.19; Lacambre 2011, no. 49). Other sky studies by Denis in the Museum’s collection are Landscape near Rome during a Storm (2009.400.41; Lacambre 2011, no. 43) and Sunset, Rome (2009.400.43; Lacambre, no. 54).

    [2013; adapted from Miller 2013]

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Inscribed and numbered (in brown ink), verso: a Rome / 45

  • Provenance

    [Jacques Fischer-Chantal Kiener, Paris, until late 1980s; sold to Whitney]; Wheelock Whitney III, New York (from late 1980s)

  • Exhibition History

    Washington. National Gallery of Art. "In the Light of Italy: Corot and Early Open-air Painting," May 26–September 2, 1996, no. 37 (as "Cloud Study in Rome," lent by a private collection, New York).

    Brooklyn Museum. "In the Light of Italy: Corot and Early Open-air Painting," October 11, 1996–January 12, 1997, no. 37 (as "Cloud Study in Rome," lent by a private collection, New York).

    Saint Louis Art Museum. "In the Light of Italy: Corot and Early Open-air Painting," February 21–May 18, 1997, no. 37 (as "Cloud Study in Rome," lent by a private collection, New York).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Path of Nature: French Paintings from the Wheelock Whitney Collection, 1785–1850," January 22–April 21, 2013, unnumbered cat. (fig. 20).

  • References

    Jeremy Strick in In the Light of Italy: Corot and Early Open-air Painting. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1996, p. 149, no. 37, ill. (color), dates it about 1800; remarks that in this work, as in another "Cloud Study in Rome" (MMA 2003.42.19), Denis adopted Valenciennes's formula of including a narrow strip of ground at the bottom of the composition.

    Valentina Branchini. "Simon Denis (1755–1813) in Italia: Dipinti e Disegni di Paesaggio." PhD diss., Università di Bologna, 2002–3, pp. 16, 118–20, no. 45, ill., calls it "Studio ni nuvole"; states that the interest in light and atmosphere expressed in works like this by Denis one is in keeping with numerous sketches by Valenciennes of the 1780s.

    Geneviève Lacambre. "Two Series of Studies in Oil on Paper Numbered by Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes and Simon Denis." Studying Nature: Oil Sketches from the Thaw Collection. New York, 2011, pp. 74, 81, no. 45, calls it "Cloud Study" and deduces that the number 45 on the verso situates it within the range of works similarly inscribed 38 through 74, whose primary motif is the sky.

    Asher Ethan Miller. "The Path of Nature: French Paintings from the Wheelock Whitney Collection, 1785–1850." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 70 (Winter 2013), pp. 17, 20, 45, fig. 20 (color).



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