In the early twentieth century, the social, political, and artistic situation in Polynesia remains much as it was in the latter part of the 1800s. With the exception of Tonga, which, while becoming a British protectorate in 1901, remains an independent kingdom, other Polynesian islands continue to be politically controlled by European and American colonial powers. The first half of the century marks the most intensive period of research by anthropologists, linguists, and others intent on recording information on what they frequently perceive to be the region's vanishing cultural and artistic traditions. The most renowned of these is Margaret Mead (19011978), whose study of Samoan adolescence and sexuality, Coming of Age in Samoa, becomes an anthropological classic. Polynesian art and culture, however, endure. Artists continue to practice a variety of art forms for their own use, including the production of bark cloth and mats as well as the creation of nonfigural wood carvings such as bowls and headrests. What figurative sculpture is produced during the first half of the century, however, is almost universally made for sale.
In the decades after World War II, as part of the larger global movement toward decolonization, parts of Polynesia achieve independence, including Western Samoa, Fiji, the Cook Islands, and Tuvalu. Others, such as the Austral, Tuamotu, Marquesas, and Society Islands, as well as American Samoa, remain under the authority of other nations or, as in the case of Hawai'i, become formally incorporated into them. Beginning in the 1970s, many Polynesian peoples, particularly Hawaiians and Maori who live among the majority settler populations of their original homelands, become increasingly active in asserting their cultural identity and seeking greater political autonomy. The same period witnesses a wider renaissance of Polynesian culture and art across the entire region. Some artists devote themselves to rejuvenating or reviving indigenous traditions such as wood carving and the making of bark cloth. Others use Western materials and techniques, integrating them into their own artistic and cultural traditions to create distinctively Polynesian forms of contemporary art.
In the West, the twentieth century is characterized by growing recognition of the achievements of Polynesian artists. Polynesian imagery becomes an important influence on the work of a number of Western artists, including Paul Gauguin (18481903) and the Surrealists. Previously regarded as curiosities or sources of anthropological information, Polynesian objects are acknowledged and exhibited as works of art. Polynesian works are incorporated within broader surveys of Oceanic art, such as the landmark 1946 exhibition Arts of the South Seas at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The distinctive traditions within Polynesian art are also increasingly examined in exhibitions such as Te Maori at the Metropolitan Museum in 1984. By the close of the century, works by contemporary Polynesian artists from Hawai'i, New Zealand, and other areas have also begun to attract a wider audience.
1900 Hawai'i is formally annexed by the United States.
1901 Britain establishes a protectorate over Tonga.
1903 Paul Gauguin dies and is buried in the Marquesas Islands.
1907 New Zealand is granted Dominion status and becomes an independent nation.
1914 New Zealand occupies Western Samoa, removing it from German control, and continues to administer it until independence.
192526 American anthropologist Margaret Mead (19011978) undertakes her research in Samoa. Her landmark book Coming of Age in Samoa is published in 1928.
1941 Japanese forces attack the United States Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawai'i.
1946 The exhibition Arts of the South Seas, which includes a number of Polynesian works, is held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
1947 New Zealand achieves complete independence from Britain.
1959 Hawai'i becomes the fiftieth U.S. state.
1962 Western Samoa becomes the first Pacific nation to achieve full independence after the colonial period.
1970s Many Polynesian peoples, most notably the Hawaiians and the Maori, begin an ongoing cultural renaissance.
1970 Fiji achieves independence. Tonga ceases to be a British protectorate and becomes fully independent.
1976 The Hokule'a, a reconstructed Polynesian voyaging canoe, sails from Hawai'i to Tahiti. The journey of the Hokule'a does much to inspire a renaissance of Hawaiian culture.
1978 Tuvalu achieves independence.
1970s Working in both traditional and Western media, contemporary artists from Hawai'i, New Zealand, and other parts of Polynesia achieve increasing prominence.
1979 The exhibition The Art of the Pacific Islands, including many Polynesian works, is held at the National Gallery in Washington, D.C.
1984 The exhibition Te Maori, highlighting the achievements of the Maori artists of New Zealand, is held at the Metropolitan Museum in New York.
1993 On the 100th anniversary of the event, the U.S. Senate issues a formal apology to Native Hawaiians for the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy.