Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

List of Rulers of the Roman Empire

Thematic Essays

By Category

By Geographical Region & Time Period
By Department

Julio-Claudian Dynasty

27 B.C.–68 A.D.

1 Portrait head of the Emperor Augustus [Roman]

2 Intaglio portrait of Emperor Tiberius [Roman]

3 Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, known as Caligula, The [Roman]

4 Coins of Titus, Trajan, and Hadrian [Roman]

5 Portrait of the emperor Antoninus Pius [Roman]

6 Relief Portrait of the emperor Lucius Verus [Roman]

7 Portrait head of the emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (called Caracalla) [Roman]

8 Two portraits of Trebonianus Gallus [Roman]
Augustus(1) 27 B.C.–14 A.D.
Tiberius(2) 14–37 A.D.
Gaius Germanicus (Caligula)(3) 37–41 A.D.
Claudius 41–54 A.D.
Nero 54–68 A.D.
Galba 68–69 A.D.
Otho 69 A.D.
Vitellius 69 A.D.

Flavian Dynasty

69–96 A.D.

Vespasian 69–79 A.D.
Titus4 79–81 A.D.
Domitian 81–96 A.D.

The Five Good Emperors

96–180 A.D.

Nerva 96–98 A.D.
Trajan4 98–117 A.D.
Hadrian4 117–38 A.D.
Antoninus Pius(5) 138–61 A.D.
Marcus Aurelius 161–80 A.D.

Antonine Dynasty

138–93 A.D.

Antoninus Pius(5) 138–61 A.D.
Marcus Aurelius (with Lucius Verus6, 161–69 A.D.) 161–80 A.D.
Commodus (with Marcus Aurelius, 177–80) 177–92 A.D.
Pertinax 193 A.D.
Didius Julianus 193 A.D.
Pescennius Niger 194 A.D.

Severan Dynasty

193–235 A.D.

Septimius 193–211 A.D.
Caracalla(7) (with Geta, 211–12 A.D.) 211–17 A.D.
Macrinus 217–18 A.D.
Diadumenianus 218 A.D.
Elagabalus 218–22 A.D.
Alexander Severus 222–35 A.D.

The Soldier Emperors

235–284 A.D.

Maximinus I 235–38 A.D.
Gordian I and II (in Africa) 238 A.D.
Balbinus and Pupienus (in Italy) 238 A.D.
Gordian III 238–44 A.D.
Philip the Arab 244–49 A.D.
Trajan Decius 249–51 A.D.
Trebonianus Gallus(8) (with Volusian) 251–53 A.D.
Aemilianus 253 A.D.
Gallienus (with Valerian, 253–60 A.D.) 253–68 A.D.

Gallic Empire (West)

Follows the death of Valerian
Postumus 260–69 A.D.
Laelian 268 A.D.
Marius 268 A.D.
Victorinus 268–70 A.D.
Domitianus 271 A.D.
Tetricus I and II 270–74 A.D.

Palmyrene Empire

Odenathus c. 250–67 A.D.
Vaballathus (with Zenobia) 267–72 A.D.

The Soldier Emperors (continued)

Claudius II Gothicus 268–70 A.D.
Quintillus 270 A.D.
Aurelian 270–75 A.D.
Tacitus 275–76 A.D.
Florianus 276 A.D.
Probus 276–82 A.D.
Carus 282–83 A.D.
Carinus 283–84 A.D.
Numerianus 283–84 A.D.
Diocletian (and Tetrarchy) 284–305 A.D.

Western Roman Empire

Maximianus 287–305 A.D.
Constantius I 305–6 A.D.
Severus II 306–7 A.D.
Constantine I(9) 307–37 A.D. 9 Portrait head of the emperor Constantine [Roman]

Eastern Roman Empire

Diocletian 284–305 A.D.
Galerius 305–11 A.D.
Maxentius (Italy) 306–12 A.D.
Maximinus Daia 309–13 A.D.
Licinius 308–24 A.D.

Constantine Dynasty*

337–63 A.D.

*empire reunited by Constantine's defeat of Licinius
Constantine II 337–40 A.D.
Constans 337–50 A.D.
Constantius II 337–61 A.D.
Magnentius 350–53 A.D.
Julian 361–63 A.D.
Jovian 363–64 A.D.

Western Roman Empire (after death of Jovian)

Valentinian 364–75 A.D.
Gratian 375–83 A.D.
Valentinian II 375–92 A.D.
Eugenius 392–94 A.D.
Honorius 395–423 A.D.
Constantinius III 421 A.D.
John 423–25 A.D.
Valentinian III 425–55 A.D.
Petronius Maximus 455 A.D.
Avitus 455–56 A.D.
Majorian 457–461 A.D.
Severus III 461–65 A.D.
Anthemius 467–72 A.D.
Olybrius 472 A.D.
Glycerius 473–74 A.D.
Julius Nepos 474–75 A.D.
Romulus Augustulus 475–76 A.D.

Eastern Roman Empire (after death of Jovian)

Valens 364–78 A.D.
Theodosius I 379–95 A.D.
Arcadius 395–408 A.D.
Theodosius II 408–50 A.D.
Marcian 450–57 A.D.
Leo 457–74 A.D.
Zeno 474–91 A.D.
Anastasius 491–518 A.D.
Department of Greek and Roman Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art