Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

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Index Classification: Material and Technique

Sculpture, Relief

Works of Art (121)

Akhenaten Sacrificing a Duck, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1353–1336 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (1985.328.2)
The Angel of Death and the Sculptor from the Milmore Memorial, 1889–93; this carving, 1921–26, Daniel Chester French (American), Marble (26.120)
Archers (detail), Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4, reigns of Khufu to Khafre, ca. 2551–2494 B.C., Egyptian; Excavated at Lisht, reused in the pyramid of Amenemhat I, probably originally from Giza, Painted limestone (22.1.23)
Asiatic garland sarcophagus, Mid-Imperial, Severan period, 200–225 A.D., Roman, Marble (70.1)
Birth of the Buddha, Kushan period, Pakistan (ancient region of Gandhara, probably Takht-i-Bahi), Stone (1987.417.1)
Block with place-name glyphs, late 16th century (?), Mexico, Stone, traces of plaster (00.5.116)
Buddha sheltered by a naga, Angkor period, 12th century, Cambodia, Bronze (1987.424.19ab)
Buddha's Descent from the Trayastrimsha Heaven, Ikshvaku period, second half of 3rd century, India, Andhra Pradesh, Nagarjunakonda, Limestone (28.31)
Buddhist stele, Tang dynasty, ca. 700, China, Black limestone (30.122)
Bust of Francis I, 1529, Girolamo della Robbia (Italian), Glazed terracotta (41.100.245)
Capital, with the Presentation of Christ in the Temple, From the Abbey of Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert, France, Limestone (25.120.60)
Catherine II, Empress of Russia, 1771, Jean-Baptiste Nini (French); Chaumont-sur-Loire, Cast terracotta (terre de Chaumont) (52.189.11)
Censer with Seated Figure, 5th–6th century, Guatemala; Maya, Ceramic (1982.394)
Chariot, ca. 550–525 B.C., Etruscan, Bronze, ivory (03.23.1)
Christ on the Road to Calvary, ca. 1440, Follower of the Master of the Lorsch Calvary, German (Middle Rhineland), Alabaster (1996.581)
Cinerary urn, late 4th or early 3rd century B.C., Etruscan, Alabaster (96.9.225a,b)
Dancing four-armed Ganesha, 16th–17th century Nepal Gilt copper alloy (1992.384)
Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana), 2nd–4th century; Pakistan, ancient region of Gandhara, Schist (L.1993.69.4)
Descent from the Cross, ca. 1555, School of Jean Goujon (French), Marble with traces of gilding (29.56)
Diptych with the Last Judgment and Coronation of the Virgin, ca. 1250–1270, French; Paris, Elephant ivory (1970.324.7a–b)
Door lintel with lion-griffins and vase with lotus leaf, 2nd–3rd century; Parthian period, Hatra, northern Mesopotamia, Limestone (32.145a, b)
Doorway from Moutiers-Saint-Jean, ca. 1250, French, Limestone with traces of polychromy (32.147)
The Dream of Queen Maya, Kushan period, 1st century A.D., Pakistan (ancient region of Gandhara, probably Takht-i-Bahi), Schist (1976.402)
Eagle Relief, 10th–13th century, Mexico; Toltec, Andesite/dacite, paint (93.27.2)
Earth Monster Relief, 15th–early 16th century, Mexico; Aztec, Stone (00.5.36)
Endymion sarcophagus, Mid-Imperial, Severan, early 3rd century A.D., Roman, Marble (47.100.4)
Entombment of Christ, ca. 1390–1405, French (Paris), Opaque and translucent enamel on gold (1982.60.398)
Female Figure (Tunjo), 10th–16th century, Colombia; Muisca, Gold (1979.206.1050)
Female Nude, late 16th or early 17th century, South German, Honestone (17.190.467)
Fragment of a sarcophagus with a seated figure, ca. 250 A.D., Roman; Probably northern Asia Minor, Marble (18.108)
Fragmentary terracotta pinax (plaque) with a dancing girl, 5th century B.C., Cretan (53.5.39)
Frieze Fragment (possibly from an altar), 18th century, Bolivian, Silver (1978.303.7)
Funerary altar of Cominia Tyche, Flavian or Trajanic, ca. 90–100 A.D., Roman, Marble (38.27)
Funerary altar, 14–68; Julio-Claudian, Roman, Marble (25.78.29)
Funerary Stela with Architectural Frame, 500–700, Byzantine; Probably from Armant, Egypt, Limestone with red, green, and black paint (36.2.6)
Gift of Anathapindada, Kushan period, 2nd–3rd century, Pakistan, ancient region of Gandhara, Schist with traces of gold foil (1987.142.1)
Gravestone with funerary banquet, 2nd–3rd century, Excavated at Palmyra, Syria, Limestone (02.29.1)
The Great Departure and the Temptation of the Buddha, Ikshvaku period, ca. first half of 3rd century, India (Andra Pradesh, Nagarjunakonda), Limestone (28.105
The Horses of Anahita or The Flight of Night, ca. 1848–50; this cast, by 1880, William Morris Hunt (American), Plaster, tinted (80.12)
Human-headed winged lion (lamassu), 883–859 B.C.; Neo-Assyrian period, reign of Ashurnasirpal II, Excavated at Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), northern Mesopotamia, Alabaster (gypsum) (32.143.2)
Icon with Christ Antiphonetes, ca. 1350 or later, Byzantine; Probably made in Greece, Steatite (1979.217)
Intaglio portrait of a young woman, 1st century B.C.–1st century A.D.; Augustan, Roman, Sard (74.51.4236)
Intaglio with a portrait of the empress Julia Domna, ca. 205–210; Severan, Roman, Beryl (25.78.90)
Joseph, Chief of the Nez Percé Indians, 1889; this cast, 1906, Olin Levi Warner (American), Bronze (06.313)
Jules Bastien-Lepage, 1880; this cast, 1910, Augustus Saint-Gaudens (American), Bronze (12.76.4)
Kero Carved in the Form of a Head, 17th–18th century, Peru, Wood with pigmented resin inlay (1994.35.26)
Kero Carved in the Form of a Head, 17th–18th century, Peru, Wood with pigmented resin inlay (1994.35.27)
Keystone from a Vaulted Ceiling, ca. 1220–1230, Crusader; From Castle Montfort/Starkenberg, Limestone (28.99.1)
Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, Gupta period, 5th century, India (Uttar Pradesh), Terracotta (1991.300)
Linga with one face (Ekamukhalinga), Shahi period, 9th century, Afghanistan, Marble (1980.415)
Lunette with Buddha surrounded by adorants, 5th–6th century, Hadda, Afghanistan, Stucco (2005.314)
Madonna and Child with Angels, Relief, ca. 1455–60, Antonio Rossellino (Italian, Florentine), Made in Florence, Italy, Marble, gilding on halo and dress (14.40.675)
Manjuvajra Mandala, Pala period (ca. 700–1200), 11th century, Bangladesh or India (West Bengal), Black stone (57.51.6)
MAP III, 1993, Bertil Vallien (Swedish), Glass and iron (1994.199ab)
Minerva Protecting the Young King of Rome, 1811, Joseph-Antoine Romagnési (French), Plaster, painted to resemble yellowish stone; green marbleized wood (frame only) (27.191.2)
The Miracle of Shravasti, Mon-Dvaravati period, 7th–9th century, Thailand, Terracotta (1990.311)
Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer (Mariana Griswold), 1888; this cast, 1890, Augustus Saint-Gaudens (American), Bronze (17.104)
Nessus Abducting Deianira, modeled in 1814, Bertel Thorvaldsen (Danish), Marble (2004.174)
Orthostat relief: hunting scene, 850–830 B.C.; Neo-Hittite period, Excavated at south wall of Temple Palace, Tell Halaf, northern Syria, Basalt (43.135.2)
Panel with a Griffin, 1250–1300, Byzantine; Possibly from Greece or the Balkans, Marble (2000.81)
Panel with Cross and Griffins, 500–700, Byzantine; Made in Egypt, Wood (28.12)
Panel, probably 13th century, Egypt or Syria, Carved wood with traces of pigments and gilt (30.112.3)
Plaque with scenes from the life of the Buddha, Pala or Pagan period, 12th century, India or Burma. Mudstone (1982.233)
Plaque with the goddess Durga and attendants, Shunga period, 1st century B.C., Chandraketugarh, West Bengal, India, Terracotta (1990.281)
Plaque: Portuguese with Manillas, 15th–19th century, Nigeria; Edo peoples, court of Benin, Brass, iron (1991.17.13)
Plaque: Warrior and Attendants, 16th–17th century, Nigeria; Edo peoples, Court of Benin, Brass (1990.332)
Portrait Medallion: Carchesius, dated 1541, Attributed to Hans Kels the Younger, South German (Augsburg), Boxwood (17.190.487)
Portrait Medallion: Clara Rosenberger, mid-16th century, South German, Honestone (17.190.468)
Portrait Medals: Empress Maria and Emperor Maximillian II, dated 1575, Monogrammed "AN:AB" for Antonio Abondio (Italian) Silver, uniface (1989.12.2,3)
Portrait of Daniel, Archbishop of Mainz, dated 1568, Monogrammed by the Master H.K V.B, South German or Middle-Rhenish, Honestone (17.190.488)
Posthumous Portrait of a queen as Parvati, Eastern Javanese period, ca. early 14th century, Indonesia (Java), Andesite (2001.407)
Relief Allegory of Virtues and Vices at the Court of Emperor Charles V, dated 1522, Monogrammed "HD" for Hans Daucher (German, Augsburg), Honestone relief, touches of gilding (17.190.745)
Relief fragment, 17th century (?), Mexico, Stone (00.5.40)
Relief of a woman and youth reclining, late 6th–early 5th century B.C., Etruscan, Amber (17.190.2067)
Relief of Apries, Late Period, Dynasty 26, reign of Apries, ca. 589–570 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (09.183.1a)
Relief of Haremhab, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Haremhab, ca. 1323–1295 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (66.99.44)
Relief of King Amenemhat I, Middle Kingdom, Dynasty 12, reign of Amenemhat I, ca. 1981–1952 B.C., Egyptian, Painted limestone (08.200.5)
Relief of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (detail), Middle Kingdom, Dynasty 11, reign of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II, ca. 2051–2000 B.C., Egyptian; From the king's temple at Deir el-Bahri in western Thebes, Painted limestone (07.230.2)
Relief of Queen Kiya, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, ca. 1352–1340 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (1985.328.8)
Relief of Queen Nefertiti, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, ca. 1352–1336 B.C., Egyptian, Sandstone (61.117)
Relief of Ramesses I, New Kingdom, Dynasty 19, ca. 1295–1294 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone, Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1911 (11.155.3a)
Relief of Ramesses II, New Kingdom, Dynasty 19, ca. 1279–1273 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (05.4.256)
Relief of Ramesses IX, New Kingdom, Dynasty 20, reign of Ramesses IX, ca. 1126–1108 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (59.51a,b)
Relief of Senwosret I, Middle Kingdom, Dynasty 12, reign of Senwosret I, ca. 1961–1917 B.C., Egyptian, Painted limestone (14.3.6)
Relief of Thutmose I, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Thutmose I, ca. 1504–1492 B.C., Egyptian, Color facsimile by Nina deGaris Davies (1925), Rogers Fund, 1930 (30.4.137)
Relief of Thutmose III, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Thutmose III, ca. 1479–1425 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (26.7.1399)
Relief plaque, ca. 450 B.C., Greek, Melian, Terracotta (25.78.26)
Relief portrait of Carlo Bertinazzi, ca. 1770, Italian; Perhaps Cozzi factory, Hard-paste porcelain (66.92)
Relief with an archaistic Hermes, 1st century A.D., Roman, Marble (1991.11.8)
Relief with Enthroned Ruler, 8th century, Mexico or Guatemala; Maya, Limestone, paint (1979.206.1047)
Relief with Saint Peter Martyr and Three Donors, ca. 1340, Giovanni di Balduccio (Italian, Tuscan, Bolognese, Milanese), Marble (2001.221)
Relief: king and eunuch attendant, 883–859 B.C.; Neo-Assyrian period, reign of Ashurnasirpal II, Excavated at Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), northern Mesopotamia, Alabaster (gypsum) (32.143.4)
Relief: two servants bearing food and drink, 358–338 B.C.; Achaemenid period, reign of Artaxerxes III, Excavated at Persepolis, southwestern Iran, Limestone (34.158)
Reliefs from the Tomb of Nes-peka-shuty, Late Period, early Dynasty 26, late reign of Psamtik I, ca. 656–610 B.C., Egyptian; Deir el-Bahri, western Thebes, Limestone (23.3.468)
Reliquary (?) with scenes from the life of the Buddha, ca. 10th century, India (Jammu and Kashmir, ancient kingdom of Kashmir) or Pakistan, Bone with traces of color and gold paint (1985.392.1)
Richard Watson Gilder, Helena de Kay Gilder, and Rodman de Kay Gilder, 1879; this cast, ca. 1883–84, Augustus Saint-Gaudens (American), Plaster (2002.445)
Ring stone with four goddesses and four date palms, Mauryan period, 3rd–2nd century B.C., India, Stone (2000.284.10)
Rodman de Kay Gilder, 1879; this cast, probably 1880, Augustus Saint-Gaudens (American), Bronze (1994.50)
Rosary Bead, early 16th century, South Netherlandish (Brabant), Boxwood (17.190.475)
Sarcophagus with a Greek physician, early 300s, Roman; Ostia, Italy, Marble (48.76.1)
Sarcophagus with Scenes from the Lives of Saint Peter and Christ, early 300s (with modern restoration), Roman, Marble (1991.366)
Sarcophagus, ca. 475–460 B.C.; Classical, Cypriot; Said to be from the necropolis at Golgoi, Limestone (74.51.2451)
Sarcophagus, Imperial, late 2nd–mid-3rd century A.D., Roman, Lead (65.148)
Sarcophagus, second quarter of 5th century B.C.; Archaic, Cypriot, Limestone (74.51.2453)
Seated six-armed Shiva as Conquerer of Death (Mrtyunjaya), Pala period, 12th century, Bangladesh or India (west Bengal), Black stone (1991.421)
Section of a pilaster with acanthus scrolls, first half of 1st century A.D.; Julio-Claudian, Roman, Marble (10.210.28)
Shaft-hole axhead with a bird-headed demon, boar, and dragon, late 3rd–early 2nd millennium B.C., Central Asia (Bactria-Margiana), Silver, gold foil (1982.5)
Shrine of the Virgin, ca. 1300, German; Made in Rhine valley, Oak, linen covering, paint, gilding, gesso (17.190.185)
Standing man, 1st–2nd century A.D.; Parthian period, Iran, Gray stone (51.72.1)
Standing Vishnu as Keshava, Hoysala period, first quarter of 12th century, Karnataka (probably Belur), India, Stone (18.41)
Stela with a four-armed Vishnu, 10th–11th century, India, Punjab, Sandstone (68.46)
Stele of King Intef II, First Intermediate Period, Dynasty 11, reign of Intef II, ca. 2108–2059 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (13.182.3)
Stele of Shabaqo, Late Period, Dynasty 25, reign of Shabaqo, ca. 712–698 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (55.144.6)
Stele of Shebitqo, Late Period, Dynasty 25, ca. 707–690 B.C., Egyptian, Limestone (65.45)
Strigilated sarcophagus, Late Severan, 220 A.D., Roman, Marble (2005.258)
Tomb panel with relief of figures in a pavilion, Eastern Han dynasty, early 2nd century, Shandong Province, China, Limestone (20.99)
Tondo: Prudence, ca. 1475, Andrea della Robbia (Italian), Italian (Florence), Terracotta with tinted tin-enamel glazes (21.116)
Triumph of Dionysos and the Seasons Sarcophagus, ca. 260–270, Roman, Marble (55.11.5)
Two seated ganas, ca. 7th century, Nepal, Stone (1986.259)
Vanderbilt Mantelpiece, ca. 1881–83, Augustus Saint-Gaudens (American), Marble, mosaic, oak, and cast iron (25.234)
Woman Fixing Her Hair, 1993, Elizabeth Catlett (Mexican, born United States, 1915-2012), Mahogany and opals (1993.217)

Thematic Essays (1)