Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

Image Copyrights and Credits

Photographs of works of art in the Museum on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History were taken by The Photograph Studio, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, unless otherwise noted below.

Every effort has been made to identify and locate copyright holders for the works or images in this publication. The Metropolitan Museum of Art would be grateful for further information concerning any artist, author, or photographer for whom we have been unable to trace a rightsholder. Any errors or omissions will be corrected in subsequent editions.



cAbbasid Period, The Art of the
Bowl (1977.126): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Abstract Expressionism
Mark Rothko: No. 13 (White, Red, on Yellow) (1985.63.5). Photograph by Lynton Gardiner

African Rock Art
Linton Rock Panel: Photograph by Herschel Mair

Age of Süleyman "the Magnificent," The
Istanbul, Süleymaniye, 1550–57, view from rear: Photo © Daniel Walker
Istanbul, Süleymaniye complex, 1550–57, tomb of Süleyman: Photo © Daniel Walker
Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, completed 691; tile revetment, mid-16th century: Photo © Stefano Carboni

Almoravid and Almohad Periods, The Art of the
Kutubiyya minbar, detail: Photograph by Bruce White
Kutubiyya minbar, general view: Photograph by Bruce White

American Neoclassical Sculptors Abroad
Thomas Crawford: The Babes in the Wood (94.9.4). Photograph by Jerry L. Thompson

American Portrait Miniatures
George Washington (83.2.122): Photograph by Paul Warchol

American Rococo
Settee (30.120.59): Photograph by David Allison

Ancient Greece, 1000 B.C.–1 A.D
Agrigentum, Sicily, view of the Greek temple of Concord (ca. 430 B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Agrigentum, Sicily, view of the Greek temple of Concord (ca. 430 B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Athens, Greece, The Erechtheion Temple on the Acropolis. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Athens, Greece, view of the Classical Greek Acropolis (5th century B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Corinth, view of Acrocorinth from the region of the ancient lower city. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Laconia, Greece, view of the Laconian plain with Sparta in the distance. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Olympia, Greece, The Temple of Hera from the Gymnasium. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Segesta, Sicily, view of the Doric Temple (ca. 424–416 B.C.) from the theater. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Segesta, Sicily, view of the Greek Theater (middle of the 3rd century B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Selinus, Sicily, view of the Temple C facade (early 6th century B.C). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Selinus, Sicily, view of the Temple E facade (ca. 490–480 B.C) on the East Hill. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Syracuse, Sicily, view of the monumental altar of Hieron II (ca. 241–215 B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Syracuse, Sicily, view of the Greek theater first constructed in the early 6th century B.C. and enlarged as seen here in ca. 230 B.C. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Taormina, Sicily, view of the Greek theater. The theater was first built during the Hellenistic period and then was almost entirely rebuilt under the Romans. Photograph by Seán Hemingway

Ancient Greece, 1–500 A.D.
Laconia, Greece, view of the Laconian plain with Sparta in the distance. Photograph by Seán Hemingway

Ancient Greek Dress
Fragment from the Eleusinian Relief (14.130.9): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Relief of a dancing maenad (35.11.3): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Themis (goddess of custom and law) (03.12.17), alternate view The Metropolitan Museum of Art Photograph by Bruce White

Architecture in Renaissance Italy
Leonardo da Vinci: The Vitruvian Man, ca. 1492. Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice: Photo © Scala / Art Resource, NY
Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore, called the Duomo), dome, 1420–36, by Filippo Brunelleschi: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (60)

Arms and Armor—Common Misconceptions and Frequently Asked Questions
Johan Adam Seupel: The Strassburg Guilds in Armor: Photograph © Kupferstichkabinett. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
The so-called Tannenberg-Büchse, before 1399. Photograph © Dirk Breiding

Arms and Armor in Renaissance Europe
Kunz Lochner: Armors for Man and Horse, dated 1548. Man's armor (29.151.2); Horse armor (32.69): Photographs (alternate views) by Jackie T. Neale

Art and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century Turkey
Turgut Zaim: The Nomad Family with Ankara Goats, 1963. Courtesy of the Museum of Painting and Sculpture of Ankara
Burhan Dogançay: Purple Symphony, 1985. Sabanci Collection, Istanbul
Atatürk's Mausoleum, Ankara, 1944–53 (photograph). Photograph © Phil Stinson

Art of Classical Greece (ca. 480–323 B.C.), The
Athens, Greece, The Erechtheion Temple on the Acropolis. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Athens, Greece, view of the Classical Greek Acropolis (5th century B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway

Art of the Book in the Ilkhanid Period, The
Nushirvan Eating the Food Brought by the Sons of Mahbud(?): From the Great Mongol Shahnama (Book of Kings) (52.20.2): Photograph by Malcolm Vernon

Ayyubid Period, The Art of the
Citadel (early 13th century) in Aleppo: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Madrasa al-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub, Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Tomb of the Abbasid Caliphs, Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni

Balenciaga, Cristobal (1895–1972)
Cristobal Balenciaga: Evening dress (1973.20). Photograph by Neil Selkirk

Balkan Peninsula, 500–1000 A.D.
Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom), Constantinople. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (80)
Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom), interior view, Constantinople. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (99)
Hagia Sophia (Church of Holy Wisdom), view into the dome on pendentives, Constantinople. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (133)

Balkan Peninsula, 1400–1600 A.D.
Khusrau Hunting: Page from a manuscript of the Khusrau and Shirin of Hatifi (69.27): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Balkan Peninsula, 1900 A.D.–present
Gilbert and George: Here (1991.210). Photograph by Lynton Gradiner

Bamana Ségou State, The
Adobe Mosque Architecture: Photograph by Alisa LaGamma, July 2002
Domestic compound in Ségou-Koro: Photograph by Alisa LaGamma, July 2002
Present-day tomb of Bitòn Mamary Coulibaly: Photograph by Alisa LaGamma, July 2002
Rendering of Bitòn Mamary Coulibaly: Photograph by Alisa LaGamma, July 2002

Bernini, Gian Lorenzo (1598–1680)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini: David. Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART146559)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini: The Ecstacy of Saint Teresa. Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART22549)

Blackwater Draw
Clovis and Folsom points: Photo © University of Pennsylvania Museum

Blown Glass from Islamic Lands
Bottle, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (54.1.129): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Sprinkler (Qumqum), Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (54.1.73): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Inkwell, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (50.1.38): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams

Book in the Ilkhanid Period, The Art of the
Tarikh-i jahan-gusha (History of the World Conqueror): Image reproduced with the permission of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris

British Isles, 1000–1400 A.D.
Durham Cathedral, all views: Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Lincoln Cathedral, all views: Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Reliquary Casket with Scenes from the Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket (17.190.520): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Salisbury Cathedral, all views: Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Wells Cathedral, all views: Photograph by Julien Chapuis

British Isles, 1900 A.D.–present
Gilbert and George: Here (1991.210). Photograph by Lynton Gardiner

Bronze Sculpture in the Renaissance
Lorenzo Ghiberti: Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Relief from the Doors of Paradise. Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence: Photo © Alinari / Art Resource, NY
Benvenuto Cellini: Perseus with the Head of Medusa, 1545–54. Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (17)

Bruegel the Elder, Pieter (ca. 1525/30–1569)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559: Photo © Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, 2002, Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen
Pieter Bruegel the Elder: La Chute d'Ichare / Fall of Icharus, ca. 1568: Photo © The Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels, Belgium
Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Kermis / The Peasant Dance, ca. 1568: Photo © Kunsthistoriches Museum, Wien
Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Hunters in the Snow, 1565: Photo © Kunsthistoriches Museum, Wien

Burgundian Netherlands: Court Life
The Lamentation (1975.1.128): Photograph (alternate view) by Maryan Ainsworth
Workshop of Rogier van der Weyden: Portrait of Charles the Bold, ca. 1460: Photo © Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, 2002, Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen

Burgundian Netherlands: Private Life
The Annunciation Triptych (56.70): Photograph (alternate views) by Maryan Ainsworth
Portrait of a Carthusian (49.7.19): Photograph (alternate view) by Maryan Ainsworth

Byzantium (ca. 330–1453)
Chora Monastery in Constantinople. Photograph by Vasileios Marinis
Hagia Sophia. Photograph by Vasilieos Marinis

Caravaggio and his Followers
Bartolomeo Manfredi: Bacchus and the Drinker. Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART175369)
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio: The Cardsharps (Il Bari). Photograph by Michael Bodycomb, 1991. Copyright © 2003 by Kimbell Art Museum
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio: The Calling of Saint Matthew. Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART85771)
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio: Death of the Virgin. Photograph by R.G. Ojeda. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY (ART146749)
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio: The Martyrdom of Saint Matthew Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART815390)
Valentin de Boulogne: Fortune-Teller with Drinkers. Courtesy of the Toledo Museum of Art

Carraci, Annibale (1560–1609)
View of the ceiling of the Farnese Gallery: Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART1159)

Central Africa, 1600–1800 A.D.
The Church of Nossa Senhora de Nazaré, Luanda, The Kongo Army Engaging a Formation of Portuguese Soldiers, 1664–1666, mural: Photograph by John Thornton and Linda Heywood (2002)

Central America, 1000–1400 A.D.
Frog Pendant (1991.419.1): Photo © Justin Kerr

Central and North Asia, 500–1000 A.D.
Linga with One Face (Ekamukhalinga) (1980.415): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Ritual Basin (1987.218.6): Photograph by Maggie Nimkin

Central and North Asia, 1000–1400 A.D.
Leaf from a Qur'an manuscript (29.160.23): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Central Europe (including Germany), 500–1000 A.D.
Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, interior view. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (15)
Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, view of the dome. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (20)

Central Europe (including Germany), 1000–1400 A.D.
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Strasbourg, north transept and elevation of the nave. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (92)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Strasbourg, west facade. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (1)
Speyer Cathedral ("Kaiserdom"), "west work," Speyer, Germany. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (1)
Speyer Cathedral ("Kaiserdom"), Speyer, Germany. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (2)

Central Europe (including Germany), 1400–1600 A.D.
Claviorganum (89.4.1191): Photograph by Sheldan Collins

Central Europe (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland), 1900 A.D.–present
Richard Sapper: "Tizio" table lamp (1988.236.10). Photograph by Mark Darley

Central Europe (not Austria, Germany, and Switzerland), 1900 A.D.–present
Victor Brauner: Prelude to a Civilization (1999.363.13). Photograh by Malcolm Varon, 1988

Central Zone, The
Dedza Hills: Photograph by Geoffrey Blundell
Kasama Hills: Photograph by Geoffrey Blundell
Kolo: Photograph by Geoffrey Blundell

Cerro Sechin: Overview
Overhead view of the site of Cerro Sechin. Photo © Joanne Pillsbury
Close-up of engraved perimeter wall at Cerro Sechin. Photo © Joanne Pillsbury
Close-up of engraved perimeter wall at Cerro Sechin. Photo © Joanne Pillsbury

Cerro Sechin: Stone Sculpture
El Portico Litico. Photo © Joanne Pillsbury
Close-up of engraved perimeter wall at Cerro Sechin. Photo © Dana Jensen

The Cesnola Collection at The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Bronze rod tripod (74.51.5684): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Chauvet Cave
Site Photography: Photo © Jean Clottes

China, 2000–1000 B.C.
Vessel (50.61.5): Photograph by Schecter Lee

China, 1000 B.C.–1 A.D.
Bell (Chung) (1988.20.7): Photograph by Seth Joel
Pendant (1985.214.99): Photograph by Schecter Lee

China, 1000–1400 A.D.
Cup (1987.85): Photograph by Sheldan Collins

China, 1400–1600 A.D.
Scholar by a Waterfall (1973.120.9): Photograph by Malcolm Varon

China, 1600–1800 A.D.
The Sixteen Luohans (1985.227.1): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Chopine, The
Museo Correr dei Veneziani. Twenty-inch Chopines, 16th century, Venetian: Courtesy of the Museo Correr dei Veneziani

Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages
Nave, Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun: Photograph by Nancy Wu
Porte d'Arroux, Autun: Photograph by Nancy Wu

Classical Art and Modern Dress
Fragment from the Eleusinian Relief (14.130.9): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Victory of Samothrace, Musée du Louvre, Paris. Copyright Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY (ART147465)

Classicism in Modern Dress
Relief of dancing maenead (35.11.3), The Metropolitan Museum of Art Photograph by Schecter Lee
Themis (goddess of custom and law) (03.12.17), alternate view The Metropolitan Museum of Art Photograph by Bruce White
Torso of draped, flying Nike (07.286.23), alternate view, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Photograph by Bruce Schwarz
Charioteer of Delphi: Copyright Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY.

Claude Monet
Claude Monet: Women at the Garden at Ville d'Avray, 1867. Image © Reunion des Muses Nationaux/ Art Resource, NY (ART145520). Musee d'Orsay, Paris, France

Coffee, Tea, and Chocolate in Early Colonial America
Teapot (33.120.543): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Coldstream Stone, The
Coldstream Stone: Photograph by Herschel Mair

Collecting and the Kunstkammer
Constantino Vitale, Dell'historia naturale, libri XXVIII, 1599. Naples; Illustrated book: Photo © Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Washington, D.C. (qQH41.134 CRLS RB)
Relief Allegory of Virtues and Vices at the Court of Emperor Charles V (17.190.745): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Colossal Temples of the Roman Near East
Temple of Bel at Palmyra: Photo © Paul Collins
Temple of Dushara at Petra: Photo © Paul Collins
Temple of Jupiter at Baalbek: Photo © Paul Collins

Company Painting in Nineteenth-century India
A Common Indian Nightjar (Caprimulgus asiaticus) (2004.175). Image courtesy of Munroe Fine Art
Bengal River Fish (2004.176). Image courtesy of Munroe Fine Art

Constable, John (1776–1837)
John Constable: Golding Constable's Flower Garden, 1815. Image courtesy of Ipswich Borough Council Museums and Galleries
John Constable: The Hay Wain, 1821. Photograph © The National Gallery, London

Contemporary Deconstructions of Classical Dress
Themis (goddess of custom and law) (03.12.17), alternate view The Metropolitan Museum of Art Photograph by Bruce White
Torso of draped, flying Nike (07.286.23), alternate view, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Photograph by Bruce Schwarz

Contexts for the Display of Statues in Classical Antiquity
Fa├žade of the Library of Celsus, Ephesus, Turkey (2nd century A.D.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway

Courtly Art in the Ilkhanid Period
Sindukht Becoming Aware of Rudaba's Actions: Image reproduced with the permission of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Purchase—Smithsonian Unrestricted Trust Funds, Smithsonian Collections Acquisition Program, and Dr. Arthur M. Sackler, S1986.102

Cristofori, Bartolomeo (1655–1731), The Pianofortes of
Clavichord (1986.239): Photograph by Sheldan Collins

Crusades (1095–1291 A.D.), The
Krak des Chevaliers: Photo © Laura Anne Tedesco

Cubism
Pablo Picasso: Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, 1907. Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource, NY (ART162072). The Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.
Pablo Picasso: Man with Hat and a Violin (1999.363.64). Photograph by Malcolm Varon, 1988
Fernand Léger: The Bargeman (1999.363.35). Photograph by Malcolm Varon

Cut and Engraved Glass from Islamic Lands
Corning Ewer (85.1.1), Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass: Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Bottle (68.1.1), Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass: Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Bowl (55.1.136), Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass: Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams

Cyprus—Island of Copper
Bronze rod tripod (74.51.5684): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Daguerreian Era and Early American Photography on Paper, The, 1839–1860
Attributed to Gabriel Harrison (American, 1818–1902): Walt Whitman, ca. 1854. Image courtesy of The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations, Rare Books Division
Mathew B. Brady: John James Audubon, 1847–48. Image courtesy of Cincinnati Art Museum. Photograph copyright Walsh, 1999

Death in the Middle Ages
Tomb Effigy of Ermengol VII (28.95): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Deccan, Islamic Art of the
Ibrahaim Rauza (tomb of Ibrahim cAdil Shah), Bijapur: ACSAA
Gol Gumbad (tomb of Muhammad cAdil Shah): ACSAA

Design, 1900–25
Hector Guimard: Panel (49.85.11). Photograph by Mark Darley, 1989
Gio Ponti: "La Passeggiata Archaeologica" ("An Archaeological Stroll") urn with cover (31.83ab). Photograph by Mark Darley

Design, 1950–75
Timo Sarpaneva: "Lansetti II" (Lancet II) vase (56.31.3). Photograph by Mark Darley, 1989
Isamu Noguchi: "Akari E" lamp (1990.74). Photograph by Mark Darley, 1989
Joe Colombo: "Tube" chair (1987.98.1a-d). Photograph by Mark Darley, 1989
Richard Sapper: "Tizio" table lamp (1988.236.10). Photograph by Mark Darley

Donatello
Donatello (Italian, ca. 1386–1466), Saint George, ca. 1417. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (27)

Dürer, Albrecht (1471–1528 A.D.)
Albrecht Dürer: Feast of the Rose Garlands, 1506. Národní Galerie, Prague: Photo © the National Gallery, Prague, Czeck Republic
Albrecht Dürer: The Great Piece of Turf, 1503. Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna: Photo © Albertina, Wien

Early Maori Woodcarvings
Canoe prow (haumi): Courtesy of the Aukland War Memorial Museum
Head: Courtesy of the Aukland War Memorial Museum
Architectural ornament: Courtesy of the Aukland War Memorial Museum
Figure symbolic of the god Uenukutuwhatu: Courtesy Brian Brake Archive

Early Modernists and Indian Traditions
Jamini Roy: Gopi, ca. 1940. Image courtesy of the Samuel P. Harn Museum

Easter Island
All site photography © Eric Kjellgren

Eastern Africa, 1600–1800 A.D.
Castle of King Fasiladas, Gondar: Photograph by Raymond A. Silverman (September 1991)
View of the "Royal Library" (left) and "Chancellery" of Emperor Yohannes I (right) from the roof of the Castle of King Fasiladas, Gondar: Photograph by Raymond A. Silverman (September 1991)
Church of Dabra Sina, Gorgora (north shore of Lake Tana), Michael the Archangel: Photograph by Raymond A. Silverman (September 1991)

Eastern Europe and Scandinavia, 500–1000 A.D.
Terminal for a Ring–Shaped Brooch: Photographs by Charles T. Little

Eastern Europe and Scandinavia, 1400–1600 A.D.
Cathedral of Saint Basil the Blessed, Moscow, 1555–60: Photograph by Laurie Tedesco
Frederiksborg Castle, Hillerød: Photograph by Carsten Bruun
Frederiksborg Castle, Hillerød: Photograph by Carsten Bruun
Frederiksborg Castle, Hillerød: Photograph by Carsten Bruun
View of Moscow, with the Cathedral of Saint Basil the Blessed, left, 1555–60, and the Troitsky Tower of the Kremlin Wall, right, built 1495–99: Photograph by Laurie Tedesco

Eastern Mediterranean, 2000–1000 B.C., The
Bronze rod tripod (74.51.5684): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Eastern Mediterranean, 1000–1400 A.D., The
Krak des Chevaliers: Photo © Laura Anne Tedesco

Ebla in the Third Millennium B.C.
The Acropolis at Ebla: Photo © Paul Collins

Egypt, 8000–2000 B.C.
Statue of Memi and Sabu (48.11): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Egyptian Modern Art
Munir Canaan: No 13 et une Flèche, 1955. Photo © Philippe Maillard
Mahmud Mukhtar: Egypt Awakening, 1919–28. Image courtesy of Dr. Sobhy Al Sharouny
Ramsis Yunan: Untitled, 1943. Photo © Philippe Maillard
Gazibia Sirry: The Kite, 1960. Courtesy of the artist
Ghada Amer: Black Lisa, 2000. Image Courtesy of Deitch Projects, NY
Moataz Nasr: An Ear of Mud, Another of Dough, 2001. Photo by Hany el Gewely
Salah cAbd al-Karim: The Horse, 1971. Copyright Dr. Sobhy Al Sharouny
cAbd al-Hadi al-Gazzar: The Strangers, 1961. Copyright Dr. Sobhy Al Sharouny
Mahmud Said: Dervishes, 1927. Copyright Dr. Sobhy Al Sharouny
Hamid Nada: The Unruly Horse, 1988. Copyright Dr. Sobhy Al Sharouny
Hassan Fathi: New Gourna Project in Upper Egypt (West Bank Luxor, Egypt), 1945. Photograph by Mme. Hassia, c.1946–1948

Egyptian Tombs: Life Along the Nile
The tomb of Meketre, carved into the edge of the cliffs: Photograph by Harry Burton of the Egyptian Expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
View showing Senemut's offering chapel: Photograph by Harry Burton of the Egyptian Expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Empire Style, 1800–1815
After a painting by Baron François-Pascal-Simon Gérard: Tapestry: Portrait of Napoleon I (43.99). Photograph by Schecter Lee

Enameled and Guilded Glass from Islamic Lands
Handled Vase, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (55.1.36): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Candlestick, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (90.1.1): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams

European Exploration of the Pacific, 1600–1800 A.D.
Portrait of Captain James Cook, RN. Photo © Image Select/Art Resource, NY (ART95431)

European Tapestry Production and Patronage, 1400–1600
Conversion of Saul: Photograph by P. Zigrossi, July, 1986. Courtesy of the Vatican Museums.

European Tapestry Production and Patronage, 1600–1800
The Triumph of the Church from The Triumph of the Eucharist series, ca. 1628. Tapestry, designed by Peter Paul Rubens: Copyright © Patrimonio Nacional
The Taking of Lille by the army of Louis XIV from the History of the King Tapestry, designed by Charles Le Brun: Copyright © Mobilier National. Photograph by Isabelle Bideau

Eyck, Jan van (ca. 1380/90–1441 A.D.)
Jan van Eyck: The Crucifixion; The Last Judgment (33.92ab). Photograph (alternate view) by Maryan Ainsworth
Jan van Eyck: Portrait of a Carthusian (49.7.19). Photograph (alternate view) by Maryan Ainsworth

Eynan/Ain Mallaha
Human Head (IDAM 57-895): Photograph by Amalyah Keshet

Fatimid Period, The Art of the
City Wall, Bab al-Nasr, Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni
The Minaret of the Mosque of al-Hakim, Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni
The Mosque of al-Aqmar (1125) in Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni

Fauvism
Henri Matisse: Woman with a Hat, autumn 1905. Image courtesy of San Francisco Museum of Art
Henri Matisse: Still Life with Vegetables (1999.363.38). Photographed by Malcolm Varon, 1988
Maurice de Vlaminck: The River Seine at Chatou (1999.363.84). Photograph by Malcolm Varon, 1988
Maurice de Vlaminck: Andre Derain (1999.363.83). Photograph by Malcolm Varon, 1988

Fell's Cave
Stone "fishtail" points: Photograph by John Bigelow Taylor

Flavian Dynasty, The (69–96 A.D.)
Cippus (funerary altar) of Cominia Tyche (38.27): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Florence and Central Italy, 1400–1600 A.D.
Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, bronze doors of east portal, 1425–52, by Lorenzo Ghiberti (Italian, ca. 1378–1455). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (75)
Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, bronze doors of east portal, 1425–52, detail with Sacrifice of Isaac, by Lorenzo Ghiberti (Italian, ca. 1378–1455). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (79)
East facade of Bapistery of San Giovanni, Florence, bronze doors of east portal, 1425–52, by Lorenzo Ghiberti (Italian, ca. 1378–1455). Photograph © Anne Leader
Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence, bronze doors of north portal, 1401–25, by Lorenzo Ghiberti (Italian, ca. 1378–1455). Photograph © Anne Leader
Bapistery of San Giovanni, Florence, bronze doors of north portal, 1403–25, detail with the Annunciation, by Lorenzo Ghiberti (Italian, ca. 1378–1455). Photograph © Anne Leader
Church of San Francesco, Arezzo, Legend of the True Cross, ca. 1452–65, fresco by Piero della Francesca (Italian, ca. 1420–1492). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (184)
Church of San Francesco, Arezzo, The Queen of Sheba Received by Solomon, detail of Legend of the True Cross, ca. 1452–65, fresco by Piero della Francesca (Italian, ca. 1420–1492). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (188)
Church of San Francesco, Arezzo, The Adoration of the Holy Wood, detail of Legend of the True Cross, ca. 1452–65, fresco by Piero della Francesca (Italian, ca. 1420–1492). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (189)
Church of San Lorenzo, Florence, Medici Chapel, 1519–34, interior view, by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (121)
Church of San Lorenzo, Florence, Medici Chapel, Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici, Night and Day, 1526–33, by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (124)
Church of San Lorenzo, Florence, Medici Chapel, Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici, Night and Day, 1526–33, detail of Day, by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (125)
Collegio del Cambio, Perugia, Audience Hall, ca. 1496, by Perugino (Italian, ca. 1445–1523). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (74)
Collegio del Cambio, Perugia, Audience Hall, detail, The Transfiguration, ca. 1496, fresco by Perugino (Italian, ca. 1445–1523). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (76)
Florence Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore, called the Duomo), dome, 1420–36, by Filippo Brunelleschi (Italian, 1377–1446). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (60)
Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, David, completed 1504, Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564), Marble; H. 165 3/8 in. (434 cm). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (139)
Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, David (detail), completed 1504, Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564), Marble; H. 165 3/8 in. (434 cm). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (140)
Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, David (detail), completed 1504, Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564), Marble; H. 165 3/8 in. (434 cm). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (141)
Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, David (detail), completed 1504, Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564), Marble; H. 165 3/8 in. (434 cm). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (142)
Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence, Rape of the Sabine Women, 1583, Giovanni Bologna, called Giambologna (ca. 1529–1608), Marble; H. 161 1/2 in. (410 cm). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (16)
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, Saint George, ca. 1417, Donatello (Italian, ca. 1386–1466), Marble; H. 82 1/4 in. (209 cm). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (27)
Oratory of San Bernardino, Perugia, facade, 1457–61, by Agostino di Duccio (Italian, 1418–after 1481). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (12)
Oratory of San Bernardino, Perugia, detail of facade, 1457–61, by Agostino di Duccio (Italian, 1418–after 1481). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (20)
Oratory of San Bernardino, Perugia, detail of facade, 1457–61, by Agostino di Duccio (Italian, 1418–after 1481). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (21)
Oratory of San Bernardino, Perugia, detail of facade, 1457–61, by Agostino di Duccio (Italian, 1418–after 1481). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (19)
Oratory of San Bernardino, Perugia, detail of facade, 1457–61, by Agostino di Duccio (Italian, 1418–after 1481). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (18)
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, facade, begun 1444, by Michelozzo di Bartolommeo (Italian, 1396–1472) (expanded in the 17th century by the Riccardi family). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (174)
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, inner courtyard, begun 1444, by Michelozzo di Bartolommeo (Italian, 1396–1472). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (175)
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, garden, begun 1444, by Michelozzo di Bartolommeo (Italian, 1396–1472). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (177)
Siena Cathedral, Piccolomini Library, interior, frescoes, 1502–8, by Pinturicchio (Italian, ca. 1454–1513). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (201)
Siena Cathedral, Piccolomini Library, Piccolomini Receives the Cardinal Hat, 1502–8, fresco by Pinturicchio (Italian, ca. 1454–1513). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (209)
Siena Cathedral, Piccolomini Library, Piccolomini Receives the Cardinal Hat, 1502–8, detail of fresco by Pinturicchio (Italian, ca. 1454–1513). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (210)
Siena Cathedral, Piccolomini Library, Pope Aeneas Piccolomini Canonizes Catherine of Siena, 1502–8, fresco by Pinturicchio (Italian, ca. 1454–1513). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (212) Siena Cathedral, Piccolomini Library, Pope Aeneas Piccolomini Canonizes Catherine of Siena, 1502–8, detail of fresco by Pinturicchio (Italian, ca. 1454–1513). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (213)
Villa Medici, Poggio a Caiano, View of Great Hall of Leo X, fresco cycle by Andrea del Sarto (Italian, 1486–1531). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (31)
Villa Medici, Poggio a Caiano, Tribute to Caesar, 1519, detail, by Andrea del Sarto (Italian, 1486–1531). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (23)
Villa Medici, Poggio a Caiano, View of Great Hall of Leo X, fresco cycle by Andrea del Sarto (Italian, 1486–1531). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (35)
Villa Medici, Poggio a Caiano, Cicero's Return from Exile, 1519, detail, by Andrea del Sarto (Italian, 1486–1531). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (24)

Folios from the Jamic al-tavarikh
The Death of Moses
: © Nour Foundation. Image reproduced with the permission of The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, (MSS 727)
Mountains between Tibet and India: © Nour Foundation. Image reproduced with the permission of The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, (MAA 727)

Folios from the Great Mongol Shahnama (Book of Kings)
Nushirvan Eating the Food Brought by the Sons of Mahbud(?): From the Great Mongol Shahnama (Book of Kings) (52.20.2): Photograph by Malcolm Vernon
Sindukht Becoming Aware of Rudaba's Actions: Image reproduced with the permission of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: Purchase—Smithsonian Unrestricted Trust Funds, Smithsonian Collections Acquisition Program, and Dr. Arthur M. Sackler, S1986.102

Fontainebleau
Rosso Fiorentino (Italian, 1494–1540) and Francesco Primaticcio (Italian, 1504–1570), Galerie François I, 1528–37. Château, Fontainebleau: Photo © Giraudon / Art Resource, NY (ART62156)

Fragonard, Jean-Honoré (1732–1806)
Jean-Honoré Fragonard: The Lover Crowned from The Progress of Love. Copyright © The Frick Collection, New York (15.1.4555)

France, 1000–1400 A.D.
Abbey Church of Notre-Dame, Jumièges, all views. Photograph by Nancy Wu
Abbey Church of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, ca. 1070–80, historiated capitals. Photograph by Peter Barnet
Abbey Church of Saint-Philibert, Tournus, south elevation of the nave. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (15)
Abbey Church of Saint-Philibert, Tournus, view from the southeast. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (5)
Abbey Church of Saint-Philibert, Tournus. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (14)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, elevation of the nave (arcade, gallery, clerestory with stained glass). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (117)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, stained glass of the Virgin and Child ("Notre-Dame de la Belle Verrière"). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (1)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, west facade; rose window. Photograph by Nancy Wu
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, west facade; rose window; north tower completed in the 15th century. Photograph by Nancy Wu
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, west facade, Portail Royal. Photograph by Nancy Wu
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, west facade, Portail Royal: central portal. Photograph by Nancy Wu
Cathedral of Saint-Pierre, Beauvais, choir. Photograph by Nancy Wu
Cathedral of Saint-Stephen, Bourges, choir, ambulatory, and flying buttresses. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (93)
Cathedral of Saint-Stephen, Bourges, choir, ambulatory, and flying buttresses. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (90)
Church of Sainte-Madeleine, Vézelay, tympanum: The Sending of the Apostles. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (V35)
Church of Sainte-Madeleine, Vézelay, tympanum: The Sending of the Apostles (detail). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (V36)
Collegiate Church of Saint-Pierre, Chauvigny, capital in the choir with the Adoration of the Magi, signed "Gofridus me fecit." Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (40)
Collegiate Church of Saint-Pierre, Chauvigny, capital in the choir with a two-bodied figure fighting lions. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (37)
Collegiate Church of Saint-Pierre, Chauvigny, capital in the choir with the Devil displaying his altar. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (33)
Collegiate Church of Saint-Pierre, Chauvigny, historiated capitals in the choir. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (32)
The Cuxa Cloister (25.120.398,.399,.452): Photographs by Melanie Holcomb
Monastery Church of Notre-Dame, Paray-le-Monial, all views. Photography by Julien Chapuis
Palais des Papes, Avignon, Chambre du Cerf, detail of a fishing scene from frescoes by Matteo Giovanetti and assistants. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (329)
Palais des Papes, Avignon, Chambre du Cerf, frescoes by Matteo Giovanetti and assistants. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (326)
Palais des Papes, Avignon, north sacristy of the Great Chapel. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (316)
Palais des Papes, Avignon, Palais Neuf of Clement VI, built by Jean de Louvres. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (287)
Royal Abbey Church of Saint-Denis (near Paris), elevation of the choir. Photograph by Nancy Wu
Royal Abbey Church of Saint-Denis (near Paris), west facade. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (1)

France, 1800–1900 A.D.
After a painting by Baron François-Pascal-Simon Gérard: Tapestry: Portrait of Napoleon I (43.99). Photograph by Schecter Lee

France, 1900 A.D.–present
Hector Guimard: Panel (49.85.11). Photograph by Mark Darley, 1989

Frescoes and Wall Painting in Late Byzantine Art
Chora Monastery (Kariye Camii), Constantinople, mosaic of Theodore Metochites presenting a model of the Church of the Chora to Christ, from the inner narthex: Photograph by Carroll Wales, Courtesy of Dumbarton Oaks, Byzantine Photograph and Fieldwork Archives, Washington, DC
Chora Monastery (Kariye Camii), Constantinople, interior of the parekklesion, with frescoes: Photograph courtesy of Dr. Robert Ousterhout
Church of the Peribleptos, Mistra, Greece, fresco painting of procession: Photograph by Voutsas Velissarios
Church of the Peribleptos, Mistra, Greece, fresco painting of the Baptism: Photograph by Voutsas Velissarios
Studenica Monastery, Church of Saints Joachim and Anna, Kraljevo, Serbia, fresco painting of the Birth of the Virgin: Photograph by Bruce White
Studenica Monastery, Church of Saints Joachim and Anna, Kraljevo, Serbia, interior view of dome: Photograph by Bruce White
Studenica Monastery, Church of Saints Joachim and Anna, Kraljevo, Serbia, fresco depicting King Stefan Uros II Milutin (r. 1282–1321) holding a model of the church and standing with his wife Simonis: Photograph by Bruce White
Studenica Monastery, Church of Saints Joachim and Anna, Kraljevo, Serbia, fresco painting of John the Baptist: Photograph by Bruce White

Game Pass
Game Pass Shelter: Photograph by Geoffrey Blundell

Genre Painting in Korea, Eighteenth-Century, Work and Leisure
Kim Hongdo: Dancer and Musicians: From Genre Paintings by Danwon. Image courtesy of the National Museum of Korea
Kim Hongdo: Wrestlers: From Genre Paintings by Danwon. Image courtesy of the National Museum of Korea
Kim Hongdo: Carpenters: From Genre Paintings by Danwon. Image courtesy of the National Museum of Korea
Kim Hongdo: Threshing Rice: From Genre Paintings by Danwon. Image courtesy of the National Museum of Korea

Geometric Abstraction
Aleksandr Rodchenko: Oval Hanging Construction Number 12, ca. 1920. Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/ Art Resource, NY (ART165720). The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, U.S.A.
Fernand Léger: Mechanical Elements (1999.363.36). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Kazimir Malevich: Suprematist Composition: White on White, 1918. Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/ Art Resource, NY (ART162561). The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, U.S.A.

Ghent Altarpiece, The
Hubert van Eyck and Jan van Eyck: The Ghent Altarpiece (Adoration of the Mystic Lamb), 1432, closed state. Cathedral of Saint Bavo, Ghent, Belgium: Photo © Scala / Art Resource, NY
Hubert van Eyck and Jan van Eyck: The Ghent Altarpiece (Adoration of the Mystic Lamb), 1432, open state. Cathedral of Saint Bavo, Ghent, Belgium: Photo © Scala / Art Resource, NY

Glass with Mold-Blown Decorations from Islamic Lands
Bottle with Inscription, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (55.1.6): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Mold, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (86.7.15): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Pitcher, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (66.1.5): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams

Gogh, Vincent van (1853–1890)
Vincent van Gogh: The Potato Eaters (Nuenen, April–May 1885). Image courtesy of Van Gogh Museum Foundation, Amsterdam / Vincent van Gogh Foundation
Vincent van Gogh: Wheatfield with Crows (Auvers-sur-Oise, July 1890). Image courtesy of Van Gogh Museum Foundation, Amsterdam / Vincent van Gogh Foundation

Goltzius, Hendrick (1558–1617)
Hendrick Goltzius: Autumn (61.25.2). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Hendrick Goltzius: Danaë Photograph copyright © 2003 Museum Associates/LACMA
Hendrick Goltzius: Farnese Hercules, back view, in black and white chalk. Teylers Museum, Spaarne 16, 2011 CH Haarlem
Hendrick Goltzius: Farnese Hercules, back view, in red chalk. Teylers Museum, Spaarne 16, 2011 CH Haarlem
Hendrick Goltzius: Goltzius's Right Hand. Teylers Museum, Spaarne 16, 2011 CH Haarlem
Hendrick Goltzius: Pietro Francavilla. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Goryeo Celadon
Cup and Stand: Photo © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Kundika: Photo © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Covered Box: Photo © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Maebyeong: Photo © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Maebyeong: Photo © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Bowl: Photo © The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge

Gothic Art
Amiens Cathedral (Cathedral of Notre-Dame, view into the choir; north elevation of the nave: Photograph by Nancy Wu
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, elevation of the nave (arcade, gallery, clerestory with stained glass): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (117)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, interior view of monumental rose window: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (139)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, interior view of monumental rose window: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (137)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, stained glass of the Virgin and Child ("Notre-Dame de la Belle Verrière"): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (1)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, view of monumental rose window from the exterior: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (108A)
Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, view of the choir with flying buttresses (both views): Photograph by Nancy Wu
Cathedral of Saint-Pierre, Beauvais, choir (interior and exterior views): Photograph by Nancy Wu
Reims Cathedral (Cathedral of Notre Dame), west facade, central portal: The Annunciation (and detail): Photograph by Nancy Wu
Reims Cathedral (Cathedral of Notre Dame), west facade, central portal: The Visitation: Photograph by Nancy Wu
Reims Cathedral (Cathedral of Notre Dame), west facade, overall view: Photograph by Nancy Wu
Reims Cathedral (Cathedral of Notre Dame), west portals: Photograph by Nancy Wu
Reims Cathedral (Cathedral of Notre-Dame), detail of a foliate capital: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (134)
Saint Denis, all views: Photographs by Nancy Wu

Goya, Francisco de (1746–1828) and the Spanish Enlightenment
Francisco de Goya: The Execution of Rebels on 3 May, 1808: Copyright © Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid
Francisco de Goya: Family of Carlos IV: Copyright © Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid
Francisco de Goya: The Second of May, 1808: Copyright © Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

Great Serpent Mound
Great Serpent Mound in a recent photograph with the oval or "eye" of the serpent at the right. Overlooking Brush Creek in Adams County: Photo © Ohio Historical Society

Great Zimbabwe
Soapstone bird: Photo © Great Zimbabwe National Monument
Stone walls: Photo © Alisa LaGamma

Greek Gods and Religious Practices
Fragment from the Eleusinian Relief (14.130.9): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Torso of draped, flying Nike (07.286.23), alternate view, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Photograph by Bruce Schwarz

Greek Key and Divine Attributes of Modern Dress, The
Relief of a dancing maenad (35.11.3): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, 532–37, view of eastern facade: Photograph by Thomas F. Matthews
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, 532–37, view of southern facade: Photograph by Thomas F. Matthews
Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, 532–37, interior: Photograph by Thomas F. Matthews

Hasanlu
Hasanlu Gold Bowl (recto and verso), from Burned Building I-West. Collection Iran Bastam Museum, Tehran. Image courtesy of University of Pennsylvania Museum (HAS 58-469 Recto; HAS58-469 Verso)

Hinduism and Hindu Art
Shiva worship in the sanctuary of a South Indian Hindu temple: Photograph by Ghiora Aharoni
Hindu temple, Khajuraho: Photograph by Ghiora Aharoni

Hot-worked Glass from Islamic Lands
Cup, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (55.1.17): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Flask, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (50.1.32): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Bowl, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (59.1.512): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
The Durighiello Bottle: Photo © Trustees of The British Museum, London (1919.5–22.39)

Housemistress in New Kingdom Egypt, The: Hatnofer
Entrance to Hatnofer's tomb, with contents shown in place: Photograph by Harry Burton of the Egyptian Expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Entrance to Hatnofer's tomb as it was discovered, with a rectangular tambourine: Photograph by Harry Burton of the Egyptian Expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art

How Medieval and Renaissance Tapestries Were Made
Weavers working on a high-warp loom. Photograph by Thomas P. Campbell
Weavers working on a high-warp loom. Photograph by Thomas P. Campbell
Weaver working on high-warp loom. Photograph by Thomas P. Campbell
Weaver working on a low-warp loom. Joseph Job Jobé (ed.), Great Tapestries. The Web of History from the 12th to the 20th Century (Lausanne: Edita, 1965).
Weaver working on a low-warp loom. Photograph by Thomas P. Campbell
Low-warp loom. Photograph by Thomas P. Campbell
Model of weft-faced tapestry weave. Joseph Job Jobé (ed.), Great Tapestries. The Web of History from the 12th to the 20th Century (Lausanne: Edita, 1965).
Back of a tapestry being woven on a low-warp loom. Joseph Job Jobé (ed.), Great Tapestries. The Web of History from the 12th to the 20th Century (Lausanne: Edita, 1965).

Iberian Peninsula, 500–1000 A.D.
Quintanilla de las Vinas, Church of Santa Maria, apse. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Quintanilla de las Vinas, Church of Santa Maria, south transept. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Quintanilla de las Vinas, Church of Santa Maria, sculpted frieze. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Quintanilla de las Vinas, Church of Santa Maria, sculpted frieze. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Quintanilla de las Vinas, Church of Santa Maria, sculpted frieze. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
San Pedro de Cardena (Burgos), north aisle of cloister. Photograph by Julien Chapuis

Iberian Peninsula, 1000–1400 A.D.
Avila city walls. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Burgos Cathedral, south portal. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Burgos Cathedral, view from the south. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Burgos Cathedral, west facade. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, apostles from the Portico de la Gloria. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (100)
Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Portico de la Gloria. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (89)
Charterhouse of Miraflores (Burgos), exterior. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Church of San Isidoro, Leon, Panteon de lose Reyes (necropolis of the kings of Leon). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (19)
Church of San Isidoro, Leon, detail of the vault from the Panteon de los Reyes (necropolis of the kings of Leon). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (22)
Church of San Isidoro, Leon, consecrated 1149. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (2)
Gil de Siloe, Tomb of Juan of Castile and Isabel of Portugal, overall. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Gil de Siloe, Tomb of Juan of Castile and Isabel of Portugal, effigy of Juan of Castile. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Gil de Siloe, Tomb of Juan of Castile and Isabel of Portugal, effigy of Isabel of Portugal. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
San Pedro de Arlanza (Burgos), ruins of the monastery. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
San Pedro de Cardena (Burgos), north aisle of cloister. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
San Vincente, Avila, west portal. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
San Vincente, Avila, west portal: prophets and apostles. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
San Vincente, Avila, south portal: Annunciation. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos(Burgos), cloister. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos(Burgos), cloister. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos(Burgos), cloister. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), capital. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), capital. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), capital. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), Tree of Jesse. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), Annunciation. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), Crucifixion. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), Descent from the Cross and Entombment. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), Christ and the Doubting Thomas. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), Ascension. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), Pentecost. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Santo Domingo de Silos (Burgos), Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus. Photograph by Julien Chapuis
San Pedro de Arlanza (Burgos), ruins of the monastery. Photograph by Julien Chapuis

Iberian Peninsula, 1400–1600 A.D.
Escorial, San Lorenzo el Real del Escorial near Madrid, completed 1587, south facade. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (5)
Escorial, San Lorenzo el Real del Escorial near Madrid, completed 1587, main entrance facade from west. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (11)
Escorial, San Lorenzo el Real del Escorial near Madrid, completed 1587, interior view of choir in the Escorial Church. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (17)
Escorial, San Lorenzo el Real del Escorial near Madrid, completed 1587, interior view of choir in the Escorial Church with The Gloria fresco by Luca Cambiaso (1527–1585) on ceiling. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (19)
Escorial, San Lorenzo el Real del Escorial near Madrid, completed 1587, interior view of high altar in the Escorial Church with The Tomb of Emperor Charles V (r. 1519–56) (right) and The House of the Sacrament (left). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (20)
Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes, Toledo, begun 1476, exterior, by Juan Guas (French, 1430–1496). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (73)
Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes, Toledo, begun 1476, interior view of nave, by Juan Guas (French, 1430–1496). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (78)
Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes, Toledo, begun 1476, interior view of vaulted ceiling, by Juan Guas (French, 1430–1496). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (79)
Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes, Toledo, begun 1476, interior view of nave wall, by Juan Guas (French, 1430–1496). Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (84)
Monastery of San Juan de los Reyes, Toledo, begun 1476, interior view of nave wall, detail, by Juan Guas (French, 1430–1496), Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (85)

Iberian Peninsula, 1900 A.D.–present
Salvador Dalí: The Accommodations of Desire (1999.363.16). Photographed by Malcolm Varon in 1988
Joan Miró: The Potato (1999.363.50). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Oscar Tusquets Blanca: "Alada" table (1990.68ab). Photographed by Mark Darley in 1989

Ife
Opa Oranmiyan: Photo © Alisa LaGamma
Pavement detail: Photo © Alisa LaGamma
Shrine Head: Photo © The Minneapolis Institute of Arts

Igbo-Ukwu
Bowl on a Stand: Photo © Dirk Bakker
Roped Pot on a Stand: Photo © Dirk Bakker

Ilkhanid Period, The Art of the
Dome over the tomb of the Shrine of cAbd al-Samad at Natanz: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Mausoleum of Sultan Uljeitu in Sultaniyya, and detail: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Ruins of the summer palace at Takht-i Sulayman: Photo © Stefano Carboni

Indian Knoll
Butterfly-shaped Bannerstone, 3000–2000 B.C.: National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. Photo © 1985 The Detroit Institute of Arts
Banded clay Bannerstone, 3000–2000 B.C.: National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. Photo © 1985 The Detroit Institute of Arts
Great Mosque at Jenne: Photo © The J. Paul Getty Trust, 2000. All rights reserved.

Interiors Imagined: Folding Screens, Garments, and Clothing Stands
Tagasode (Whose Sleeves?), Property of Mary Griggs Burke. Photograph by Bruce Schwarz

Iran, 1400–1600 A.D.
A Princely Couple with Attendants (57.51.24): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Qur'an stand (10.218), alternate view: Photograph by Schecter Lee

Iran, Nineteenth-Century: Art and the Advent of Modernity
Mihr cAli: Portrait of Fath cAli Shah, 1813. Image courtesy of Sa'dabad Museum, Istanbul
Court photographer in action, Salt print. From: Iraj Afshar, Ganjinah-'i caksha-yi Iran (Tehran, 1992)
Kamal al-Mulk: Fortune-Teller, 1309/1892. Image courtesy of Sa'dabad Museum, Istanbul
Lithograph of S. G. W. Benjamin, First American Ambassador to Iran. Image courtesy of Princeton Library Near East Division
Unknown Artist: Portrait of Nasir al-Din Shah. Photograph by Herve Lewandowski. Louvre, Paris, France

Islamic Ornament, The Nature of: Vegetal Patterns
Qur'an stand (10.218), alternate view: Photograph by Schecter Lee

Italian Peninsula, 1000 B.C.–1 A.D.
Agrigentum, Sicily, view of the Greek temple of Concord (ca. 430 B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Agrigentum, Sicily, view of the Greek temple of Concord (ca. 430 B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Ostia, Sicily, view of the ruins at Ostia, the major port city of Rome. Photograph by Rosemarie Trentinella, 2000
Porta Maggiore, looking past the Tomb of the Baker (ca. 30 B.C.). Photograph by Rosemarie Trentinella, 2000
Segesta, Sicily, view of the Doric Temple (ca. 424–416 B.C.) from the theater. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Segesta, Sicily, view of the Greek Theater (middle of the 3rd century B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Selinus, Sicily, view of the Temple C facade (early 6th century B.C). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Selinus, Sicily, view of the Temple E facade (ca. 490–480 B.C) on the East Hill. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Selinus, Sicily, view of Temple with sheep in the foreground. Photograph by Rosemarie Trentinella, 2000
Syracuse, Sicily, view of the monumental altar of Hieron II (ca. 241–215 B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Syracuse, Sicily, view of the Greek theater first constructed in the early 6th century B.C. and enlarged as seen here in ca. 230 B.C. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Taormina, Sicily, view of the Greek theater. The theater was first built during the Hellenistic period and then was almost entirely rebuilt under the Romans. Photograph by Seán Hemingway

Italian Peninsula, 1–500 A.D.
Herculaneum, Italy view of the excavations of the first–century A.D. town from the coast, with the modern town in the distance. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Herculaneum, Italy view of the excavations of towards the sea. The ancient coastline was much closer. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Pompeii, Italy, view of the Mount Vesuvius from the outside of the Marine Gate. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Pompeii, Italy, view of the Roman forum (1st century A.D.) at the center of the town. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Rome, Italy, the Arch of Constantine (315 A.D.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Rome, Italy, the Column of Marcus Aurelius (ca. 180–96 A.D.). Photograph by Rosemarie Trentinella, 2000
Rome, Italy, view of Trajan's Market (ca. 113 A.D.). Photograph by Rosemarie Trentinella, 2000
Rome, Italy, The Pantheon, view of the dome. Photograph by Rosemarie Trentinella, 2000
Rome, Italy, The Pantheon, view of the portico. Photograph by Rosemarie Trentinella, 2000

Italian Peninsula, 1000–1400 A.D.
Basilica of San Marco, Venice. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (6)
Basilica of San Marco, Venice, west portals. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (117)
Cathedral of San Gimignano, Modena, west facade detail: The Creation of Adam, by Wiligelmo. Photograph by Peter Barnet
Cathedral of San Gimignano, Modena, west facade detail: The Fall of Man, by Wiligelmo. Photograph by Peter Barnet
Church of San Francesco, Assisi. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (146)
Church of San Francesco, Assisi, fresco: Saint Clare Mourning the Death of Saint Francis, by Giotto and pupils. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (151)
Orvieto Cathedral, decoration of the west facade, by Lorenzo Maitani. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (121)
Palatine Chapel, Palermo. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (110)
Palatine Chapel, Palermo. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (100)
Pisa Baptistery, pulpit, by Nicola Pisano, detail: The Nativity. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (189)
Siena Cathedral, view from the southwest. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (135)
Siena Cathedral, pulpit, by Nicola Pisano. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (185)
Tomb Effigy of Ermengol VII (28.95): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Italian Peninsula, 1900 A.D.–present
Salvador Dalí: The Accommodations of Desire (1999.363.16). Photograph by Malcolm Varon, 1988
Joan Miró: The Potato (1999.363.50). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Gio Ponti: "La Passeggiata Archaeologica" ("An Archaeological Stroll") urn with cover (31.83ab). Photograph by Mark Darley
Joe Colombo: "Tube" chair (1987.98.1a-d). Photograph by Mark Darley, 1989
Oscar Tusquets Blanca: "Alada" table (1990.68ab). Photograph by Mark Darley, 1989

Italian Porcelain
Capodimonte figures (Virgin and St. John) (1971.92.1,.2): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Jade, Ancient American
Mask (1977.187.33): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Working celt: Photo © Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburg

Jade, Costa Rican
Three Figure-Celt Pendants: Photo © Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, San José
Bird-Celt Pendant: Photo © Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, San José

Jade in Mesoamerica
Mask (1977.187.33): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Japan, 1800–1900 A.D.
Shibata Zeshin: Autumn Grasses in Moonlight (1975.268.137). Photograph (alternate view #3) by Lynton Gardiner
Outer robe (uchikake) with scenes of filial piety (49.32.109). Photograph courtesy of Sidney Janis Gallery, NY

Japonisme
Pierre Bonnard: Street Corner (28.50.4.3). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Édouard Vuillard: Interior with a Hanging Lamp (25.70.23). Photograph by Malcolm Varon

Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns: Flag, 1954–55. Digital Image © The Musuem of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/ART Resource, NY (ART162564). The Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.
Jasper Johns: Three Flags, 1958. Art © Jasper Johns/ Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY

Jewish Art in Late Antiquity and Early Byzantium
Arch of Titus. Photographs by Michael F. Messina

Jiahu
Flutes: Photo © Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, China

Julio-Claudian Dynasty, The
Kalyx krater with reliefs of maidens and dancing maenads (23.184): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Joseon Buncheong Ware: Between Celadon and Porcelain
Bottle in the shape of a rice dish: Photograph courtesy of The Museum of Oriental Ceramics, Osaka
Ritual Vessel: Photograph courtesy of The Museum of Oriental Ceramics, Osaka
Jar. Courtesy of Ewha Womans University Museum's collection. Photograph by Sokhong Han
Jar. Courtesy of The Cleveland Museum of Art.

Kilt, The
The monk Philippede Maizieres presenting a book to Richard II, 1395–6. Photograph © British Library, London (Royal MS 20 B V, f.2.)
Portrait of Henry VIII after Hans Holbein's mural at Whitehall. Courtesy of Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool
Jacques-Louis David: Le Citoyen Français, 1794. Courtesy of Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY
Jacques Grasset de Saint Sauveur: Membre du Conseil des Ancients, 1796. Courtesy of Irene Lewisohn Costume Reference Library
Cardinal James Gibbons (1834–1921), photograph: Courtesy of Heritage Photographs © 1999
John Singleton Copley: Hugh Montgomerie, 12th Earl of Eglinton, Late 18th century. Copyright Scottish National Portrait Gallery. Photograph by Antonia Reeve/ Scottish National Portrait Gallery
John Michael Wright: Sir Mungo Murray, c. 1683. Copyright Scottish National Portrait Gallery

Kings and Queens of Ancient Egypt
Head of Queen Tiye (11.150.26): Photograph by Bruce White

Korean Buddhist Sculpture (5th–9th Century)
Seated Maitreya: National Museum of Korea, all rights reserved
Standing Buddha of Medicine: National Museum of Korea, all rights reserved

Korean Landscape Painting, 1400–1800, Mountain and Water
An Gyeon: Dream Journey to the Peach Blossom Land, Joseon dynasty (1392–1910), dated 1447. Courtesy of Tenri Central Library

Kuba Kingdom, The
Kuba Ndop Figure of King Shyaam a-Mbul a Ngoong: Photo © Trustees of the British Museum Kuba Ndop

Lapita Pottery
Pottery Fragment : Photo © Dr. Roger Green

Lascaux Cave
"The Unicorn" from The Great Hall of the Bulls: Photo © CNP Ministry of Culture and Communication, France

Late Medieval German Sculpture: Images for the Cult and for Private Devotion
Tilman Riemenschneider (German, 1460–1531), Holy Blood Altarpiece, central shrine with the last supper, 1501–5. Jakobskirche, Rothenberg-ob-den-Tauber: Photographs by Bruce White

La Venta
Site photography: Photo © Julie Jones

The Legacy of Genghis Khan
Cenotaph: Images reproduced with the permission of the Inner Mongolia Museum, Hohhot
Cup with fish-shaped handles: Image reproduced with the permission of The State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg (SAR-1613)
Saddle arches and fittings: Copyright Nour Foundation. Image reproduced with the permission of the Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art (MTW 795)

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)
Leonardo da Vinci: The Last Supper, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. Photo © Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART 167351)

Lippi, Filippino (1456/47–1504)
Filippino Lippi: The Triumph of Saint Thomas Aquinas, 1488–93. Caraffa Chapel, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. Photograph by Chad Beer
Filippino Lippi: The Annunciatio, 1488–93. Caraffa Chapel, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. Photograph by Chad Beer
Filippino Lippi: The Assumption of the Virgin, 1488–93. Caraffa Chapel, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome. Photograph by Chad Beer
Filippino Lippi: Vision of Saint Bernard, ca. 1485–87. Church of the Badia, Florence. Photograph by Paolo Bacherini, Florence
Filippino Lippi: Raising of Drusiana, 1502. Strozzi Chapel, west wall, Church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence. Photograph © Archivio Electa, Milan.

List of Rulers: Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Head of Queen Tiye (11.150.26): Photograph by Bruce White
Relief of Queen Nefertiti (61.117): Photograph by Bruce White
Relief of Queen Kiya (1985.328.8): Photograph by Bruce White, 1996
God Amum with Tut's face, Dynasty 18, New Kingdom (07.228.34): Photograph by Bruce White

Low Countries, 1000–1400 A.D.
Church of Saint-Barthélémy, Liège, bronze baptismal font, by Rainer of Huy. Originally installed in the Church of Notre-Dame-aux-Fonts, all views. Photography by Peter Barnet

Low Countries, 1400–1600 A.D.
The Annunciation Triptych (56.70): Photograph (alternate views) by Maryan Ainsworth
The Crucifixion; The Last Judgment (33.92ab): Photograph (alternate view) by Maryan Ainsworth

Lydenberg Heads
Lydenberg Head: Photograph by Herschel Mair

Magic of Signs and Patterns in North African Art, The
Baya Mahieddine: Femme portant des coupes, 1966. Image courtesy of Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris. Photo © Philippe Maillard
Farid Belkahia: Main, 1980. Image courtesy of Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris. Photo © Philippe Maillard
Mahjoub Ben Bella: Écritures peintres, 1983. Image courtesy of Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris. Photo © Philippe Maillard
Ahmed Cherkaoui: Talisman no. 3, 1966. Image courtesy of Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris. Photo © Philippe Maillard
Gouider Triki: Untitled, 1974. Image courtesy of The Khalid Shoman Private Collection

Mal'ta
Stylized female figurine: Photo © Randall White

Mamluk Period, The Art of the
Complex of Faraj, dome (1400–1411), Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Complex of Hasan, Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Complex of Qa'itbay, exterior (1472–4), Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Complex of Qa'itbay, interior of dome (1472–4), Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Complex of Qala’un (1283–85), Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Complex of Salar and Sanjar al-Jawli, Cairo: Photo © Stefano Carboni

Mangarevan Sculpture
Figure of the god Rao: Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY (ART176592)
Figure of the god Tupo: Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART110601)

Mannerism: Bronzino and His Contemporaries
Jacopo da Pontormo: The Deposition. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY (ART4162)

Manuscript Illumination in Italy (1400–1600 A.D.)
Michelino da Besozzo: Book of Hours (Bodmer Hours), ca. 1400–1410. Courtesy of The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, MS M. 944 f. 16v
Giulio Clovio: Hours of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, 1546. Courtesy of The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, MS M. 69 f. 26v–27

Manuscript Illumination in Northern Europe
The Lamentation (1975.1.128): Photograph by Maryan Ainsworth

Mapungubwe
Site photography by Tom Huffman

The Master of Monte Oliveto (active about 1305–35)
Master of Monte Oliveto: Tabernacle Center with the Madonna and Child, Annunciation, Via Crucis, and Christ Mounting the Cross, Alana Collection, Delaware. Photo © Robert Lorenzson, NYC

Master of Monte Oliveto: Tabernacle Center with the Madonna and Child Enthroned with Angels and Annunciation, Abbadia di Monte Oliveto Maggiore, Library. Photo © Superintendent of BSAE of Siena and Grosseto Siena

The Materials and Techniques of American Quilts and Coverlets
Detail of Attributed to Mrs. Hicks: Woven coverlet (56.113). Photograph by Elena Phipps

Detail of Presentation quilt (1974.24). Photograph by Elena Phipps

The Materials and Techniques of English Embroidery of the Late Tudor and Stuart Eras
Macro images of Cabinet with personifications of the Five Senses (29.23.1). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Portrait of Charles I and Reliquiae Sacrae Carolae and EIKΩN BAΣIΔIKH (39.13.7 and 29.23.8). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Pair of gloves (28.220.3,.4). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Scenes from the Life of Abraham (64.101.1306). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Cabinet with scenes from the story of Esther (64.101.133). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Garden of Eden (64.101.1284). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of The Tree of Life (64.101.1305). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Purse (29.23.15). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Pair of gloves (28.210.1,.2). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Detailed images of Pair of gloves (28.220.7,.8). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Pair of gloves (28.220.7,.8). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Mirror with Jael and Barak (39.13.2a). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
X-radiographs of Mirror with Jael and Barak (39.13.2a). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Pair of gloves (64.101.1248,.1249). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Cushion cover (64.101.1253). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.
Macro images of Unfinished cabinet panels (1998.541). Photograph by Cristina Balloffet Carr.

Matisse, Henri (1869–1954)
Henri Matisse: Woman with a Hat, autumn 1905. Image courtesy of San Francisco Museum of Art
Henri Matisse: Still Life with Vegetables (1999.363.38). Photographed by Malcolm Varon, 1988
Henri Matisse: Reclining Odalisque (Harmony in Red) (1999.363.44). Photograph by Malcolm Varon, 1988
Henri Matisse: The Red Studio, Issy-les-Moulineaux, 1911. Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/ Licensed by SCALA/ Art Resource, NY (ART161924)

Medieval European Sculpture for Buildings
Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, and details: Photo © Charles T. Little
Tympanum of the West Portal, Cathedral of Saint-Lazare, Autun: Photo © Charles T. Little
West façade, Cathedral of Notre Dame, and details: Photo © Charles T. Little
The Cuxa Cloister (25.120.398,.399,.452): Photographs by Melanie Holcomb

Melanesia, 1900 A.D.–present
Ritual Board (gerua) (1978.412.741): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Mexico, 1000 B.C.–1 A.D.
Mask (1977.187.33): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Mexico, 500–1000 A.D.
Frog Yoke (1978.412.15): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Palma with Skeletal Head Figure (1978.412.16): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Smiling Figure (1979.206.1211): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Ming Dynasty
Cup (1987.85): Photograph by Sheldan Collins

Moai
All site photography © Eric Kjellgren

Modern and Contemporary Art in Iran
Marcos Grigorian: Cosmos 20, 1971. Image courtesy of the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art
Hussein Zenderoudi: Quand prendrons-nous le thé ensemble, 1977. Image courtesy of the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art
Parviz Tanavoli: Heech and Chair, II, 1973. Photograph © Parviz Tanavoli
Siah Armajani: Shirt, 1960. Image courtesy of the artist
Mohammad Ehsai: The Echo of the Word, 1990. Image courtesy of the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art
Abbas: Women Welcome the Ayatollah Khomeini (detail), 1979. Courtesy of Magnum Photos
Farah Ossuli: Flight, 1999. Image courtesy of the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art
Shirazeh Houshiary: Image of Heart, 1991. Image courtesy of Lisson Gallery, London, and the Artist. Photo © Sue Ormerod, London

Modern Art in India
Francis Newton Souza: Lot and His Daughters, 1963. © Estate of F. N. Souza
Nasreen Mohamedi: Untitled, ca. 1987. Courtesy, Talwar Gallery, New York

Modern Art in West and East Pakistan
Shakir cAli: Two Birds in Space, 1966. Image courtesy of Shakir cAli Museum
Anna Molka Ahmed: Punjab Secretariat. Image courtesy of Pakistan National Council on the Arts
Gulgee (Ismail Gulgee): Allah, 1999. Image courtesy of the artist

Modern Art in West Asia: From Colonial to Post-colonial Period
Daoud Corm: Portrait of an Ancestor, ca. 1900s. Image courtesy of Samir Abillama
Khalil Raad: [Tourists dressed up in traditional clothing, Jerusalem, Palestine], 1910. Courtesy of Arab Image Foundation (Beirut, Lebanon)
Omar Onsi: Women at an Exhibition, 1945. Image courtesy of Samir J. Abillama
Faiq Hassan: At the Market, 1958. Image courtesy of the Museum of Contemporary Arab Art, Doha, Qatar
Hafiz al-Droubi: Old Baghdad, 1972. Baghdad Museum of Modern Art (listed as missing during 2003 invasion)
Saliba Douaihy: Lebanese Village, 1950. Image courtesy of the Museum of Contemporary Arab Art, Doha, Qatar
Mona Saudi: Woman-Bird, 1975. Photography © Philippe Maillard
Louay Kayyali: Siesta, 1975. Courtesy of Mrs. Mona Atassi
Ismail Shammout: The Exodus, 1953. Courtesy of Ismail Shammout
Dia Azzawi: Western Bird, 1995–96. Image courtesy of the Arab Museum of Modern Art

Modern Media: Plastics
Mark Rothko: No. 13 (White, Red, on Yellow) (1985.63.5). Photograph by Lynton Gardiner

Monasticism in Medieval Christianity
The Cuxa Cloister (25.120.398,.399,.452): Photographs by Melanie Holcomb

Mongolian Tent in the Ilkhanid Period, The
Tent Hanging: Image reproduced with the permission of the Qatar Museum
Saddle arches and fittings: Copyright Nour Foundation. Image reproduced with the permission of the Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art (MTW 795)
Three belt plaques: Copyright Nour Foundation. Image reproduced with the permission of the Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art (JLY 1012, 1836)

Monte Albán
Site photography by Enrique Franco Torrijos

Monumental Stelae at Aksum, The (3rd–4th century A.D.)
Fallen stele: Photo © Raymond Silverman
Standing stele: Photo © Raymond Silverman

Mosaic Glass from Islamic Lands
Bowl, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (79.1.2): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams

Mughals after 1600 A.D., The Art of The
Red Fort, Dehli: ACSAA
Taj Mahal, Agra: ACSAA

Mughals before 1600 A.D., The Art of the
Fatehpur Sikri, Divan-i Am (Hall of Public Audience), 1570s: Photo © Daniel Walker
Fatehpur Sikri, tomb of Shaikh Salim Chishti, 1580–81: Photo © Daniel Walker

Music in the Renaissance
Lute (89.2.157): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Musical Terms for the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Clavichord (1986.239): Photograph by Sheldan Collins

Nabataean Kingdom and Petra
Main Colonnaded street at Petra: Photo © Paul Collins
"Monastery" at Petra: Photo © Paul Collins
Temple of Dushara at Petra: Photo © Paul Collins

Nabis and Decorative Painting, The
Édouard Vuillard: Interior with a Hanging Lamp (25.70.23). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Paul Sérusier: The Talisman, the River Aven in Pont-Aven, 1888. Image Credit: Erich Lessing/ Art Resource, NY (ART142056). Musee d'Orsay, Paris, France

Nan Madol
All site photography © Eric Kjellgren

Naples, Art of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Capodimonte figures (Virgin and St. John) (1971.92.1,.2): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Neoclassical Temple, The
Monticello: Courtesy of Monticello/Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc.
Osterley Park House (Etruscan Room): NTPL/Bill Batten

New Visual Language Transmitted Across Asia, A
Wine jar with lion-head handles: © The Cleveland Museum of Art, 2003. John L. Severance Fund, 1962.154
Vase: Image reproduced with the permission of the Inner Mongolia Museum, Hohhot
Textile with winged lions and griffins: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 2003. Purchase from the J. H. Wade Fund, 1989.50
Three belt plaques: Copyright Nour Foundation. Image reproduced with the permission of the Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art (JLY 1012, 1836)

Nineteenth-Century American Silver
Anthony Rasch: Pair of sauceboats (59.152.1-.2). Photograph (alternate view) by Schecter Lee

Nok Terracottas
Seated Dignitary: Photo © The Minneapolis Institute of Arts

Northern Andes, 1000 B.C.–1 A.D.
Seated Figure (1982.231): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Northern Zone, The
Dabous giraffes, Niger: Photo © Jean Clottes
Dabous site in northern Niger: Photo © Jean Clottes

Odhecaton, The
The Odhecaton: First page of music from a facsimile edition of Ottaviano Petrucci's Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A, reproduced by arrangement with the publisher from Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A, MMMLF I.10: Image courtesy of Broude Brothers Limited, 1973. New York

O'Keeffe, Georgia (1887–1986)
Georgia O'Keeffe: Black Door with Red, 1955. Photo copyright The Chrysler Museum, 245 West Olney Road, Norfolk, VA 23510
Georgia O'Keeffe: Sky Above Clouds IV, 1965. Photo © The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

Old Kingdom in Egypt, The
Statue of Memi and Sabu (48.11): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Orientalism: Visions of the East in Western Dress
Evening dress and Robe à l'anglaise (1976.137.1). Photograph (main image) by Sheldon Collins

Ottoman Empire before 1600 A.D., The Art of the
Istanbul, Topkapi palace, entrance to the harem: Photo © Daniel Walker
Istanbul, Topkapi palace, harem, bedroom of Murad III (r. 1574–95): Photo © Daniel Walker
Khusrau Hunting: Page from a manuscript of the Khusrau and Shirin of Hatifi (69.27): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Ottomans and the Impact of Europe, The Later
Osman Hamdi: The Merchant of Arms, 1908. Image courtesy of Resim ve Heykel Müzesi (Museum of Painting and Sculpture), Ankara
Ibrahim Çalli: Tombs, 1907. Image courtesy of Sakip Sabanci Müzesi, Istanbul
Davit Çiraciyan: Istanbul, 1895. Image courtesy of Sakip Sabanci Müzesi, Istanbul

Painting in Oil in the Low Countries and Its Spread to Southern Europe
The Annunciation Triptych (56.70): Photograph (alternate views) by Maryan Ainsworth
The Crucifixion; The Last Judgment (33.92ab): Photograph (alternate views) by Maryan Ainsworth
Portrait of a Carthusian (49.7.19): Photograph (alternate views) by Maryan Ainsworth

Palmyra
Temple of Bel: Photo © Paul Collins

Papacy and the Vatican Palace, The
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican State, aerial view of the basilica with Piazza San Pietro and the Vatican Palace: Photo © Alinari / Art Resource, NY
Raphael (Italian, 1483–1520), The School of Athens, 1510–11. Vatican Palace, Vatican State, Stanza della Segnatura: Photo © Copyright Scala / Art Resource, NY

Phrygia, Gordion, and King Midas in the Late Eighth Century B.C.
Spouted Vessel, 2nd half of 8th c. B.C. Photograph copyright Oscar Muscarella
Gordion Gate and City Walls, early Phrygian period. Photograph copyright Oscar Muscarella
Double-pin fibula, second half of 8th c. B.C. Photograph copyright Oscar Muscarella

Phyfe, Duncan (1768–1854) and Charles-Honoré Lannuier (1779–1819)
Duncan Phyfe: Invoice to William Bayard, November 21, 1807. Courtesy, Winterthur Museum
Trade label, 1813–19. From a card table dated 1815–19 by Charles-Honoré Lannuier. Courtesy, Winterthur Museum
Attributed to Duncan Phyfe, Sketch of curule and lyre-back chairs, 1815–16. Courtesy of The Winterthur Library
Attributed to Duncan Phyfe, Armchair, 1807. Courtesy, Winterthur Museum
Estampilles, 1815–19, from a pier table dated 1815–19 by Charles-Honoré Lannuier. Courtesy of Hirschl and Adler Galleries, New York

Picasso, Pablo (1881–1973)
Pablo Picasso: Man with Hat and a Violin (1999.363.64). Photographed by Malcolm Varon, 1988

Porcelain in the Joseon Dynasty, 1392–1910, In Pursuit of White
Jar, Joseon dynasty (1392–1910), second half of 15th century. Photography courtesy of The Museum of Oriental Ceramics, Osaka
Jar, Joseon dynasty (1392–1910), 16th century. Courtesy of the National Museum of Korea

Portraits of African Leadership: Living Rulers
Kuba Ndop Figure of King Shyaam a-Mbul a Ngoong: © Trustees of the British Museum

Portuguese in Africa, 1415–1600, The
Jorge de Aguiar, Portolan Chart of the Mediterranean: Courtesy of Yale Collection of American Literature, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

Postmodernism: India, Recent Developments in Art in
Nalini Malani: Remembering Toba Tek Singh, 1998. 2 views: Installation views Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, Australia. 2002.
G. Ravinder Reddy: Appayamma, 2001. Image courtesy of the artist and Walsh Gallery. Photograph by James Printz

Postmodernism: Pakistan and Bangladesh, Recent Developments in Art in
Zahoor ul-Akhlaq: The Three Younger Sons Of Shah Jahan, circa 1981. Image courtesy of the artist's estate
Shishir Bhattacharjee: Picture 423, 2002. Image courtesy of the artist
Shahzia Sikander: Installation at Forum for Contemporary Art, St. Louis, 1998. Photograph by John Hilgert
Runa Islam: Stare Out (Blink), 1998. Image courtesy of the artist and White Cube Gallery
Salima Hashmi: Poem for Zainab, 1994. Image courtesy of Salima Hashmi

Postwar Print Renaissance in America, The
Vija Celmins: Untitled (1970). Photograph © The Metropolitan Museum of Art (2002)

Poussin, Nicolas (1594–1665)
Nicolas Poussin: The Confirmation, from the series of the Seven Sacraments. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY (ART52699)
Nicolas Poussin: The Rape of the Sabine Women. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY (ART52689)

Poverty Point
Drawings of Poverty Point: Art by Jon Gibson

Prague during the Rule of Rudolph II (1576–1612)
Insect Study (63.200.4): Photograph by Bob Hanson
Relief Allegory of Virtues and Vices at the Court of Emperor Charles V (17.190.745): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Prehistoric Cypriot Art and Culture
Bronze rod tripod (74.51.5684): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Prehistoric Stone Sculpture from New Guinea
The Ambum Stone: Photo Courtesy of the National Gallery of Australia, Canberra

Private Tombs North of the Senwosret III Pyramid Complex, Dashur, The
Bound papyrus decoration from the mastaba of Khnumhotep. Photograph by Stephen Arnold
Fallen blocks from the north side of the mastaba of Nebit as found by excavators. Photograph by Adela Oppenheim
Block from the west end of the north wall of the Nebit mastaba. Photograph courtesy of the Egyptian Expedition
Burial chamber of Horkherty, husband of Sitwerut. Photograph by Eileen Travell and Caitlin McCaffrey
Wood coffin of Sitwerut within the stone sarcophagus. Photograph by Adela Oppenheim
Canopic jars of Sitwerut, wife of Horkherty. Photograph by Kathy Mucciolo
Computer rendering of the east (left) and north (right) sides of the mastaba of Khnumhotep. Computer modeling by David Johnson, The Museum of Reconstructions.

Pyramid Complex of Senwosret III in the Cemeteries of Dashur, The
Bent Pyramid of King Snefru seen from the northeast. Photograph by Dieter Arnold
East side of the Senwosret III pyramid with the reconstructed outline of the pyramid temple. Photograph by Anna Kellen
Reconstructed paneled enclosure wall at the south side of the Senwosret III complex. Photograph by Anna Kellen
Excavated section of the projection at the east end of the south side of the South Temple. Photograph by Adela Oppenheim
Antechamber of the Senwosret III burial chambers with a view into the serdab. Photograph by Gregory Dinkens
Burial chamber of Senwosret III with the sarcophagus. Photograph by Bruce Schwarz

Qin, The
Viewing Plum Blossoms by Moonlight (1986.493.2): Photograph by Malcolm Varon

Queens and Princesses in the Pyramid Complex of Senwosret III, Dashur
Antechamber of the tomb of Queen Weret II with a view into the burial chamber. Photograph by Eileen Travell
Burial chamber and sarcophagus of Queen Weret II. Photograph by Eileen Travell and Caitlin McCaffrey
Restrung djed-pillar bracelets of Queen Weret II. Photograph by Bruce White
Restrung cowrie-shell girdle of Queen Weret II. Photograph by Bruce White
Burial chamber of Princess Itakayet. Photograph by Gregory Dinkins
Relief of men slaughtering a gazelle from the above-ground chapel of the Princess Itakayet pyramid. Photograph by Eileen Travell

Relics and Reliquaries
Reliquary Casket with Scenes from the Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket (17.190.520): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Religious Arts under the Ilkhanids, The
Frieze tile (12.44): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Qur'an stand (10.218), alternate view: Photograph by Schecter Lee

Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (1606–1669): Paintings
Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn: Flora (26.101.10): Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn: Portrait of a Young Woman with a Fan (43.125): Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn: The Standard Bearer (Floris Soop, 1604–1657) (49.7.35) Photograph by Malcolm Varon

Renaissance Lutes
Lute (89.2.157): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Renaissance Keyboards
Claviorganum (89.4.1191): Photograph by Sheldan Collins

Renaissance Organs
Claviorganum (89.4.1191): Photograph by Sheldan Collins

Revere, Paul, Jr. (1734–1818)
Teapot (33.120.543): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Roman Copies of Greek Statues
Fragment from the Eleusinian Relief (14.130.9): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Relief of a dancing maenad (35.11.3): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Themis (goddess of custom and law) (03.12.17), alternate view The Metropolitan Museum of Art Photograph by Bruce White

Romanesque Art
Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, all views: Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Church of Saint-Pierre, Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne, tympanum: Last Judgment: Photograph by Julien Chapuis
Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, south portal: standing prophet from the trumeau: Photograph by Julien Chapuis

Roman Glass
Gold-glass alabastron (17.194.286): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Roman Gold-Band Glass
Gold-glass alabastron (17.194.286): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Roman Luxury Glass
Shallow Bowl: Photograph by D. Harris. Collection of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem

Roman Portrait Sculpture: Republican (1st Century B.C.) through Constantinian (4th Century A.D.)
Cippus (funerary altar) of Cominia Tyche (38.27): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Roman Portrait Sculpture: The Stylistic Cycle (1st Century B.C.–4th Century A.D.)
Cippus (funerary altar) of Cominia Tyche (38.27): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Rome and Southern Italy, 1400–1600 A.D.
Caraffa Chapel, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, The Triumph of Saint Thomas Aquinas, 1488–93, by Filippino Lippi (Italian, probably born 1457, died 1504): Photograph by Chad Beer
Caraffa Chapel, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, The Annunciatio, 1488–93, by Filippino Lippi (Italian, probably born 1457, died 1504): Photograph by Chad Beer
Caraffa Chapel, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, The Assumption of the Virgin, 1488–93, by Filippino Lippi (Italian, probably born 1457, died 1504): Photograph by Chad Beer
Castelnuovo, Naples (rebuilt beginning 1447), by Guillem Sagrera (active 1397–1454): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (173)
Castelnuovo, Naples, Triumphal Entrance Arch of Alfonso I (ca. 1452–71), by Guillem Sagrera (active 1397–1454): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (174)
Castelnuovo, Naples, Triumphal Entrance Arch of Alfonso I (ca. 1452–71), by Guillem Sagrera (active 1397–1454): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (175)
Church of Il Gesù, Rome, begun 1568, original design by Giacomo da Vignola (Italian, 1507–1573), facade (1571–73) by Giacomo della Porta (Italian, ca. 1540–1602): Photograph by Chad Beer
Church of Il Gesù, Rome, begun 1568, original design by Giacomo da Vignola (Italian, 1507–1573), facade, detail (1571–73), by Giacomo della Porta (Italian, ca. 1540–1602): Photograph by Chad Beer
Church of Il Gesù, Rome, begun 1568, original design by Giacomo da Vignola (Italian, 1507–1573), facade, detail (1571–73), by Giacomo della Porta (Italian, ca. 1540–1602): Photograph by Chad Beer
Church of Il Gesù, Rome, begun 1568, original design by Giacomo da Vignola (Italian, 1507–1573), nave and high altar (1582) by Giacomo della Porta (Italian, ca. 1540–1602): Photograph by Chad Beer
Fountain of Neptune, Messina, 1553–57, by Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli (Italian, 1507?–1563): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (3)
Fountain of Neptune, Messina, 1553–57, detail, by Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli (Italian, 1507?–1563): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (1)
Fountain of Orion, Messina, 1547–53, by Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli (Italian, 1507?–1563): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (33)
Old Saint Peter's, Rome, bronze portal, inscribed and dated 1445, by Filarete (Italian, ca. 1400–ca. 1465): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (189)
Old Saint Peter's, Rome, bronze portal, inscribed and dated 1445, detail, middle right, Saint Peter with Eugenius IV, by Filarete (Italian, ca. 1400–ca. 1465): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (190)
Old Saint Peter's, Rome, bronze portal, inscribed and dated 1445, detail, bottom left, Martyrdom of Saint Paul, by Filarete (Italian, ca. 1400–ca. 1465): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (191)
Palazzo Farnese, Rome, begun 1541, original design by Antonio da Sangallo (Italian, 1484–1546), facade and cornice (begun 1546) completed by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by Chad Beer
Palazzo Farnese, Rome, begun 1541, original design by Antonio da Sangallo (Italian, 1484–1546), facade and cornice (begun 1546) completed by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by Chad Beer
Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, Senator's Palace, double-ramp staircase designed by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564), built 1544–52: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (21)
Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, Senator's Palace, right ramp of double-ramp staircase designed by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564), built 1544–52: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (21A)
Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, Equestrian Statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, 161–80 A.D., base designed by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (22)
Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, begun 1546, by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (176)
Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, begun 1546, southern apse with dome, by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (177)
Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, begun 1546, dome, planned by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564), built after his death: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (178)
Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, begun 1546, detail of facade, by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (180)
Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, begun 1546, portico, by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (182)
Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, begun 1546, nave, by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (192)
Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome, begun 1546, interior view of dome, by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (208) Sistine Chapel, Vatican Palace, The Creation of Man, fresco by Michelangelo Buonarroti (Italian, 1475–1564): Photograph by Chad Beer
Stanza dell'Incendio, Vatican Palace, Fire in the Borgo, ca. 1514, fresco by Raphael (Italian, 1483–1520): Photograph by Chad Beer
Stanza dell'Incendio, Vatican Palace, The School of Athens,, 1510–11, fresco by Raphael (Italian, 1483–1520): Photograph by Chad Beer
Stanza dell'Incendio, Vatican Palace, The Disputà, 1509, fresco by Raphael (Italian, 1483–1520): Photograph by Chad Beer

Rome and Southern Italy, 1600–1800 A.D.
Capodimonte figures (Virgin and St. John) (1971.92.1,.2): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Royal Tombs of Silla, The
Crown: Leeum, Samsum Museum of Art, South Korea
Gold Hilt with Oval Pommel: Leeum, Samsum Museum of Art, South Korea

School of Paris
Joan Miró: The Potato (1999.363.50). Photograph by Malcolm Varon

Safavid Period, The Art of the
Isfahan, Royal Square, planned and laid out 1590–95: Photo © Daniel Walker

Seasonal Imagery in Japanese Art
Shibata Zeshin: Autumn Grasses in Moonlight (1975.268.137). Photograph (alternate view #3) by Lynton Gardiner

Seljuq Period in Anatolia, The Art of the
Gök Madrasa (1271) in Sivas: Photograph © Patricia Baker
Ince Minareli (1258) Madrasa in Konya: Photograph © Patricia Baker
Sifahiye Madrasa (1217–18) in Sivas: Photograph © Patricia Baker

Seljuq Period in Iran, The Art of the
Mausoleum of Sultan Uljeitu in Sultaniyya, and detail: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Ruins of the summer palace at Takht-I Sulaiman: Photo © Stefano Carboni

Seurat, Georges (1859–1891) and Neo-Impressionism
Camille Pissarro: View from my Window. ©Copyright in this Photograph Reserved to the Ashmoelan Museum, Oxford. Not to be reproduced without permission
Georges Seurat: A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, 1884. Image courtesy of The Art Institute of Chicago

Severan Dynasty, The (193ל235 A.D.)
Rome, Italy, view inside the large natatio (swimming pool) of the Baths of Caracalla (opened 217 A.D.). Photograph by Rosemarie Trentinella, 2000

Silhouette and Support, Eighteenth-Century
Dress (American) (1988.242.4): Photograph by Sheldon Collins

South America, 1000 B.C.–1 A.D.
Seated Figure (1982.231): Photograph by Schecter Lee

South America, 1900 A.D.–present
Emilio Ambasz: "Vertebra" armchair (1989.48): Photograph Studio Azzuro
Marisol (Marisol Escobar): Self-Portrait Looking at The Last Supper (1986.430.1-129). Photography courtesy of Sidney Janis Gallery

South and Southeast Asia, 2000–1000 B.C.
Anthropomorph (L.1985.42.3): Photograph by Peter Johnson

South Asia: Himalayan Region, 500–1000 A.D.
Standing Bodhisattva (1981.59): Photograph by Schecter Lee

South Asia: Himalayan Region, 1000–1400 A.D.
Cover of a Buddhist manuscript (1984.479.1b): Photograph by Bruce White

South Asia: North, 500–1000 A.D.
Buddha (1981.188ab): Photograph by Bruce White
Crowned and Jeweled Buddha (1993.311ab): Photograph by Bruce White
Diadem with Kinnaris (1988.395): Photograph by Peter Johnson
Reliquary (?) with scenes from the life of the Buddha (1985.392.1): Photograph by Bruce White
Vishnu as Para Vasudeva-Narayana (1991.301): Photograph by Bruce White

South Asia: North, 1000–1400 A.D.
Chamunda, the Horrific Destroyer of Evil (1989.121): Photograph by Bruce White
Seated Six-armed Shiva as Conqueror of Death (Mrtyunajaya) (1991.421): Photograph by Bruce White

South Asia: South, 500–1000 A.D.
Seated four-armed Vishnu (1984.296): Photograph by Bruce White
Shiva as Mahesha (27.79): Photograph by Schecter Lee

South Asia: South, 1000–1400 A.D.
Buddha (1993.387.8): Photograph by Bruce White

South Asia, 1400–1600 A.D.
Bizhan Forces Farud to Retire into His Fort: Page from a dispersed manuscript of the Shahnama (Book of Kings) (20.120.247): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Southeast Asia, 500–1000 A.D.
Seated Transcendent Buddha Vairochana (1987.142.23): Photograph by Lynton Gardiner
Standing four-armed Avalokiteshvara, the Bodhisattva of Infinite Compassion (1982.64): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Standing four-armed Vishnu (1992.53): Photograph by Bruce White
Standing Vishnu or temple guardian (dvarapala) (1987.478): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Southeast Asia, 1000–1400 A.D.
Posthumous Portrait of a Queen as Parvati (2001.407): Photograph courtesy of Spink & Son Ltd.
Top of a Bell in the form of a demon king or guardian (1987.142.17): Photograph by Maggie Nimkin

Southeast Asia, 1800–1900 A.D.
Ornament (mamuli) (1990.335.4): Photograph by John Bigelow

Southern Europe, 8000–2000 B.C.
Lipari, Aeolian Islands, view of the coastline towards the island of Vulcano. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Lipari, Aeolian Islands, view of the island of Panarea. Photograph by Seán Hemingway

Southern Europe, 2000–1000 B.C.
Knossos, Crete, view of the South Propyleia of the Minoan Palace, including Arthur Evan's architectural reconstruction. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Knossos, Crete, "Long Corridor of the Magazines" in the Minoan Palace. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Lipari, Aeolian Islands, view of the coastline towards the island of Vulcano. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Lipari, Aeolian Islands, view of the island of Panarea. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Mycenae, Greece, The Shaft Graves of Grave Circle A. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Mycenae, Greece, The Treasury of Atreus, a beehive-shaped tholos tomb. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Mycenae, Greece, The Lion Gate and Citadel Walls of Cyclopean masonry. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Phaistos, Crete, view of the West Court of the Minoan Palace. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Troy, Asia Minor, ruins of the ancient city of Troy. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Troy, Asia Minor, view of the Trojan Plain from the ancient city. Photograph by Seán Hemingway

Southern Song Dynasty, The
Mountain Market in Clearing Mist (13.100.102): Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Quatrain on Spring's Radiance (1989.363.12): Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Scholar by a Waterfall (1973.120.9): Photograph by Malcolm Varon

Southern Zone, The
Driekops Eiland: Photograph by Geoffrey Blundell
Elands Bay Cave: Photograph by Geoffrey Blundell
Lonyana Rock: Photograph by Jeremy Hollman
Makgabeng Hills: Photograph by Benjamin Smith

Stained, or Luster-Painted, Glass from Islamic Lands
Bowl, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (99.1.1): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Drinking Horn, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (69.1.4): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams
Cup, Courtesy of The Corning Museum of Glass (69.1.1): Photograph by Nicholas L. Williams

Surrealism
Salvador Dalí: The Accommodations of Desire (1999.363.16). Photograph by Malcolm Varon, 1988
Joan Miró: The Potato (1999.363.50). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Yves Tanguy: The Satin Tuning Fork (1999.363.80). Photograph by Malcolm Varon

Symposium in Ancient Greece, The
Relief of a dancing maenad (35.11.3): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Tada Figure, The
Tada Figure: Photo © Dirk Bakker

Tahiti
Double-Headed Figure: © Trustees of the British Museum
God House: © Trustees of the British Museum

Takht-i Sulayman and Tile Work in the Ilkhanid Period
Two star tiles and two cross tiles: Photograph © 2003 Museum Associates/LACMA
Frieze tile with calligraphy: Image reproduced with the permission of the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, The Avery Brundage Collection

Temples of Senwosret III at Dashur, The
The pyramid temple and stone inner enclosure wall, facing northwest. Computer modeling by David Johnson, The Museum of Reconstructions
Elevation of the east side of the pyramid temple and the stone inner enclosure wall. The exterior inscription has been omitted. Computer modeling by David Johnson, The Museum of Reconstructions
Relief of Nubian archers from the South Temple. Photograph by Kathy Mucciolo
Relief from the exterior of the pyramid temple with the vulture goddess Nekhbet on a neb sign and part of the cartouche of Senwosret III. Photograph by Anna Kellen
Relief of the goddess Weret-hekau from the pyramid temple. Photograph by Bruce Schwarz
Relief of the god Seth from the pyramid temple. Photograph by Bruce Schwarz
Computer reconstruction of a courtyard with columned portico in the South Temple. Computer modeling by David Johnson, The Museum of Reconstructions
Relief from the exterior of the pyramid temple with part of a sed festival inscription. Photograph by Anna Kellen

Tenochtitlan
Mexico City: view of area of Tenochtitlan Sacred Precinct. Photograph courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Tenochtitlan: Templo Mayor
Dedication Stone from Templo Mayor, Tenochtitlan, 1487. Collection of Museo Nacional de Antropologia, Mexico City (II—3203). Photograph © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1990
Tlaloc Vessel from Templo Mayor, Tenochtitlan, about 1470. Collection of Museo Nacional de Antropologia, Mexico City (168829). Photograph © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1990
Lidded Funerary Vessel with Serpent Ornament from Templo Mayor, Tenochtitlan, about 1470. Collection of Museo Nacional de Antropologia, Mexico City (253292). Photograph © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1990
Drawing of the Main Temple of Texcoco from the Codex Ixtlilxochitl, fol. 112V. Collection of the Bibliothèque Nacionale, Paris (65-71). Photograph © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1990
Mexico City: view of area of Tenochtitlan Sacred Precinct. Photograph courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Teotihuacan
Site photography by Enrique Franco Torrijos

Theater and Amphitheater in the Roman World
Colosseum, Rome, Italy. Extension Detail. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Colosseum, Rome, Italy. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Colosseum, Rome, Italy. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Colosseum, Rome, Italy. Interior Detail. Photograph by Seán Hemingway
Theater of Marcellus, Rome, Italy (Late 1st century B.C.). Photograph by Seán Hemingway

Tiepolo, Giambattista (1696–1770)
Giambattista Tiepolo: The Triumph of Marius (65.183.1). Photograph by Schecter Lee
Giambattista Tiepolo: Palazzo Labia, View of the Banquet of Anthony and Cleopatra. Scala/Art Resource (ART5138)

Tikal
Temple E-VII-Sub at Uaxactún: Photo © Justin Kerr
Great Plaza: Photo © Justin Kerr
North Acropolis: Photo © Justin Kerr
Stela 31: Photo © Justin Kerr
All other Tikal site photography: Photo © Julie Jones

Timurid Period, The Art of the
A Princely Couple with Attendants (57.51.24): Photograph by Schecter Lee
Shahr-i Sabz (in present-day Uzbekistan), Aq Saray palace, ca. 1379–96, entrance portal: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Samarqand (in present-day Uzbekistan), congregational mosque of Timur, ca. 1398–1405, domed entrance: Photo © Stefano Carboni
Samarqand (in present-day Uzbekistan), Gur-i Amir, ca. 1400–1404: Photo © Stefano Carboni

Titian (ca. 1488–1576)
Titian: Pietro Aretino: Copyright The Frick Collection, New York
Titian: Venus of Urbino. Uffizi, Florence, Italy: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (99)
Titian: Assumption of the Virgin, 1516–18, Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice: Photo © Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY

Turner, Joseph Mallord William (1775–1851)
Joseph Mallord William Turner: Rome, from the Vatican. Raffaele, Accompanied by La Fornarina, Preparing his Pictures for the Decoration of the Loggia, exhibited 1820. Image courtesy of Tate, London
Joseph Mallord William Turner: Rain, Steam, and Speed—The Great Western Railway, 1844. Photograph © The National Gallery, London

Ubirr
Site photography: Photo © Eric Kjellgren

Ugarit
Site photography: Photo © Paul Collins

Umayyad Period, The Art of the
Great Mosque in Damascus: Photo © Stefano Carboni

Umayyad Period in Spain, The Art of the
Interior of a mosque: Photo © Raghubir Singh
Salon Rico in Madinat al-Zahra: Photo © Raghubir Singh

Urartu
Ayanis: Site view from the south. Photo © Oscar Muscarella
Ayanis: site view from the northeast. Photo © Oscar Muscarella
Ayanis: workers cleaning the interior of the temple. Photo © Oscar Muscarella
Urartu: drawing of the temple at Altintepe. Photo © Oscar Muscarella

Uruk: The First City
Excavated walls at Uruk: Photo © Paul Collins
View of the Site of Uruk: Photo © Paul Collins

Use and Function of Armor, The
Coat Armor (jupon) of Charles VI of France: Royal Armouries Museum, Leeds
A kneeling knight in mail armor, from the Westminster Psalter: By permission of The British Library, Shelfmark/Man: Roy.2.A.XXII, Page no./folio: 220 (WF)
Leather Arm Defense (1856): Photo © the Trustees of the British Museum, London (0701.1665; transparency no. K116289)
Tomb effigy of Walter von Hohenklingen: Swiss National Museum, Zürich, (AG-125), (DIA-24285) Kloster Feldbach/TG. Um 1386

Velázquez (1599–1660)
Velázquez: Don Gaspar de Guzman (1587–1645), Count-Duke of Olivares (52.125). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Velázquez: Las Meninas: Copyright ©Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid
Velázquez: Maria Teresa (1638–1683), Infanta of Spain (49.7.43). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Velázquez: Philip IV (1605–1665), King of Spain (14.40.639). Photograph by Malcolm Varon
Velázquez: Pope Innocent X. Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (459)
Velázquez: The Rokeby Venus. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY (ART78874)

Venetian Color and Florentine Design
Studies of a Seated Youth in Armor (54.119): Photograph by Schecter Lee
The Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes (13.75): Photograph by Schecter Lee

Venice and Northern Italy, 1400–1600 A.D.
Basilica, Vicenza, begun 1549, by Andrea Palladio (Italian, 1508–1580), completed posthumously in 1617: Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (22)
Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, Assumption of the Virgin, 1516–18, by Titian (Italian, ca. 1488–1576): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (135)
Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, Assumption of the Virgin, 1516–18, detail, by Titian (Italian, ca. 1488–1576): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (136)
Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, Assumption of the Virgin, 1516–18, detail, by Titian (Italian, ca. 1488–1576): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (137)
Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, Pesaro Madonna, 1519–26, by Titian (Italian, ca. 1488–1576): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (130)
Parma Cathedral, Assumption of the Virgin, dome fresco, 1522–30, by Correggio (Italian, ca. 1494–1534): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (56)
Parma Cathedral, Assumption of the Virgin, detail of dome fresco, 1522–30, by Correggio (Italian, ca. 1494–1534): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (57)
Parma Cathedral, Assumption of the Virgin, detail of dome fresco, 1522–30, by Correggio (Italian, ca. 1494–1534): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (58)
Parma Cathedral, Assumption of the Virgin, detail of dome fresco, 1522–30, by Correggio (Italian, ca. 1494–1534): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (59)
Parma Cathedral, Assumption of the Virgin, detail of dome fresco, 1522–30, by Correggio (Italian, ca. 1494–1534): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (60)
Scuola di San Rocco, Hall, Venice, The Annunciation, ca. 1582–87, detail, by Jacopo Tinteretto (Italian, 1518–1594): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (157-A)
Scuola di San Rocco, Sala dell'Albergo, Venice, The Ascent to Calvary, ca. 1566–67, detail, by Jacopo Tinteretto (Italian, 1518–1594): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (167)
Scuola di San Rocco, Upper Hall, Venice, The Last Supper, ca. 1577–81, detail, by Jacopo Tinteretto (Italian, 1518–1594): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (163)
Scuola di San Rocco, Sala dell'Albergo, Venice, The Crucifixion, ca. 1565, detail, by Jacopo Tinteretto (Italian, 1518–1594): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (169)
Scuola di San Rocco, Sala dell'Albergo, Venice, The Crucifixion, ca. 1565, detail, by Jacopo Tinteretto (Italian, 1518–1594): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (171)
Villa Rotunda, Vicenza, ca. 1566–70, by Andrea Palladio (Italian, 1508–1580): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (4)
Villa Rotunda, Vicenza, ca. 1566–70, by Andrea Palladio (Italian, 1508–1580): Photograph by William Keighley. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, all rights reserved (8)

Vermeer, Johannes (1632–1675)
Johannes Vermeer: View of Delft. Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART7717)
Johannes Vermeer: Head of a Girl (Girl with the Pearl Earring). Scala/Art Resource, NY (ART41621)

Wadi Kubbaniya
Site photography: Photo © Fred Wendorf

Watercolor Painting in Britain, 1750–1850
Peter De Wint: Study of Trees at Lowther, after 1839. Photograph courtesy of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
John Sell Cotman: Greta Bridge, ca. 1807. Photograph courtesy of Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery

Watteau, Antoine (1684–1721)
Antoine Watteau: Pilgrimage to the Isles of Cythera. Photograph by Gérard Blot. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY (ART148754)

Ways of Recording African History
Koranic Board: Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York (22.231)
Kuba Ndop Figure of King Shyaam a-Mbul a Ngoong: © Trustees of the British Museum

West Asia: Ancient Legends, Modern Idioms
Suad al-Attar: Gilgamesh and Enkido, 2001. Photography by Miki Slingsby
Mustafa al-Hallaj: Self-Portrait as God, the Devil, and Man, 2000. Hickey-Robertson Photography, Houston, Texas
Fateh Moudarres: Refugees, 1986. Photograph © Philippe Maillard
Jawad Salim: Nasb al-Hurriya (Monument to Freedom). Photograph © Mohammed Al-Shammarey
Suha Shoman: Legend of Petra II. Phograph courtesy of The Khalid Shoman Foundation
Karim Rissan: Iraqi Legend, 1992. Photograph courtesy of The Khalid Shoman Private Collection
Ziad Dalloul: Kitab al-Mudun: Petra, 1999. Photograph by Richard Dauthuille

West Asia: Between Tradition and Modernity
Abou Subhi al-Tinawi: Muhammad cAli fi al-Sham, 1926. Image courtesy of Mouna Atassi
Milad al-Shayeb: Saint Panteleimon, 1939. Photograph © Elias Zayyat
Elias Zayat: Last Supper, 1969. Photograph © Elias Zayyat
Hashim al Khattat: Untitled, ca. 1950. Photograph © Serif Graphics, London
Wasma'a Chorbachi: The Mystery of Supplication, 2000–2003. Photograph © Marlene Nelson
Madiha Umar: At the Concert, 1948. Photograph courtesy of Hala Kittani
Jumana El-Husseini: Untitled, 1991. Photograph courtesy of Jumana El-Husseini
Wijdan Ali: Karbala Series: Hussein, 1993. Image courtesy of The British Museum, London
Shakir Hassan al-Said: Objective Contemplations, 1984. Photograph © Philippe Maillard

West Asia: Postmodernism, the Diaspora, and Women Artists
Faisal Samra: Text Body, 2002. Image by Faisal Samra
Mona Hatoum: Light Sentence, 1992. Image © Edward Woodman
Marwan Qassab Bachi: Al Wakef, 1970. Image © The Khalid Shoman Private Collection
Zaha Hadid: Project Architect. Image © Helen Binet

Western and Central Europe, 1–500 A.D.
Nîmes, France, view of the Pont du Gard (ca. 20–16 B.C.). Photographs by Rosemarie Trentinella, 2000

X-ray style in Arnhem Land Rock Art
All site photography © Eric Kjellgren

Yangban: Cultural Life of Joseon Literati
Yi Jeung: Ink Bamboo, Joseon dynasty (1392–1910). Courtesy of the Mary and Jackson Burke Foundation. Photograph © The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Inkstone table, Joseon dynasty (1392–1910), 19th century. Courtesy of the National Museum of Korea
Water dropper in the shape of a peach, Joseon dynasty (1392–1910), 19th century. Courtesy of Ewha Womans University Museum's collection. Photograph by Sokhong Han

Yuan Dynasty
Seven-lobed platter with scene of children at play (L.1996.47.14): Photograph by Lyn Gardiner

Ziggurat at Ur, The
Remains of a monumental building at Ur: Photo © Paul Collins