Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

List of Rulers of the Ancient Greek World

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By Geographical Region & Time Period
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The following abridged list of rulers for the ancient Greek world is primarily for the rulers of the Hellenistic age (323–31 B.C.), after the time of Alexander the Great. In the preceding centuries, the dominant geopolitical unit was the polis or city-state. Greek city-states were governed by a variety of entities, including kings, oligarchies, tyrants, and, as in the case of Athens, a democracy.

Rulers of Macedonia

496–168 B.C.

 
Alexander I 496–454 B.C.
Perdikkas II 454–413 B.C.
Archelaos I 413–399 B.C.
Aeropos II 398–395 B.C.
Amyntas II 395–394 B.C.
Amyntas III 393–370 B.C.
Perdiccas III 365–359 B.C.
Philip II 360/59–336 B.C.
Alexander III (the Great)(1) 336–323 B.C. 1 Stater with head of Alexander the Great [Greek; Lysimachos, Pella]
Philip III Arrhidaios 323–317 B.C.
Alexander IV 323–310 B.C.
Olympias 317–316 B.C.
Cassander 315–297 B.C.
Philip IV 297 B.C.
Antipatros and Alexander V 297–294 B.C.
Demetrios I Poliorketes ("Besieger") 294–288 B.C.
Pyrrhos of Epeiros 288/7–285 B.C.
Lysimachos 288/7–281 B.C.
Seleukus 281 B.C.
Ptolemaios Keraunos ("Thunderbolt") 281–279 B.C.
Antigonos II Gonatas ca. 277–239 B.C.
Demetrios II 239–229 B.C.
Antigonos III Doson ca. 229–222 B.C.
Philip V 222–179 B.C.
Perseus 179–168 B.C.

The Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt(2)

306–30 B.C.

2 Head of a Ptolemaic queen [Greek]
Ptolemy I Soter ("Savior"; governor from 323) 306–282 B.C.
Ptolemy II Philadelphos ("Sister-friend") 284–246 B.C.
Ptolemy III Euergetes ("Benefactor") 246–222 B.C.
Ptolemy IV Philopator ("Father-friend") 222–204 B.C.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes ("[God] Manifest") 210–180 B.C.
Cleopatra I 180–177 B.C.
Ptolemy VI Philometor ("Mother-friend") 180–164, 163–145 B.C.  
Cleopatra II 170–115 B.C.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Physkon ("Potbelly") 170–163, 145–116 B.C.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator (with Ptolemy VI and briefly after the latter's death) 145–144 B.C.
Ptolemy IX Soter II Lathyros ("the Bean") 116–107, 88–81 B.C.
Cleopatra III 140–101 B.C.
Ptolemy X Alexander I 107–88 B.C.
Berenike III 100–80 B.C.
Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80 B.C.
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Auletes ("the Piper") 80–58, 55–51 B.C.
Cleopatra V 80–69 B.C.
Berenike IV and Cleopatra VI 58–55 B.C.
Ptolemy XIII 51–47 B.C.
Cleopatra VII 51–30 B.C.
Ptolemy XIV 47–44 B.C.
Caesarion (Ptolemy XV) 44–30 B.C.

The Seleucid Dynasty, Rulers in Asia Minor

305–63 B.C.

Seleukos I Nikator ("Victor"; ruler from 312) 305–281 B.C.
Antiochos I Soter (co-ruler from 294 or 293) 281–261 B.C.
Antiochos II Theos ("the God") 261–246 B.C.
Seleukos II Kallinikos ("the Glorious Victor") 246–226/5 B.C.
Seleukos III 226/5–223 B.C.
Antiochos III Megas ("the Great") 223–187 B.C.
Seleukos IV Philopator 187–175 B.C.
Antiochos IV Epiphanes 175–164 B.C.
Antiochos V Eupator ("of the Good Father") 164–162 B.C.
Deemtrios I Soter 162–150 B.C.
Alexander Balas (Epiphanes) 150–145 B.C.
Demetrios II Nikator 145–140, 129–126/5 B.C.
Antiochos VI Epiphanes 145–142 B.C.
Diodotos "Triophon," pretender 142–139/8 B.C.
Antiochos VII Sidetes 139/8–129 B.C.
Kleopatra Thea ("Goddess") 126/5–123 B.C.
Antiochos VIII Grypos 126/5–96 B.C.
Seleukos V 126 B.C.
Antiochos IX Philopator "of Kyzikos" 114/3–95 B.C.
Seleukos VI 95 B.C.
Antiochos X Eusebes ("the Pious") Philopator 95 B.C.
Demetrios III Philopator Soter (at Damascus) 95–88 B.C.
Antiochos XI Epiphanes Philadelphos (in Cilicia) 95 B.C.
Philip I (in Cilicia) 95–84/3 B.C.
Antiochos XII Dionysos (at Damascus) 87 B.C.
Philip II 84/3 B.C.
Antiochos XIII Philadelphos 69–63 B.C.

The Attalids, Rulers of Pergamon

283–129 B.C.

Philetairos (not king) 283–263 B.C.
Eumenes I (not formally king) 263–241 B.C.
Attalos I Soter 241–197 B.C.
Eumenes II Soter 197–159/8 B.C.
Attalos II 159/8–139/8 B.C.
Attalos III 139/8–133 B.C.
Aristonikos ("Eumenes III") 133–129 B.C.

Rulers of Pontus

ca. 280–63 B.C.

Mithridates I ca. 280–ca. 266 B.C.
Ariobarzanes ca. 266–ca. 255 B.C.
Mithridates II ca. 255–ca. 220 B.C.
Mithridates III ca. 220–ca. 185 B.C.
Pharnaces I ca. 185–ca. 170 B.C.
Mithridates IV Philopator ca. 170–ca. 150 B.C.
Mithridates V Euergetes ca. 150–120 B.C.
Mithridates VI Eupator, "the Great" ca. 120–63 B.C.

Rulers of Baktria

256–55 B.C.

Diodotos I 256–248 B.C.
Diodotos II 248–235 B.C.
Euthydemos I ca. 235–ca. 200 B.C.
Euthydemos II ca. 200–ca. 190 B.C.
Demetrios I ca. 200–ca. 185 B.C.
Antimachos I ca. 195–ca. 185 B.C.
Pantaleon ca. 185–ca. 180 B.C.
Demetrios II ca. 185–ca. 175 B.C.
Agathokles ca. 180–ca. 165 B.C.
Eukratides I (usurper?) ca. 171–ca. 155 B.C.
Agathokleia and Menandros ca. 155–ca. 130 B.C.
Kalliope and Hermaios ca. 75–ca. 55 B.C.
Department of Greek and Roman Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art